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THE 

american 
Journal of Pharmacy 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 



BY 



HENRY KRAIMER 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE FOR 1910 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER M. I. WILBERT 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND FLORENCE YAPLE 

JOSEPH P. REMINGTON CHARLES H. LaWALL 

AND THE EDITOR 



VOLUME 82 



PHILADELPHIA 
1910 



MAHLON N. KLINE 
1846 — 1909 



THE AMEEICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 




CONCERNING THE AMERICAN MATERIA MEDICA.* 



This subject cannot be considered, even superficially, by one 
who comprehends, even to a degree, its outreaches, without a ques- 
tion as to whether, by reason of the limitation of time, that which 
most appeals may be reached at all. Its field touches and its sub- 
stance involves the various professions and arts of medicine, botany, 
chemistry, pharmacy, and biology in their many and diversified 
phases. But scant justice can be given to most of these, for they 
could not be satisfactorily treated in a volume. 

The course of the American materia medica has been tortuous. 
In an historical sense its beginnings are all-important, and must 
neither be evaded nor neglected by me, even though, by reason of 
the time consumed in its telling, that which most I crave to say 
be left unsaid. I do not know that any one has ever before at- 
tempted to construct an orderly sequence of its story, nor do I 
know that any man has ventured, in a spirit of fairness, toleration, 
and admiration, to say a kind word for both friend and foe involved 
in the mazes of past prejudice and past action, in which so innocent 
a theme as the American materia medica served as a text. But this 
issue must be met by some man, some day. The facing of it to-day 
is not of my choice, but it is for me a duty. I shall therefore try, 
in the brief hour at my command, to do what is possible to connect 




JANUARY, ipio 



By John Uri Lloyd, Phar.M., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



PROLOGUE. 



* Address delivered before the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
November 4, 1909, being the third of a series of special lectures for 1909-10. 

(1) 



2 The American Materia Medica. {^anu^.iSS™" 

the past with the present. And in doing this, I shall draw not alone 
from what I have learned from print, but that which came from the 
lives of my associates, in whom I have been much blessed. 

PART I. 

Concerning Philadelphia. — The pleasure of meeting one's 
friends amid such greetings as come when I visit this home of those 
whose work, past and present, has been in my own chosen field., is 
an inspiring ideal. But yet not without a degree of apprehension 
do I appear to-day in this institution, where it is my duty to consider 
discursively a subject which I shrink from attempting, even though 
it has taken my care and time for many decades. Well do I recall 
that twenty years ago I accepted in our neighboring city, Xew York, 
a like responsibility concerning a closely related subject, and at that 
time felt less hesitancy in attempting' to discuss the " Infinities in 
Pharmacy," than I do now, concerning a subject on which I should, 
seemingly, be better informed. Let me not be misunderstood. The 
years of experience between then and now have been a teacher that 
bids me be cautious. As I now view the outreaches and intricacies 
of our text, the apparently more portentous one of other days is far 
overshadowed by that which lies within the title you have given me. 
Infinity, from whatever direction man's limitations meet the un- 
known, is incomprehensible; but no more superhuman text appears 
than lies within the subject awarded me to-day. This I claim to be 
able to demonstrate, if time and space permits me to reach the sub- 
stance that rests beyond this introduction. 

Need I, then, say that no one can better appreciate than do I the 
delicacy of the position I now occupy? Nor could any one appre- 
ciate more than do I the opportunities for error that lie in my path. 
Let me then be cautious, realizing, as I do, the responsibility and 
the complications, past and present, that I assume in touching a 
subject so closely connected with men's prejudices and antagonisms. 

The historical surroundings of this spot take first my tenderest 
thought, and I crave a moment in their behalf. Am I wrong in 
accepting that this is the cradle in which was nourished the early 
American materia medica, as at that date the materia medica was 
known? While it is true that the Pilgrim Fathers, on the rocky 
coast of Massachusetts, began of necessity the investigation of a 
new flora in that Xew England land, it is also true that, creeping 
down the coast and across the lands and rivers intervening, the spirit 



Am. Jour, phaxm. i jj ie American Materia M edica. 3 

January, 1910. j ° 

of research found here a place in which to rest, and from which to 
radiate. Credit fo'r their achievements those who have achieved, 
be they who they may or where or when they lived, but yet concede 
that for a hundred years, during the burst of enthusiasm over the 
new land's productions, the greatest activity in the direction of my 
subject clustered about this spot. 

In 1808 appeared, in Boston, the first Pharmacopoeia of Ameri- 
can physicians, but let us not forget that in the very building wherein 
I now speak, published in Philadelphia (1778 ), rests the only known 
copy of the first Pharmacopoeia published authoritatively in America, 
under the auspices of the government of the United States. It 
emanated from Lancaster, almost a suburb of this city, and bore 
the official stamp of the embryonic nation. Could there have been 
a more precious book than this, issued in behalf of the struggling 
government? Since the publication of this epoch-marking book, 
a volume would be required were I even to attempt to record the 
titles or make a brief summary of the Philadelphia publications of 
world-wide celebrity on our subject. 

As I think of those times and the records of the men who 
accomplished their mighty work in and about Philadelphia, the 
names of the participants that crush upon me stand second in im- 
portance to none in America. From this point the botanists Pursh 
and Nuttall pursued their explorations, and we all know the im- 
portance of their contributions to the study of the flora of North 
America. Here Dr. John Morgan became conspicuous, in that he 
was the first American physician to plead for the separation of the 
compounding of medicines from the process of medication, which, 
to use the words of Mr. Wilbert, he felt would be " commended in 
some directions, severely criticized in others." 

In Philadelphia, about 1730, John Bartram established the first 
American botanical garden, and near here his cousin, Humphrey 
Marshall (1773), established the second. From the Jersey land 
near this point, Peter Smith began (1780) his travels down into 
and then through the southern country, thence back to Cincinnati, 
where (1812), under the title " Dispensatory," he printed the first 
medical book issued west of the Alleghenies. Need I call to your 
attention the two Bartons of one hundred years ago, and the work 
they accomplished, that of B. S. Barton (1798) being the first 
American attempt at a printed collection of the American materia 
medica, for that of Schoepf (1787) was issued in Germany? And 



4 



The American Materia Medica. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



even in that foreign work, may not Philadelphia claim a full share of 
credit? For Schoepf was a Hessian soldier, who, on the surrender 
of Lord Cornwallis at a point relatively near where we now stand, 
travelled with pack on back from New York to Philadelphia, from 
which point he continued, even to Florida, searching the country 
throughout for materia medica specimens. But, as already stated, 
his descriptive book was, unfortunately for American records, writ- 
ten in a foreign tongue and printed (1787) in a foreign land. In 
this city the botanist preacher and pioneer Manasseh Cutler, of Mas- 
sachusetts, received his doctor's degree and became a member of the 
celebrated Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, in the Proceedings 
of which (1785) appeared his "Vegetable Productions, Botanically 
Arranged." Here Dr. Benjamin Rush and a host of contemporary 
physicians served humanity's best interests, as they saw humanity's 
best interests under the limitations of that day. In Philadelphia 
was issued the rare publication, in two volumes (1828-1830), of 
that scholarly traveller, C. S. R. Rafinesque, whose scientific qualifi- 
cations did so much to influence educational thought and action 
throughout the central west. I love to think of him as a professor 
in Transylvania University of Lexington, Kentucky, then the west- 
ern centre of art, literature, and science, a colaborer with Audubon 
the bird painter of Louisville, Kentucky. To Philadelphia came that 
conspicuous searcher into America's materia medica, that antagonist 
to all forms of medication established " by right of authority," 
Samuel Thomson, to discuss with Rush, Cutler, and Barton those 
things pertaining to medicine in his day. Here, under the auspices 
of the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia medical 
societies, such researches were made as those of Downey, on 
sanguinaria (1803), and many other theses of like importance. In- 
deed, notwithstanding lost opportunities, the influence of the three 
great institutions, the University of Pennsylvania, Jefferson Medical 
College, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, in such as this 
is world wide. Wherever in this land one touches life and activity 
in the direction of botany, pharmacy, medicine, materia medica, and 
allied subjects there flow their united currents. 

To mention even briefly the records of the men no more among 
us, who come to mind as I review the work done in this great city, 
would take more time than can be devoted to the subject concerning 
which I shall speak. I must not attempt to name men yet living, 
nor yet can I presume to pass the more recent but not less important 



A jau J u°aTy iSio™'} The American Materia Medica. 5 

efforts of such men as Wood, Bache, Procter, Maisch, Trimble, Par- 
rish, and others whose faces, no longer with us, are to me as familiar 
as are those of the friends now T about me. Nor yet can I neglect 
those concerned in establishing the great chemical industries of this 
city, Rosengarten, Powers, Weightman, Ellis, Bullock, Crenshaw, 
Carter, Scattergood, Bowers, and others. These, and such as these, 
have been mighty factors in our work, their names are inseparable 
from those of whom I have been speaking and are inseparably con- 
nected with American progress. 

But, my friends, these reflections or reminiscences, bred by the 
subject awarded me, must be broken. Let me, however, hope that 
what I have said may lead my hearers to realize that in addressing 
this audience in this building I not only fully appreciate the honor 
conferred upon me but comprehend that in the face of these records 
of the past, in which so many men unnamed were also concerned, I 
have good reason to be apprehensive as to whether I can do justice 
to that past, and yet credit myself in aiming to serve my friends 
as I would like to do. 

Early Conditions in Medicine. — Let us now revert to condi- 
tions pertaining to the day of those involved in the introduction 
of the early vegetable American materia medica. In those days, 
primitive men (and this term need not be restricted to the abo- 
rigines) were much closer to nature than is humanity at present. 
In addition to nature's contact, religious thought, or perhaps we may 
better say theological teachings, were more nearly hand in hand 
with man's opinions of life's objects than they are at present. Less 
disposed than now were men to question (aloud) the axiom (dogma) 
that the universe and all contained therein was formed for the sole 
purpose either of serving or of pestering mankind. Diseases were 
likewise more apt to be likened to organic entities, partaking much 
of the qualities of the self-conscious devils of old that, under the 
auspices of an allwise Creator, delighted in torturing mankind. 
Seemingly, but yet as a rule without denning or perhaps compre- 
hending the subject in these words, disease was not considered as 
simply a departure from the normal, but as an invading entity that 
must be driven out by an antagonist more powerful but yet some- 
what more friendly to the suffering person. Nor is this opinion 
of diseases altogether a thing of the past, nor are the aforenamed 
conceptions of primitive men wanting in some men of our day as 
regards precepts and concepts. The medicine-man of the Indians 



6 



The American Materia Medica. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
| January, 1910. 



was not alone in the belief in evil spirits or in devils that afflicted 
people with diseases that needs be conjured and potioned out. Nor 
is he yet deserted. 

Let us not be surprised that at that date the trend of thought 
of many and the personal belief of not a few was to the effect that, 
in nature's store-house, ready for the use of man, were locked 
remedial agents antagonistic to every disease which sin-laden man 
had contracted or inherited. It was an oft-repeated maxim, that yet 
lingers, that God had placed in every country remedial agents to 
care for diseased mankind in that country. Nor is this, as already 
indicated, foreign to the belief of some to-day. 

Let it not be accepted, however, that all men at that date were 
imbued with or even tinctured by this theological inheritance or 
professional conception. On the contrary, many talented investi- 
gators of what was known then as, materia medica looked upon 
disease, as well as upon remedial agents, in quite a different manner. 
They believed, it is true, that nature possessed secret wealths that 
could be utilized by man for man's benefit (often through torture of 
the flesh), but which, yet, were no more created for man than that 
man was created for the purpose of being attacked by diseases or 
persecuted by evil spirits. 

Thus came into play in the incipiency of the early American 
materia medica a blending of the intensely religious, the profession- 
ally dogmatic, and the hopefully scientific, as well as the ever-present 
commercially ambitious, all seeking alike the secrets that reposed 
in the natural products of the new world. 

And yet another vital factor in the primitive development of the 
American materia medica must not be overlooked. In those days, 
authoritative remedial agents of European pharmacy were difficult 
to obtain. This necessitated the discovery of agents that would 
parallel the action of the old-time remedies. Emetics, cathartics, 
vesicants, anthelmintics, and such were seemingly as necessary to 
man's existence as food. The pioneers were versed in domestic 
medicine, and many were familiar with European works on the 
subject. They felt compelled to seek for substances possessed of 
qualities similar to those commended by such authors as Lewis, 
Culpepper, and Quincy. 1 Nor was this all. The marvellous stones 

Selecting therefrom too often the substances that produced systemic 
shock. Let it not be forgotten that the European herbalists attempted to 
utilize about every plant that grew. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. J 



The American Materia Medica. 



7 



told by the new world promoters concerning the fabulous wealth of 
soil and flora of the new-found land, the almost superhuman quali- 
ties imputed to some of the products by the advertising real-estate 
promulgators, fired the European mind and prepared settlers for 
almost any materia medica surprise. Witness, even in the days so 
near us as those immediately preceding the Revolution, the exaggera- 
tions concerning the Kentucky land, whose story was so graphically 
told in John Filson's " History of Kentucky." Witness also the 
marvellous record of cinchona {Jesuit bark) from South America, 
and of sassafras from " the Floridas." Think of the sensational 
introduction into Europe of tobacco, and the new foods, Indian corn 
and the potato. Comprehending all this and such as this, one may 
be in a position to realize the speculative importance to a half- 
clothed, suffering, needy, transplanted people, on the fringe of an 
undeveloped continent, of the blessings that might lie within an 
unknown flora, boundless in extent. 

That was a day of heroics in therapy, and under the influence of 
tradition and environment substances most likely to gain a receptive 
hearing were such as strongly appealed to the senses by reason 
of their aromatic, emetic, cathartic, or other energetic qualities. 
Sassafras, serpentaria, senega, podophyllum, spigelia, and such, 
from North America, ipecac from the eastern coast of South 
America, cinchona and jalap from the land of the Incas, and such 
substances as hydrastis and sanguinaria, used by the Indians as pig- 
ments by reason of the fact that they both possessed bright colors 
and their juices were distasteful to pestering insects, may thus be 
cited. 

With these thoughts in mind, let us now refer to Barton's " Col- 
lections/' published in Philadelphia in 1798. Note the discreet sen- 
tence in the Introduction, indicating the fact that Dr. Barton com- 
prehended the delicacy of his position as concerns both the people 
and the profession, for in those days, as already indicated, the people 
were deeply interested in materia medica subjects and were prepar- 
ing to rebel against transplanted, mediaeval European processes 
employed by the regular profession. This is apprehended by Bar- 
ton, as follows : 

The readers of these " Collections " (for everything that is written and 
published solicits some readers) will form different opinions about my med- 
ical faith. Some of them will think I have too much; and others, that I 
have not enough. 



8 The American Materia Medic a. { A j an J u °ary P i9io m ' 

Comes then the question as to what should be a part of the 
materia medica, concerning which .the doctor asks a question as 
pertinent now as it was then, to wit, 

How are we to know what plants are most proper for the purposes of 
medicine, until we shall have examined the properties of a great body of 
vegetables ? 

Then comes a plea for toleration by his professional brethren : 

I wish to turn the attention of our physicians to an investigation of 
the properties of their native productions. When it is considered how little 
has hitherto been done in this way, every attempt (mine is an humble one) 
should be candidly received. 

Next, in a cautious criticism, he applies himself directly to 
physicians, informing them that little had been done in the direction 
of the investigation of the American materia medica. 

Skim now the substances suggested by Barton as being worthy 
of examination and their sources. Note that he credits alike Indian, 
pioneer, traveller, botanist, farmer, attorney, and statesman, mention- 
ing Thomas Jefferson, then President of the United States, as com- 
mending a treatment to overcome a disease then prevalent in Vir- 
ginia. But seldom does he credit a member of the medical profes- 
sion as having done anything whatever ! Note more specifically the 
importance given to energetic drugs, both those experimented with 
and those that were promising by reason of their relationship, botani- 
cally, to poisonous remedies in use. A few are kindly in their 
action, as, for example, cornus florida, boneset, and uva ursi, the 
majority, however, being possessed either of exceedingly disagree- 
able qualities or of very energetic natures, such as emetics, cathartics, 
anthelmintics, vesicants, or bitter tonics. Thus Barton indicates 
his self-satisfaction with, or at least his subjection to the heroic 
theory. In a lengthy article on phytolacca he commends its investi- 
gation because " it is certainly a plant of great activity." The fact 
that Rhus radicans produces such a terrible eruption as is the case 
with some people is most clearly stated by the doctor, after which 
he indicates where and how the decoction or the plant in substance 
can be used safely, with benefit in disease. As previously indicated, 
the trend of thought in those days in the medical profession was to 
discover substances that in action would parallel European energetic 
drugs. Senega is thus hopefully mentioned by Barton, as follows : 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
January, 1910. ( 



The American Materia Me die a. 



9 



My ingenious pupil, Dr. Thomas Walmsley, has lately communicated to 
me an additional instance of the salivating power of this active vegetable. 

He questions the power of datura in overcoming so virulent a 
disease as tetanus, as follows : 

I fear that our vegetable, though by no means a feeble one, will be 
found unequal to the cure of this terrible disease. • 

In this sentence he unconsciously voices the transplanted idea of 
mediaeval medicine, to the effect that severe diseases require heroic 
treatment. 2 

Among emetics, sanguinaria is conspicuous. The doctor be- 
lieves by reason of the acrid nature of the Indian turnip, that it 
deserves careful investigation concerning its promising therapeutical 
qualities. 

Among stimulants, the poisonous side of plants is the subject of 
hopefulness. For example : 

I have no hesitation in referring to a number of poisonous vegetables, 
with the properties of which we are not so well acquainted as we ought to 
be. Such are the Datura Stramonium, or Jamestown weed, the Cicuta mac- 
ulata, &c. 

Concerning Cicuta venenosa, a fearful poison which kills as he 
states, " without inducing pain or convulsion," he adds that perhaps 
it is " the plant with which some of our Indians destroy themselves. " 
He adds that it should be used with great care, concluding as follows : 

1 have given the powder of this plant internally in a case of fever, and 
have thus, at least, ascertained that it may be used with safety. 

Happily, among stimulants are included a few innocuous plants, 
gaultheria, sassafras, spicewood, ginseng, and eryngium. 

Not less energetic are the topical stimulants, among which, in 
addition to the acrid crowfoot, the cathartic butternut and a few 
other items are included as follows : 

To this head of topical stimulants, I may refer several species of the 
genus Rhus, or Sumac; particularly the Rhus radicans, or poison vine; the 
Rhus vernix, or Vernice tree; and the Rhus toxicodendron, or poison oak. 

2 Let it not be forgotten that the European herbalists were not poisoners. 
They perhaps erred in the direction of credence in innocuous plants of no 
established value. 



io The American Materia Medica. { A j^SS, wi™' 

But enough for our purpose. Throughout the " Collection " 
we note, as has been stated, that remedial agents thought of as mem- 
bers of the American materia medica, and used both by the " em- 
piricists " and the profession, partake of energetic natures or of 
strikingly disagreeable qualities. 

Consider now the significance of what we have before us in 
a general application to the American materia medica. Dr. Barton 
was a cultured, kindly gentleman, and one of the foremost thinkers 
of his time. He was conspicuous as a botanist and was therefore 
acquainted with America's flora, being likewise hand in hand with 
men versed in therapy and chemistry. He was an educated man, 
tolerant of error and mistakes, kindly disposed towards empiricists 
and those engaged in domestic medication, a listener to men with 
information or experience records to impart, whether or not they 
were qualified in outside lines. He was in touch with the pioneer 
and the Indian, as well as adventurers who travelled in outside 
places, and he came into close communication with primitive men 
and with nature. Notwithstanding all this, we find that the 
" Materia Medica Americana " of Dr. Barton, known as Barton's 
" Collection," breathes in its every page the touch that seems to 
have been inherited from the spirit of mediaeval European times, in 
which kindness to the sick and charity for the afflicted were too often 
exceptional. Confronting evil spirits, although not designated as 
devils, seemingly needed to be expelled by energetic, harsh forms 
of medication. 

PART II. 

Beginning of a Revolution. — Comes now the spirit of unrest, 
that, cradled during preceding years, about this date took possession 
of the people. There were questionings and criticisms of " author- 
ity " in medicine, that success in the great American Rebellion had 
perhaps made possible. Inherited methods from abroad, political 
or religious, were no longer accepted merely by right of inheritance 
or of official authority. Rebellion in politics and by arms bred 
rebellion in expanding thought. Inherited medicines and authorita- 
tive medication as practiced by physicians became a storm-centre 
of attack. European text-books, European remedies, European pro- 
cesses, surgical, therapeutical, pharmaceutical, came by a great 
part of the people to be viewed with suspicion. The rebellious popu- 
lace, often illiterate and destitute of scientific education, presumed 
to criticize the methods as well as the practice of the medical profes- 



A janwy P i9?o m '} The American Materia Medica, n 

sion. The terms bleeders, blisterers, and " fashionable doctors " 
were hurled against physicians of regular professional education. 
Empiricists, believing in domestic medication and the possibilities 
thereof, in contradistinction to regular medication, issued pamphlets, 
wrote communications to the papers, travelled about the country 
giving lectures and otherwise decrying the evils of the processes 
inherited from Europe and paralleled in America. " Better that our 
loved ones should be permitted to die in peace than by the torturer's 
hand/' That cry became a battle cry. 

Samuel Thomson the Botanic Crusader. — Just then came 
Samuel Thomson as the most pronounced of all the agitators. 
Dogmatic, aggressive, unflinchingly persistent, closely did he touch 
the people and irresistibly did he appeal to them. Throughout the 
country his followers and himself travelled, introducing the new 
" American " practice and arraigning those whom they called " fash- 
ionable doctors." The evils of bleeding, the depleting effects of 
violent cathartics, of blistering and of salivating were most forcibly 
and excoriatingly set forth. Nor could they well be exaggerated. 
Thomsonianism. (better had it been Thorns onism) became a house- 
hold word. Empiricism as concerns medication became the fashion 
with thousands. Household remedies now grew in importance, 
whilst home-prepared remedies were most extravagantly praised. 
In it all the educated physician was berated and abused without stint 
and without mercy. The good in his work was forgotten, the bad 
(and there was much bad) was never overlooked. Seizing upon the 
nature of the heroic remedies that were favorites Thomson and his 
people raised the battle cry against such methods and against such 
remedies. For reasons that are apparent as we look back into 
those days they instituted a crusade that finally succeeded. Not- 
withstanding the illiteracy of so many of its advocates, the rebellion 
against the regular profession spread like a prairie fire. The fame 
of Thomson and the Thomsonian remedies became established in the 
homes of the people throughout America, from Massachusetts to 
the Carolinas. 



(To be concluded in February number.) 



12 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

( January, 1910. 



THE PHARM ACOPCEIAL TESTS FOR AMMONIUM 
BENZOATE.* 

By Atherton Seidell and George A. Menge, 

Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health and 

Marine-Hospital Service, Washington, D. C. 

The United States Pharmacopoeial description of this salt con- 
tains, in addition to the qualitative tests for ammonia, benzoic acid, 
and certain common impurities, only two tests which might be 
expected to indicate the degree of purity of the sample. These are 
the melting or, rather, decomposition point, and the reaction towards 
blue litmus paper. The following experiments show that neither 
of these tests is of any value in determining the purity of a given 
sample of the salt. The experiments we have made also show that 
the distillation method for ammonia determination is readily 
applicable to the analysis of ammonium benzoate samples and a 
simple adaptation of this process is therefore suggested as a quan- 
titative method for this and similar Pharmacopoeial ammonium 
compounds. 

Analysis of Ammonium Benzoate by Distillation of the Am- 
monia. — The distillation method modified to the simplest conditions 
was found to give entirely trustworthy results. The details which 
were followed in the determinations reported herewith are as 
follows : The distillation flask was an ordinary Erlenmeyer Jena 
glass flask of about 350 c.c. capacity, through the stopper of which 
passed a plain glass tube which was bent to form an inverted U, 
the longer arm of which ended below the surface of the standard 
acid contained in the receiving flask, which was placed in an 
evaporating dish containing cold water. The connections which 
would have been required for a condenser were therefore elimi- 
nated, and the rapidity of the distillation was not appreciably 
affected. Tenth normal solutions were used in all cases. A con- 
venient amount of the sample for a determination is 0.5 Gm. for 
which 50 c.c. of 0.1 N H 2 S0 4 are to be used in the receiving flask 
and 50 c.c. of 0.1 N caustic alkali and about 150 c.c. of water in 
the distilling flask. About 150 c.c. of liquid are distilled over, and 

* Presented in abstract at the meeting of the Pharmaceutical Division 
of the American Chemical Society, December, 1909. 



Am. Jour. Phftrm. ) 

January, 1»10. / 



A n i n i o n ium B'enzoate. 



[3 



the excess of acid remaining in the receiving flask titrated, after 
cooling, with standard ammonia solution, using cochineal as the 
indicator. The free alkali remaining in the distilling flask may 
also be determined by titration, with 0.1 N H 2 S0 4 using phenol- 
phthalein, but- calculations made from this titration are subject to 
the error arising from the alkali dissolved from the glass of the 
distilling flask and also from inaccuracies of the indicator. With 

TABLE I. 

ANALYTICAL RESULTS OBTAINED UPON AMMONIUM BENZOATE SAMPLES BY 
THE DISTILLATION METHOD. 



(50 c.c. 0.1 N NaOH and 50 c.c. 0.1 N H 2 S0 4 used respectively in the dis- 
tilling and receiving flasks for each determination.) 



Sample 


Distilling flask 


Receiving flask 


X 

£ 



CJ 

w 

c 

!■§ 


Description 


Wt. 
used 


CO 

03 nJ 
X* 

" Ui 

Z oi 
~ 
1 X 
O <u 
. u 


cP 


X 

O 
A co 

M £0 

°'SX 


*~0 
EO 

3° 


go 

Xx 

A* w 

K» 

~Z 
O « 
. 1- 

o 




d . 


a 

.0 
go 

3° 


No. 220 

No. 222 

No. 223 

No. 220 recryst. (a) . . 
No. 220 recryst. (b). . 
No. 220 recryst. (c) . . 
No. 220 recryst. (c^ . 
No. 220 recryst. (c 2 ) . 
No. 220 recryst. (c 3 ) . 
No. 220 recryst. (c 4 ) . 


o.5 
0-5 
0-5 

o-5 
o-5 
0.5 
0.564 

o-43 2 3 
0.4365 
0.4838 
0.4186 
0.2466 


14.O 

1 39 

13-85 

13-75 

13-9 

14.0 

9-4 
18.65 

13-3 
14.6 

1935 


36.0 
36.1 

36.15 
36.25 
36.1 
36.0 

40.6 

3 J -35 

3i-7 

35-4 

3°-°5 

18.9 


.006 

.005 
.003 

.004 

•003 
•003 
.003 

.0067 

.0232 
•0330 
•0494 

. 1062 


14.5 
14-35 
14. 1 
14. 1 
14.15 
M-3 
9.6 
19.2 
20.2 

17-3 
234 
39-8 


35-5 

35-65 

35-9 

35-9 

35-85 

35-7 

40.4 

30.8 

29.8 

3 2 -7 
26.6 
10.2 


.494 
.496 
•499 
•499 
.498 
.496 

.498 
.428 

•415 
•455 
•370 
.142 


98.8 
99.2 
99.9 

99-9 
99-7 
99.2 
99.6 
99.1 

95-° 
94.0 

88.4 

57-5 



In the above table the designations " recrystallized (c), (Cj), (c 2 )," etc., 
refer to the same sample of purified ammonium benzoate, which was dried 
in a Hempel desiccator containing H 2 S0 4 and at about 50 mm. Hg pressure 
for successive periods of time. These periods were respectively about 1,2, 
5, and 8 days. 



samples containing large amounts of free benzoic acid, however, this 
latter titration serves as a useful check upon the results calculated 
from the ammonia determination. The character of the results 
which may be obtained by the method as above outlined are given 
in Table I. 

In connection with the distillation method, it should be men- 
tioned that on account of the low percentage of ammonia (NH 3 = 



14 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ January-, 1910. 



12.24 P er cent.) in the compound the multiplication of the error in 
calculating to benzoate is considerable, and therefore the accuracy 
of the method is probably within only about 0.5 per cent, of the 
amount of the salt present. It is interesting to note that of the 
four commercial samples analyzed they all gave results above 99 
per cent. The Pharmacopceial purity rubric of 98 per cent, for this 
compound might, therefore, be raised to 99 per cent, without requir- 
ing a change in the present market conditions of this product. 

The Formaldehyde Method for the Analysis of Ammonium 
Benzoate. — This method, which depends upon the formation of 
hexamethylenetetramine and simultaneous liberation of the acid 
of any ammonium salt when an excess of a neutral solution of for- 
maldehyde is added to it, was suggested by Schiff 1 and subsequently 
by Ronchese. 2 Dr. B. Herstein, of the Drug Laboratory, Bureau 
of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, recently tested this 
method (private communication) upon a large number of ammo- 
nium salts, including the sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, 
molybdate, halogen salts, etc., and found that entirely satisfactory 
results were obtained. 

The determination may be very conveniently made as follows : 
about 5 c.c. of the ordinary 40 per cent, formaldehyde is just neu- 
tralized in an Erlenmeyer flask with dilute alkali solution, using 
phenolphthalein as indicator, an aliquot portion of the ammonium 
salt solution corresponding to 0.5 Gm. is then added, and the lib- 
erated acid titrated to the first appearance of the pink color of the 
phenolphthalein, with 0.1 N NaOH ; the solution is then heated just 
to the boiling point and a further amount of alkali added to the 
reappearance of the faint pink color. Our experiments showed that 
satisfactory results were not obtained when less than 3.0 c.c. or 
more than 10 c.c. of 40 per cent, formaldehyde were used per 
0.5 Gm. of ammonium benzoate. The analytical results are given 
in the following Table II. 

These results confirm the general conclusion that the formal- 
dehyde method is very satisfactory for the determination of the acid 
radicle, and should, no doubt, be adopted as the quantitative method 
for most of the ammonium compounds of the Pharmacopoeia. It 
happens, however, in the present case that, since the most common 
impurity of ammonium benzoate is free benzoic acid resulting from 

1 Liebig's Annalen, 319, 75, 1901 ; Chem. Ztg., 27, 14, 1903. 
2 Jour, pharm. et chim. (6), 25, 611, 1906. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. j 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



15 



the gradual loss of ammonia, the inferiority of a given sample due 
to this cause is not; detected as readily by the formaldehyde as by 
the distillation method of analysis. This fact is very forcibly illus- 
trated by the titration of the mixture of ammonium benzoate and 
benzoic acid shown above. In this case, although there was present 
20 per cent, of free benzoic acid, there was obtained a difference of 
only 1. 1 5 c.c. (37. 1-35.95) of 0.1 N NaOH from the amount theo- 
retically required for pure ammonium benzoate. Thus, by the for- 
maldehyde method each 0.115 c.c. of 0.1 N NaOH, when 0.5 Gm 
samples are employed, corresponds to 2.0 per cent, of free benzoic 
acid. By referring to Table I it will be found by calculation that, 
on the basis of the ammonia determination, the presence of 2.0 

TABLE II. 

ANALYTICAL RESULTS UPON AMMONIUM BENZOATE SAMPLES OBTAINED BY 
THE FORMALDEHYDE METHOD. 



Sample No. j Gms. used 



C.c. neutralized 
40 per cent. 



C.c. 0.1 NaOH required 



formaldehyde j Before boUing 



After boiling 



Calc. per cent. 
C 6 H 6 C00NH4 



222 


0.25 


1 .0 


222 


0.25 


3-° 


224 


0.50 


6.0 


223 


0.50 


8.0 


220 


0.50 


10. 


Mixture * 


0.50 


6.0 



17-1 i 

17.85 

35-45 

35-45 

35-55 

36.7 



17-65 
17-95 
35-95 

35- 95 

3 6 - °5 

37- i 



98.2 

99-9 
100.0 
100.0 
100.3 
103.2 



* Mixture = o.4 Gm. No. 224 + 0.1 Gm. C 6 H 6 COOH, i.e., 20 per cent. 
C 6 H 6 COOH. 

per cent, free benzoic acid is indicated by a difference of 0.74 c.c. 
of 0.1 N H 2 S0 4 from the amount theoretically required for pure 
ammonium benzoate. The explanation of this advantage of the 
distillation over the formaldehyde method in the case of ammonium 
benzoate is that a given difference between the composition of two 
samples is a larger percentage of the ammonia than of the benzoic 
acid present, and therefore shows itself in nearly the ratio of the 
amounts of these two constituents in the compound. 

Stability of Ammonium Benzoate in the Air. — Although it is 
stated in the Pharmacopoeia that the salt gradually loses ammonia 
when exposed to the air, the observations which we have made indi- 
cate that such a decomposition is very slight and need not be feared 
with the use of ordinary precautions for protecting the sample, 



i6 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ January, 1910. 



Several grams of ammonium benzoate, through, which a slow 
current of air was drawn for eighteen hours, lost an amount of 
ammonia corresponding to about 2 per cent, of ammonium benzoate, 
and it appeared that the alteration had all taken place at the point 
where the current of air first met the sample. Of five samples of 
ammonium benzoate kept in an ordinary desiccator, over H 2 S0 4 
for two and one-half months, four lost ammonia corresponding to 
about 5-8 per cent, of ammonium benzoate. The fifth, however, lost 
an amount corresponding to 20.7 per cent. Under diminished pres- 
sure, as might be expected, the loss of ammonia is very rapid, as 
will be seen by reference to the last four analyses given in Table I, 
and to the experiment described in connection with the melting- 
point determinations. 

The Pharmacopoeial Litmus Paper Test. — On applying this test 
to a number of samples containing varying per cent's of benzoic 
acid, it was found that even as high as 8 per cent, of the latter 
produced no distinct change in blue litmus paper ; with samples con- 
taining 12 per cent, benzoic acid, however, the change could be 
detected. It is therefore apparent that the litmus paper test is 
valueless as an indication of the partial deterioration of ammonium 
benzoate within the limit stated. 

Melting or Decomposition Point of Ammonium Benzoate. — The 
specifications under ammonium benzoate, in the Pharmacopoeia, 
contain the following statement: "The salt fuses at 193 to 
194 C. (379.4 to 381. 2 F.) with decomposition ..." Con- 
sidered in connection with the purity rubric of 98 per cent., this 
statement would doubtless be generally construed to mean that if 
a sample of ammonium benzoate fuses with decomposition at 193 
to 194 C, it may be considered to be 98 per cent, pure or very 
nearly so. Upon this assumption and in connection with an inves- 
tigation now being conducted in this laboratory upon the melting 
points of Pharmacopoeial compounds, the decomposition point of four 
samples of ammonium benzoate had been determined, with results 
that were practically concordant for the different samples and with 
the U.S. P. requirement, thereby indicating a purity of at least 98 
per cent., which subsequent analyses confirmed. The analytical 
data for the different samples, however, showed a variation as great 
as 1 per cent., with no corresponding variation of the decomposition 
point. Another sample which had been kept in a vacuum desiccator 
for a short time and was found upon analysis to contain only 94 



Am. Jour. Pharni./ 
January, 1910. f 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



17 



per cent, of ammonium benzoate, also showed a decomposition point 
practically identical with that of the pure material. These results 
led us to a more extended and systematic investigation of the effect 
of the presence of benzoic acid upon the decomposition point of 
ammonium benzoate. 

Since benzoic acid is the impurity which results when ammonium 
benzoate is partially decomposed, we approached the problem from 
the two extremes of ammonium benzoate and benzoic acid, obtain- 
ing two series of samples which gradually approached each other in 
composition. The first series was obtained by subjecting pure 
ammonium benzoate to continual desiccation in the presence of 
sulphuric acid in a Hempel desiccator under diminished pressure 
(about 50 mm.), portions being removed at irregular intervals for 
analytical and melting-point determinations. In this way we 
obtained six samples, varying in composition from 98.6 per cent, 
to 57.5 per cent, ammonium benzoate. The last sample (57.5 per 
cent.) exhausted the supply of material we started with in that 
experiment. The second series was obtained by mechanically mix- 
ing benzoic acid and ammonium benzoate in proportions varying 
from 50 per cent, each at the one extreme to pure benzoic acid at 
the other, six samples being prepared in this way. 

The melting or decomposition points determined for the different 
samples of both series, together with the duration of desiccation 
required to produce the varying degrees of decomposition indicated 
in the first series, will be found in the following table. The samples 
of the first series have been designated by Roman numerals and 
those of the second by letters. The method used for determining the 
melting points is one recently adopted in this laboratory, according 
to which the material, within certain limits, is heated at a definite 
rate (3 per minute within 20 or 25 of the melting point). A 
standard thermometer was used and the observed reading was cor- 
rected for emergent stem. 

. It would seem to require only casual consideration of the tabu- 
lated data to lead to the very definite conclusion that the decom- 
position point of ammonium benzoate is quite useless as a test of 
purity — at least, in the presence of benzoic acid, even to the extent 
of nearly 50 per cent. — and that, therefore, the statement previously 
quoted from the Pharmacopoeia relative thereto should either be 
modified so as to insure against misinterpretation or should be 
omitted. The melting-point results of the mixtures shown in 



Ammonium Benzoate. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



Table III are perhaps more clearly exhibited by the following- 
graphic representation. The lower curve shows the temperatures 
at which the various mixtures began to melt — the beginning of the 
melting being understood as that point at which the sample col- 
lapses or sinks down in the capillary, or that point at which the 
first definite trace of liquid can be detected. The upper curve repre- 



TABLE III. 

MELTING POINTS OF MIXTURES OF AMMONIUM BENZOATE AND BENZOIC ACID 



Sample 



Per cent, composition 



C 6 H 5 COONH 4 C 6 H 5 C00H 



I 

la 
Nil 
III 

IV 
V* 
VI* 
VII* 
VIII* 
IX* 

X* 
A 
Aj 
B 



5-73 
5-73 
3-85 



Trace 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 

1.2 

6.4 
8± 
ii. 8 

2C5± 

43- 
5o.i7 
5o-i7 
79- 



94.27 

94.27 

96.15 

97.8 
100.0 



Melting 
or decomposition 
point (cor.) 



5° to 
.2°tO 
to 
,I°tO 

.8° to 
,i°to 
.7° to 



^to 

'°tO 



192 
188 
*93 
I 93 
193 
*93 
191 

i92.9°to 
190.4 
190.7 



194 
189 
194 
194 
194 
194 

J 93 
194 
192 
I 93 



i88.6°to 192 
187. i° to 192 
183. 9 to 190 
152. to 177 



Remarks 



121. 3 to 122. 3 

to 148. 9 
12 1 .3° to 131. 5 

to 149. 
120. 8° to 121. 3 

to 146. 9 

I2I.3°tO 121.8° 

121. 4 to 122. 4 



Vigorous effervescence. 
Effervescence after 5 to 7 min. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Vigorous effervescence. 
Effervescence. 

Slight melting and efferves- 
cence. 

Last trace effervesces slightly. 

Slight effervescence finally. 

Heated very slowly from 175. 

Definite sign at 1 20-1 21 but 
no liquid until 152; no effer- 
vescence. 

Most melts 1 2 1-2 ; no efferves- 
cence. 

C remelted after cooling. 

Behavior similar to C. 

Melts without decomposition. 
Melts without decomposition. 



* Samples VII and IX represent degree of decomposition of two samples 
of ammonium benzoate as a result of standing in an ordinary desiccator 
over sulphuric acid for about 2\ months. Samples V, VI, VIII, and X were 
obtained by subjecting a sample of pure ammonium benzoate to vacuum 
desiccation (about 50 mm. Hg), in the presence of sulphuric acid for 6, 42, 
112, and 184 hours respectively. 

sents the final reading — not necessarily the point of complete lique- 
faction, for in all cases where 80 per cent, or more ammonium ben- 
zoate was present the effervescence was sufficiently vigorous to 
drive the material up the tube and in those cases the final reading 
represents the point of vigorous effervescence. The distance between 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. J 



Ammonium Benzoate, 



19 



the two curves at any point represents the range over which the 
sample was melting or decomposing (heating at the rate of 3 per 
minute). 

The curves show clearly that the variation in melting point or 
decomposing point between a sample of pure ammonium benzoate 
and a sample containing 50 per cent, of benzoic acid is barely sig- 
nificant. They also offer a striking commentary upon the general 
conception of the melting points of binary mixtures compared to the 













































/ 

/ N 


f 


















T~* 


A 




Me 


tiny 




omj»os 


iiion 1 




/ 




A 
ft 




Ammo 


e 


f Mitt 
'enzoa' 


uves c 

e and 


f 

Benzol 


cAcid 
























— 






















! — 


J 





















CiHfCMH ^ <€ J^rcenta^e Composition o'f Mixtures 



melting point of either constituent in pure form. The almost hori- 
zontal course of the curves from 100 per cent, to 50 per cent, 
ammonium benzoate and the very sharp rise at 94 per cent, to 96 
per cent, benzoic acid are very striking. The nature of the curves 
would doubtless be more or less modified by further experimenta- 
tion, and perhaps by more refined methods, but for the principal 
purpose of this work w 7 e believe they serve just as well as they 
stand, — to illustrate the unavailability of the decomposition point as 
a test of purity. 

A further indication that the decomposition point is an unreliable 
test for purity consists in the fact that widely varying results may 



20 



A m m oniw n B ens oat e. 



(Aru. Jour. Pharui 
) January, 1910. 



be obtained by varying the rate of heating or by holding the tem- 
perature at a given point; for example, in one experiment we were 
able to cause a sample of pure ammonium benzoate to decompose 
at 185 by holding the temperature at that point for a few minutes 
(I a and A lt Table III). The same thing has been shown to be 
true of other compounds which decompose on heating. 

Further investigation of binary mixtures containing ammonium 
benzoate, also containing other compounds which decompose, will 
probably be conducted in this laboratory in connection with the 
investigation of melting points of Pharmacopceial compounds pre- 
viously referred to in this article. 

Conclusions. — i. The results of the simplified distillation method 
are shown to be sufficiently accurate for the quantitative analysis 
of Pharmacopceial ammonium benzoate samples. This method is 
better adapted to the quantitative examination of ammonium ben- 
zoate than the formaldehyde method. The latter, however, is no 
doubt preferable in the case of most of the remaining ammonium 
compounds of the Pharmacopoeia. 

2. The melting point or rather decomposition point of ammo- 
nium benzoate is shown to be valueless as a test for the purity of 
this compound. It is probable, although it cannot be stated with 
certainty, that with all other Pharmacopceial products having a 
melting point accompanied by decomposition this test for purity 
is, as in the case of ammonium benzoate, useless. 

3. The litmus paper test is shown to be inadequate for the detec- 
tion of free benzoic acid present in amounts as great as approxi- 
mately 10 per cent., and is therefore misleading. 

4. The Pharmacopceial description and tests for ammonium ben- 
zoate should he modified by the elimination of the litmus paper and 
melting-point tests, or such a qualification of the latter that will 
show its inapplicability as a test for purity. The quantitative esti- 
mation of the ammonia by distillation may be briefly described 
according to the present style of the Pharmacopoeia as follows : 

The ammonia from a weighed portion of about 0.5 Gm. of the 
sample, dissolved in H 2 0, made alkaline with 50 c.c. of 0.1 
N NaOH, is distilled into 50 c.c. of 0.1 N H 2 S0 4 and the excess of 
the latter remaining after the distillation should require not more 
than 14. 1 c.c. of 0.1 N NH 4 OH, indicator cochineal. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. j 



Standards and Changes. 



21 



SOME SUGGESTED STANDARDS AND CHANGES FOR 

THE U.S.P. 

By Charles H. LaWall. 

The following notes have been collected during a period of 
several years and embody observations made from a practical appli- 
cation of the various tests and requirements of the U. S. Pharmaco- 
poeia in examining a large number of substances. Some of them 
are not entirely new, but a number of the suggestions have not 
appeared in pharmaceutical literature, to the author's knowledge. 
They are submitted as being along the lines of constructive criticism. 

Acidum Sulphur o sum. — As this preparation is very prone to 
deteriorate rapidly, there should be a statement to the effect that 
the concentrated product should be assayed and diluted at the time 
of dispensing. This is preferable to the present official method of 
assay and immediate dilution and would eliminate the necessity 
of advising its frequent assay as given in the text. 

Alcohol. — The present official method of testing for wood alcohol 
has been alleged to be unreliable. It would be advantageous, there- 
fore, to substitute some authoritative method like the Riche-Bardy 
process of the A.A.O.A.C., as given in U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture Bulletin No. 107. 

Alumen Exsiccatum.—As recently stated by other investigators 
the rubric should be brought into complete accordance with practical 
requirements. If strictly interpreted it does not allow even a trace 
of moisture. This is impracticable. A limit of moisture should be 
given (not more than 2 or 3 per cent.) and a method for its esti- 
mation should be included. 

Amylum. — Some commercial varieties of corn-starch contain 
appreciable amounts of nitrous acid or nitrites, which mi°-ht occasion 
difficulty in its use as an indicator. A test for the presence of 
nitrous acid or nitrites by the Griess-Ilosvay method should be 
given. 

A method for the estimation of the 95 per cent, of hydroliz^ble 
carbohydrates should also be included if this requirement is retained. 

Aqua Hamamelidis. — A test for the presence of methyl alcohol 
should be given among the requirements for this article, as it is 
frequently reported as containing this substance instead of ethyl 
alcohol. 



22 



Standards and Changes. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



Aqua Hydro genii Dioxidi. — A test for the presence of acetanilid 
should be given. The following is suggested : 

If 100 c.c. of solution of hydrogen dioxide be shaken in a separa- 
tory funnel with chloroform, and the chloroformic layer drawn off 
and evaporated spontaneously to dryness, the residue, when taken 
up with solution of potassium hydroxide, i in 4, and heated in a 
test-tube with a few drops of chloroform, should not evolve the 
disagreeable odor of phenylisocyanide (isonitrile). 

Elixir Ferri, Quinines et Strychnine? PhospJmtum. — A method 
of quantitatively estimating strychnine in the presence of quinine is 
needed. In case of an error, where the quantity of strychnine might 
be in dangerous excess, there is no method of ascertaining whether 
the proper ratio of the two alkaloids has been used. 

Ferri Sulphas Exsiccatus. — A purity rubric should state the 
amount of allowable moisture, and a method for its estimation should 
be given. 

Fluidextr actum Zingiberis. — A test for the presence of capsicum 
is advisable. The following is suggested: 

Five c.c. of fluidextract of ginger are to be heated in a shallow 
evaporating dish with 10 c.c. of half normal alcoholic potassium 
hydroxide solution and the liquid allowed to evaporate to dryness 
on the water-bath. The residue is then dissolved in 50 c.c. of water 
and transferred to a separatory funnel, 20 c.c. of ether are added, 
and the liquids are thoroughly mixed by agitation. If the ethereal 
solution be drawn off and allowed to evaporate spontaneously upon 
a watch glass the residue left by its evaporation should have a 
warm, camphoraceous taste, but no sharp pungency should be ob- 
served when the tip of the tongue is applied to the residue. 

Glyceritum Ferri, Quinines et Strychnince Phosphatum. — As pre- 
viously noted under elixir ferri, quininae et strychninae phosphatum. 

Hydrargyrum cum Creta. — A purity rubric should be given, 
together with a process for estimating the amount of metallic mer- 
cury present in this preparation. 

Linimentuni Camphorcc. — A rubric should be included for the 
required percentage of camphor. 

An identification test for the presence of cottonseed oil should 
be given, preferably Halpen's test, which gives very good results in 
practice. 

A quantitative test for the amount of camphor should also be 
included. Either of the methods proposed by Prof. E. Fullerton 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 

January, 1910. J 



Standards and Changes. 



23 



Cook in the NJ.P.A. Proceedings for 1905, will be found to be 
satisfactory. The following, taken from that source, is suggested : 

A convenient quantity of camphor liniment, approximating 10 
Gm., should lose not less than 20 per cent, nor more than 22 per 
cent, of its weight when heated upon the water-bath during twenty- 
four hours and weighed occasionally until a practically constant 
weight is reached. The following might also be included : 

When observed in a 200 mm. tube in a polariscope having a 
sugar scale, the number of degrees observed divided by the factor 
2.925 will give the percentage of camphor in the preparation. 

Or this : The specific rotatory power of the sample divided by 
4.694 equals the percentage of camphor in the sample. 

Linimentum Chloroformi. — This preparation is one that is fre- 
quently found of deficient quality, particularly as to the amount of 
chloroform present. The specific gravity is an excellent criterion 
in this respect and a minimum figure of 1.065 a ^ 2 5° C. would prac- 
tically insure uniformity with the U.S. P. formula. A ready method 
of approximately estimating the chloroform, which is separated from 
the preparation by the simple addition of water, is offered by the 
following : 

Thirty c.c. of chloroform liniment, placed in a 100 c.c. graduated 
cylinder and diluted to a volume of 100 c.c. by the addition of 
water, after thorough agitation followed by subsidence for at least 
one hour, should show a substratum of heavier liquid (chloroform 
containing some volatile oils, etc.) of not less than 9.5 c.c. at 25 C. 

Liquor Chlori Compositus. — A method for the valuation of this 
preparation as to the amount of free chlorine should be included. 

Liquor Magncsii Citratis. — Absence of magnesium sulphate 
should be one of the additional requirements for this preparation. 
The test for barium chloride in the preparation after acidulation 
with hydrochloric acid is satisfactory for this purpose, if a slight 
turbidity but no definite precipitate is the requirement. It would 
be still more satisfactory to follow this up with directions for making 
a quantitative estimation of the magnesium present and establish a 
rubric for the minimum amount of magnesium, expressed as mag- 
nesium pyrophosphate or calculated back to the official magnesium 
carbonate, although the former would be preferable. As the for- 
mula now stands, this would lead to a requirement of 4.1 Gm. of 
magnesium carbonate in each 100 c.c. of finished preparation or 3.56 
Gm. in each 100 c.c. when expressed as magnesium pyrophosphate. 



24 



Standards and Changes. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



Liquor Potassii Hydroxidi. — Absence of more than traces of po- 
tassium carbonate should be insisted upon in the preparation, which 
undergoes a deterioration of this kind quite readily. A proper 
method for filtration should also be given, in consequence of the fre- 
quent necessity for removing flakes of siliceous matter which are 
often found floating in the liquid. 

Liquor Sodii Hydroxidi. — The same suggestions made with ref- 
erence to liquor potassii hydroxidi are applicable to this preparation 
also. 

Massa Ferri Carbonatis. — A requirement for the minimum per 
cent, of ferrous carbonate is just as important for this preparation 
as for ferri carbonas saccharatus, and a similar method for its deter- 
mination should be included. 

A minimum limit of 40.00 per cent. Fe 2 CO s would be satisfactory, 
as 41.70 per cent, is the amount theoretically present according to 
the formula given, and in the examination of a large number of 
commercial samples of this article none has ever been found to be 
below 40 per cent, except where it had deteriorated through age 
and improper keeping. 

Massa Hydrargyri. — A purity rubric, together with a method 
for estimating the amount of metallic mercury, should be included 
for this preparation. 

Mel. — The test for absence of cane suga*r in honey is too rigid. 
Honey normally contains cane sugar to the extent of 7 per cent, at 
times. 

A test for added invert sugar should be given, as commercial 
honev is frequently adulterated with this substance. There is one 
establishment, within the knowledge of the writer, making invert 
sugar in 4000 lb. lots for the sole purpose of adding it to honev. 
The added invert sugar always contains furfurol and can readily 
be detected by applying the aniline acetate test for furfurol, as 
follows : 

When a mixture of aniline 1 c.c, glacial acetic acid 1 c.c, and 
water 2 c.c. is allowed to flow down the side of a test-tube in which 
several c.c. of a mixture of equal parts of honey and water have 
been placed, so as to form a supernatant layer, no red or pink zone 
should develop at the point of contact of the liquids within fifteen 
minutes. 

Oleatum Atropine?, Oleatum Cocaince, Oleatum Quinines and 
Oleatum Veratrincr. — There should be processes of assay given 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Januan-, 1910. j 



Standards and Changes. 



25 



under each of these preparations, together with satisfactory tests 
for the identification of the separated alkaloid. 

Oleoresina.Zingiberis. — A test for capsicum should be included 
in the requirements for this preparation. Many commercial samples 
used in making ginger ale extracts contain capsicum and these occa- 
sionally find their way into the pharmaceutical trade. The method 
already given under fluidextractum zingiberis is satisfactory, using 
1 c.c. or 1 Gm. of oleoresin of ginger in place of the 5 c.c. of fluid- 
extract, the other quantities and the manipulation remaining the 
same. 

Pilulce Ferri Carbonatis. — The same requirements for a minimum 
percentage of ferrous carbonate are applicable here as in the case 
of massa ferri carbonatis, previously referred to. Theoretically 
21.73 per cent, by weight of ferrous carbonate is present. Prac- 
tically it never is found to be below 20 per cent, nor should a lower 
amount than this be permitted. 

Pulvis Acetanilidi Compositus. — Methods for the estimation of 
the several constituents in this preparation are necessary, in view of 
the importance of accurately declaring acetanilid under the various 
laws. 

Sodii Phosphas Exsiccatus. — A method for estimating the mois- 
ture usually found in commercial samples of this salt is desirable. 

Spiritus Ammonia Aromaticus. — A minimum degree of alka- 
linity, preferably calculated as gaseous ammonia, would be an ad- 
vantage for this preparation, which is very prone to deteriorate. 

Spiritus Camphorce. — The specific gravity of this preparation 
should be stated. A method for the determination of camphor 
should be given. The following is suggested : 

Spirit of camphor should have an optical rotation of not less 
than -f- 12.2 when observed in a 100 mm. tube in a polariscope 
having a sugar scale. Or : 

The angular rotation of spirit of camphor observed in a 100 mm. 
tube, when divided by .442, will give the number of grammes of 
camphor in each 100 c.c. of the spirit. 

Spiritus Mentha Piperita. — The specific gravity of this prepara- 
tion should be stated. A method for the determination of alcohol 
should be included, and that given in the Bulletin 107, A.A.O.A.C. 
for flavoring extracts containing volatile oils is very satisfactory. 

A method for the determination of the volatile oil is also neces- 
sary. In view of the fact that most of the published methods re- 



26 



Standards and Changes. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1910. 



quire the use of a centrifugal machine and special flasks, the writer 
made some experiments with the view of utilizing the cassia flask 
which is already included in the equipment necessary for applying 
the U.S. P. tests. The following has given excellent results, — the 
only disadvantage being the time required to effect separation in the 
absence of a centrifuge: 

Twenty-five c.c. of spirit of peppermint are transferred to a 
cassia flask and 5 c.c. of hydrochloric acid thoroughly mixed with it. 
The flask is then gradually filled with warm water (70 C, 158 F.), 
thoroughly agitating and rotating to dislodge the globules of oil 
which adhere to the sides of the flask. After standing for twenty- 
four hours the flask is again rotated to dislodge any additional 
globules of oil which have collected on the sides, after which the 
separated volume of oil is read off. It should not show less than 2.5 
c.c. of oil of peppermint by this method, corresponding to 10 per cent, 
by volume of oil in the preparation. This same method is applicable 
for the determination of oil in several of the other official spirits, 
such as anise, cinnamon, lavender, and spearmint. 

Spiritns Frumenti. — The " Marsh " test for caramel in whiskey 
should sepersede the fullers earth test, which is unreliable. 

Syrupus Ferri, Quinines et Strychnines. — A method for the 
separation of the quinine and strychnine, as suggested under elixir 
ferri, quininse et strychninae phosphatum, is also necessary in this 
preparation. 

Tinctura Iodi. — A purity rubric for iodine and potassium iodide 
is necessary. A method for the determination of alcohol and also 
for the detection of wood alcohol should be given. 

A method for the determination of potassium iodide is advisable. 
The following is suggested : 5 c.c. of tincture of iodine, evaporated 
on a water-bath in a tared dish, continuing the heating after subse- 
quent additions of water until all of the iodine is volatilized and a 
white residue remains, should yield a residue of not less than 250 
milligrammes, which should conform to the tests of identity and 
purity given under potassii iodidum. 

Tinctura Zingiberis. — A test for the presence of capsicum is 
advisable. The test as given under fluidextractum zingiberis is 
applicable, using 10 c.c. of tincture of ginger instead of the 5 c.c. 
of fluidextract of ginger there directed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 

January, 1910. J 



U.S.P. Chemicals and Tests. 



27 



MANUFACTURE. OF U.S.P. CHEMICALS AND CRITICISMS 
OF U.S.P. TESTS FOR THE SAME,* 

By George D. Rosengarten. 

The Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906, which made the U.S.P. 
a legal standard, naturally brought about a decided change in con- 
ditions surrounding the manufacture of U.S.P. chemicals. While 
the manufacturers have always desired to attain the highest purity 
possible for their products, it was found that it was not practicable 
in many instances to comply with the U.S.P. requirements. This 
condition, however, was largely overcome by the " Corrections and 
Additions " to the Pharmacopoeia during 1907 and it is eminently 
proper to state here that the Committee of Revision gave every 
consideration to the mass of material that was put before them, 
and now, as a matter of fact, the requirements of the present 
Pharmacopoeia, with some few exceptions, are comparatively readily 
attained, at least as far as chemicals are concerned. 

There is, however, still ample scope for revision, and there is no 
question that the study of all the subjects relative to the U.S.P. and 
medicinal chemicals in general, owing to increased responsibilities, 
will be given greater attention, and the future possibilities which 
are open to this very interesting and broad field are of the greatest 
importance. 

The purity rubric, which has proved to be one of the best inno- 
vations in the Pharmacopoeia, gives the chemicals whenever it is 
possible a certain definite standard, and if in all instances the limi- 
tations of dangerous impurities are absolutely fixed by well-defined 
and sure tests or analyses, the presence of small quantities of innocu- 
ous substances may be permitted. Small percentages and traces 
of such innocuous substance, which were required to be eliminated 
by former Pharmacopoeia, made the production of U.S.P. chemicals 
exceedingly arduous, and naturally increased the cost, which event- 
ually had to be borne by the consumer. This can readily be under- 
stood by a simple case, taking, for example, sodium phosphate, which 
if made CP. as virtually required by the U.S.P. 1890, commands 
a much higher price than the salt of the U.S.P. 8th Revision, which 

* Read- before the Scientific Section of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, November, 1909. 



28 US.P. Chemicals and Tests. { A j^/uTry 1910™" 

requires 99 per cent. Na 2 HP0 4 + I2H 2 and allows small quantities 
of innocuous impurities which in no way impair its therapeutic 
value. 

However, the official description must be made ro clear that 
there can be no question concerning poisonous and undesirable im- 
purities, and when a chemical in question complies with the purity 
rubric, it certainly fulfils the Pharmacopceial requirements. A num- 
ber of questions have been raised concerning this very point, and it 
undoubtedly was the intention of the Committee of Revision, that 
the purity rubric should cover the case, that when a substance is free 
from deleterious matters and meets the percentage required by the 
rubric, it complies fully with the meaning of the text. 

Melting and boiling points have already been freely discussed, 
and there is no doubt that, as a criterion for purity of many sub- 
stances, the Pharmacopoeia must insist on their use for this purpose. 
However, it is very necessary that uniform methods should be 
required for their determination, and this also applies to solubilities, 
as experience has shown that cases have occurred where variations 
have been noted. Is the solubility determined by dissolving the 
specified quantity of the chemical in the required amount of the 
solvent, or is it determined by the amount of the chemical remaining 
in the saturated filtered mother-liquor? In the case of some alka- 
loids and their salts discordant results have been found, and there 
is evidently no question but that there should be careful revision to 
meet such instances. 

Ash and residue determinations have been a source of consider- 
able discussion in the laboratory. When it is stated that there 
should be no weighable residue, and there is no definite quantity 
given, it depends a great deal on the operator whether or not this 
requirement is fulfilled. It is also necessary in cases where evap- 
oration is required to take the actions of the various chemicals on 
glass and porcelain into consideration, as the residue may be in- 
creased manifold if this necessary precaution is neglected. A plati- 
num crucible for these determinations is not mentioned in any in- 
stance in the U.S. P., and the reason is obvious, as all of us are not 
in possession of such a valuable piece of apparatus, but for accurate 
work platinum is required. There have been instances reported 
of examinations of chemicals, during which porcelain crucibles were 
used, with the result that finally impurities were in evidence that 
were not present in the original substance. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
January, 1910. j 



U.S. P. Chemicals and Tests. 



29 



The personal equation as an eminent factor goes without saying, 
and all lines should be drawn to cut this factor down to the smallest 
possible limitation of variations, so that unnecessary discussions and 
correspondence may be eliminated. It is necessary to have all defini- 
tions and tests made so precise that there can be no question, and the 
best and uniform methods should be adopted from time to time as 
occasion may arise, so that there may be concordant results. It is 
well understood, of course, that complete laboratory work cannot 
always be accomplished by all, but finally all the onus really comes 
on the manufacturer, and consequently every possible precaution is 
taken to protect the consumer. The productions of the laboratory 
are subjected to tests by chemists who have nothing to do with 
the manufacturing of the chemical, and, in addition, the product is 
not allowed to leave any department of the laboratory until the actual 
manufacturer is satisfied that it is correct in every particular. A 
record is kept of every lot, and its history may be traced from the 
time of its production until the time when the label bearing its par- 
ticular mark is destroyed. 

The question of proper apparatus for the manufacture of 
medicinal chemicals is sometimes very perplexing. There are at 
command glass, quartz, porcelain, earthenware, enamelled, metallic, 
and vessels of every description, but the decision as to which is best 
for the purpose can only be reached by long experience, and even 
then it is necessary to use great precaution, so that the resulting 
product may be of the proper purity, and it is often necessary that 
complex apparatus be used in order that all requirements may be 
met. 

That all manufacturers desire that their various products com- 
ing under the head of " white chemicals " should be of the whitest 
is self-evident, and since the limit of iron, whicn is practically always 
present, was very much increased in the heavy metal test, it is pos- 
sible to use such apparatus which otherwise would necessarily have 
been eliminated. Iron is almost always the cause of " off-color," 
but with the proper care its effects can be overcome, and even the 
most critical, of whom there are multitudes, can be satisfied. A more 
difficult proposition is the presence of mechanical impurities, — atmos- 
pheric dust, particles of carbon, milling dust, fibres from filtering and 
drying materials, small pieces of wood from containers, being ever- 
lasting sources of annoyance, and, in fact, it is very difficult at times 
to convince all that it is impracticable to manufacture material by 



30 



U.S. P. Chemicals and Tests. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



the ton, to mill it to a fine powder, and still obtain an absolutely clear 
solution. 

Deterioration is another condition which arises where the natural 
and unavoidable change in many chemicals is concerned. Alka- 
loids, for instance, when subjected to light, or by age, change color 
yet may not lose any of their efficiency, whereas, on the other hand, 
such chemicals as sulphites, ammonium carbonate, etc., are undoubt- 
edly considerably affected by such changes which occur in spite of 
all precautions. It is evident that the manufacturer cannot guard 
against such deteriorations, since they follow natural courses, but 
can only protect himself as far as possible by applying chemical 
knowledge and good common sense. 

A few comments on some of the Pharmacopoeia tests may be of 
interest : 

Acetphenetidin. — To determine the presence of acetanilid, 
acetphenetidin is boiled with sodium hydroxide, the solution cooled, 
agitated with chlorinated soda solution, when a clear yellow liquid 
should result, and not a purplish red or brown red cloudy liquid or 
precipitate. Nevertheless, when making this test a precipitate is 
obtained, indicating the presence of acetanilid, although it could not 
be found by the bromine or other tests. 

Acid Acetic, Glacial. — The test for empyreumatic substances is 
very strenuous. It is required that the tint produced by the addition 
of two drops of one-tenth normal potassium permanganate solution 
to 2 c.c. of the acid, diluted with 10 c.c. of water, should not be 
changed to brown within two hours. The German Pharmacopoeia 
requires that when 5 c.c. of acid in 15 c.c. of water are mixed with 
1 c.c. permanganate of potash solution (1-1000) it should not lose 
its red color within ten minutes. 

Calcium Bromide. — If a quantity of this salt is used in testing 
for bromates, and only a drop of diluted sulphuric acid, a yellowish 
color may be developed, but in such instances bromates could not 
be detected by any further tests. However, if the salt is covered 
with diluted sulphuric acid no color results. 

Calcium Phosphate. — The limit for chlorides is exceedingly 
difficult to attain. 

Cinchonine Sulphate. — It is stated that one part is soluble in 
69 parts of chloroform at 25 C, and further on there is a require- 
ment that : " If one part of the powdered salt be macerated with 
frequent agitation in 80 parts of chloroform, at ordinary tempera- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. j 



U.S. P. Chemicals and Tests. 



3 r - 



tures, it should be wholly or almost wholly dissolved (limit of 
quinine or cinchonidine sulphate)." 

Collodion. — The U.S. P. 8th Revision requires 40 Gm. gun- 
cotton to be dissolved in 750 c.c. ether and 250 c.c. alcohol, whereas 
the U.S. P. 1890 required only 30 Gm. in the same amount of sol- 
vents. The increased quantity of gun-cotton has caused some 
trouble where collodion is used as a base for preparations. 

Glycerin. — It is apparently difficult to eliminate the last traces 
of butyric acid. In almost every examination of glycerin a fruity 
odor is noticed when treated with alcohol and sulphuric acid. 

Iron Chloride Solution. — The test for oxychloride is not suffi- 
ciently exacting. It has been found that when tincture iron chloride 
is made from a solution which meets the oxychloride test, the tincture 
subsequently becomes turbid owing to an excess of oxychloride. 

Lime, Sulphurated. — The test for the percentage of pure 
calcium sulphide is somewhat misleading, as there is always iron 
present, which will, on the addition of ammonia, impart a brownish 
color to the filtrate. 

Mercury Oxide Yellow. — Criticism has been made that mercury 
oxide yellow contained red oxide, because it is not entirely converted 
into white mercuric oxalate when digested on the water-bath with 
oxalic acid for fifteen minutes. Experiments show that even if the 
yellow oxide is reduced to a very fine powder, a small portion still 
remains unchanged, consisting of minute lumps of a fine yellow pow- 
der, showing no crystalline appearance under a lens magnifying 
four diameters. This residue was not converted to oxalate even 
after heating for several hours. When the yellow oxide is mixed 
with a small quantity of red oxide, and the same test applied, the 
residue shows a decided red color and crystalline structure. When 
red oxide of mercury is powdered until it becomes the same color 
as yellow oxide, there is a partial conversion into oxalate at the end 
of fifteen minutes, but when treated with oxalic acid without powder- 
ing, there is no visible diminution of the red color at the end of two 
hours. 

Sugar of Milk. — Even the corrected test has given considerable 
trouble in testing for cane sugar, and is difficult to comply with. 
However, when the test of the German Pharmacopoeia is applied, 
samples which meet the other U.S. P. requirements stand the German 
test perfectly. This difference is occasioned by the fact that the 
U.S. P. requires diluted alcohol containing about 41^ per cent, by 



32 



Maceration and Percolation. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ January, 1910. 



weight, while the " Verduenter Weingeist " of the German Pharma- 
copoeia contains 60 to 6 1 per cent, by weight of alcohol. In this test 
the sugar of milk is digested with diluted alcohol and the filtered 
liquid should remain clear after mixing with equal volume of absolute 
alcohol, and if evaporated on a water-bath there should not be a 
greater residue than 0.03 Gm. 

From all the foregoing it would seem that further study must be 
given to the Pharmacopoeia. While it is desirable that a high 
standard should be set for all medicinal chemicals, in accordance 
with the steady advance of modern times, yet the requirements 
should not be fixed on a plane beyond practical attainment, and such 
tests for purity as may be established should be so well proven that 
they will show the correct result when properly applied. 



HISTORY OF MACERATION AND PERCOLATION.* 
By Otto Raubenheimer, Ph.G., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In connection with this symposium held at the oldest College 
of Pharmacy in the U. S. it occurred to me that a historical sketch 
on maceration and percolation might be of interest to the members. 

MACERATION. 

Etymology of the word : In Latin it is maceratio, the art of soak- 
ing, derived from macero, to make soft, to soak, which again is 
derived from macer, lean or meagre. 

This process has been in use from times immemorial. 

The earliest known solvents in ancient times, besides water, 
were wine and wine vinegar. 

Wine, as we all know, has been and is to-day used as a beverage 
by all nations, with the exception of the Mohammedans, being 
prohibited by the Koran on account of its intoxicating properties. 
(I am, however, informed that the Sultans drink champagne, which 
they do not consider as a wine.) As a medicine, wine has been 
and is to-day used over the entire world, and medicated wines have 
been employed in ancient times and continue to hold their place in 
the various pharmacopoeias of the present. 



* Read at the November Pharmaceutical Meeting, Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Tharm. 1 
Jauuary, 1910. J 



Maceration and Percolation. 



33 



The most important solvent in classic times was undoubtedly 
vinegar, obtained through the acetic fermentation of wine. The 
ancients had the most extravagant ideas with regard to the solvent 
power of vinegar, not only upon vegetable but even upon mineral 
substances, as may be gathered from the concordant statements of 
Livy and Plutarch that Hannibal, the celebrated Carthagenic gen- 
eral, in his passage across the Alps, cleared the way of rocks 
by means of vinegar. I might also quote here the story which 
Pliny tells of Cleopatra, who in fulfilment of her wager to consume 
a million sesterces at one meal, dissolved some costly pearls in 
vinegar and drank the solution. 1 

The acid plant juices were assumed by the ancients to contain 
vinegar, and naturally medicated vinegars were prepared by macera- 
tion and are still official in the present pharmacopoeias. The Father 
of Medicine, the Greek physician Hippocrates, in the 5th to the 
4th century B.C., already prepared acetum scilke, vinegar of squill. 2 

You will ask why did the ancients not use alcohol, the great 
solvent, and macerate therein the various drugs, etc. ? My answer 
to this is, that, strange as it may seem, alcohol was unknown in 
ancient times. Xot until about 1100 is the distillation of spirit from 
wine mentioned by Khalaf-Ebn- Abbas Abul Kasan. Raimundus 
Lullus (1235-1315) named this spirit " Aqua Ardens/' from ardere, 
to burn, burning water, a name still in use as the " Branntwein " 
of the Germans and the " fire water " of our Indians. A very im- 
portant event in pharmaceutical history is, that Lullus was the first 
to prepare tinctures and quintessences by macerating the different 
drugs in spirit. 3 

But not until the 16th century did these preparations come into 
more general use through Phillipus Aureolus Paracelsus Theo- 
phrastus von Hohenheim, that much abused and envied physician- 
pharmacist, chemist, philosopher, and theosoph, the founder of 
iatro-chemistry (medical chemistry), which in contrast to alchemy 
opened new paths in chemistry and medicine by joining these two 
sciences. Paracelsus gave a tremendous impetus to the higher 
development of the apothecary's calling by his generous additions 
of chemicals as well as tinctures, essences, and quintessences to the 
materia medica. Before his time apothecary shops were nothing 
more than stores for roots, herbs, syrups, plasters, cerates, and 
especially confections. The service which Paracelsus rendered in 
instigating physicians and apothecaries to busy themselves with 



34 



Maceration and Percolation. 



J Am. Jour. Pharni. 
\ January, 19KJ. 



chemistry, etc., was indeed a great one, and A. N. Scherer in his 
memoir " Theophrastus Paracelsus" (St. Petersburg, 1821) rightly 
says : " Pharmacy owes everything to Paracelsus." 

In olden times the apothecary collected his own drugs, roots, 
herbs, flowers, etc., in the proper season, and he himself prepared 
his waters and spirits by distillation and his tinctures by maceration. 
The collection of drugs by the apothecary kept him in touch with 
botany and pharmacognosy and was especially very educational to 
the young pharmacist and is far superior to the selling of herbs, 
flowers, and even roots of doubtful value in pressed packages, as 
practiced by the average druggist of to-day. The old apothecary 
carried on this maceration in glass bottles or jars in the front win- 
dow of his shop, so that the sun would strike and thereby warm 
the preparations. The resulting different colored tinctures very 
correctly can be styled as giving origin to the colored show bottles 
in our windows to-day. 

I beg to remind the users and advocaters of maceration that agi- 
tation must not be forgotten, and I know as a fact that it is very 
often forgotten in this process. For obvious reasons frequent agi- 
tation, at least once a day, is essential. It might be of interest to 
learn that the second edition of the Netherland Pharmacopoeia 1871, 
in the preparation of its tinctures even ordered continual agitation 
("agitatio continua") for 7 to 28 days! If our admirers of this 
so-called simple and labor-saving maceration would have to prac- 
tice the Dutch method, then I believe they would soon reach a dif- 
ferent conclusion. 

Expression must necessarily go hand in hand with maceration, 
especially in the case of bulky drugs, as f . i. arnica flowers, in order 
to remove the liquid from the marc as much as possible. This, 
however, can never be accomplished entirely, and the retention of 
strong menstruum in the marc and the resulting indefinite finished 
preparation are the chief objections to the process of maceration. 
To overcome these, several pharmacopoeias, the Hungarian, the 
Rumanian, the British, and the U. S., order the expressed marc to 
be remacerated with menstruum and then to be expressed again 
so as also to obtain a definite quantity of the finished preparation, 
as f. i. in Tinctura Arnicae U.S. P. VIII. As the resulting liquid 
will be very turbid it must, last of all, be filtered. So you can 
readily see that the so-called simple process of maceration consists 
of maceration, agitation, expression, remaceration, and filtration, 
not so simple after all. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1910. J 



Maceration and Percolation. 



35 



The disadvantages of maceration can be briefly summed up as 
follows: (i) the shaking; (2) the expressing and filtering; (3) 
the retention of strong menstruum in the marc and the indefinite 
finished product. The advantages of maceration are said to be: (1) 
the drug does not have to be a fine and uniform powder; (2) the 
process requires less skill and care in the manipulation than per- 
colation; (3) there is less loss of alcoholic menstruum than by 
percolation. 

Before leaving the subject of maceration I will say a few words 
about digestion, not Cleopatra's digestion, as cited before, but 
pharmaceutical digestion. Latin: digestio, derived from digerere, 
to distribute, which is a maceration carried on at a higher degree 
of temperature. Some of the pharmacopoeias specify the tem- 
perature as: 

Ph. Ned. IV Ph. Aust. VIII U.S. P. VIII 

Maceration i5°-2 5° not over 20 i5°-2o° in a shady place. 

Digestion 3 5°-45° n °t over 50 

Infusion qo°-98° 

If a higher temperature is employed, as in the case of Warburg's 
tincture N.F. Ill (65 ), it is best to attach an upright or reflux 
condenser or simply a glass tube about 4-6 feet long, so as to prevent 
the loss of alcohol. 

PERCOLATION. 

Etymology : per, through, and colare, strain. 

A vast volume of literature exists on this interesting subject, 
and the brightest minds of all nations have spent a " lifetime of 
labor " in trying to perfect percolation and to enlighten us. Among 
these the following deserve special mentioning: Boullay, Robiquet, 
Guillermond, Pelletier, Pelouze, and Soubeiran of France, where per- 
colation is said to have been originated, which, however, I find to be 
fallacious; Redwood, Proctor, Maben, and Ince, of Great Britain; 
Dieterich, Geiger, and Marpmann, of Germany; Duhamel, Procter, 
Parrish, Grahame, Squibb, Diehl, Oldberg, Lloyd, and Remington, 
in the LTnited States. The American Pharmaceutical Association 
and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy are to be congratulated 
upon the many faithful workers, whose contributions on percolation 
have been published in the Proceedings of the A.Ph.A. and first of 
all in the American Journal of Pharmacy. 

The oldest forerunner of percolation was undoubtedly the lixiv- 
iation (from lix, ash) of the ashes of plants. Aristotle, of Athens, 



36 



Maceration and Percolation. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



384-322 B.C., the celebrated Greek philosopher and founder of the 
peripatetic school, already described this process of obtaining crude 
potash. According to the plants used the resulting salt — Sal lixiv- 
ius — was named as Sal absinthii, Sal cardui benedicti, etc. Lixivia- 
tion or leeching ( German- Auslaugen) has been extensively prac- 
ticed in various technical industries ever since. Even to-day the 
new Spanish and French pharmacopoeias give the percolation process 
the name lixiviation and the French Codex devotes two and a half 
pages (383-385) under the title "Lixiviation." 

In 1746 Comte Claude-Toussaint-Murot de la Garaye (1675- 
1755) published a work in Paris: " Chymie hydraulique pour ex- 
traire les sels des vegetaux, animaux et mineraux par moyen de 
l'eau pure/' in which he advocated and described the extraction of 
powdered vegetable drugs, etc., with water. " Sel " was not merely 
the name for a chemical salt but also, for an extract or active prin- 
ciple, as can be seen by the old synonym " Sal essentiale tartari " 
which stands for tartaric acid. One of the products of the chemical 
and pharmacological studies and researches of this French physician 
and philanthropist was the preparation of the so-called " Sal essen- 
tiale de la Garaye/' which was a dry cinchona extract. 4 But already 
in 1672 the German " Chymicus," Joel Langelot or, as it was custo- 
mary those days, Latinized to ' f Langelottius," the alchemist and 
Court physician to the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, recommended 
the very same method and also constructed a " philosophical mill " 
described by Joh. Christ Wiegleb, Geschichte des Wachstums und 
der Erfindungen in der Chemie (Berlin and Stettin, 1791-1792). 
This is by rights the forerunner of the method of displacement. 

Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford, a born American (at 
Rumford now Concord, N. H.), who deserves special credit for 
being the first to ascertain that liquids can be boiled by means of 
steam, used a method of preparing coffee, resembling our present 
percolation, which he described in his 18th essay in Repertory of 
Arts, April and May, 1813. 

In 18 1 7 C. Johnson applied this principle to the extraction of 
cinchona bark in England, saying : " The machine I use is similar 
to the one made several years ago by Edmund Loyd & Co., 178 
Strand, London, and does not differ essentially from any of those 
described by Count Rumford. In the Lancaster public dispensary 
this method is found to yield a better preparation than was formerly 
obtained from twice the quantity of cinchona bark " (Annals of 
Philosophy, ix, .p. 451). 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
January, 1910. j 



Maceration and Percolation. 



37 



In 1816 the French Count Real invented a hydrostatic extrac- 
tion press or pressure percolator in which the drug is held in place 
by perforated disks and the solvent, contained in a tube twelve feet 
high, is forced through by its own pressure. Real's process and 
apparatus are described in Annalen der Pharmacie, vol. xv, p. 80, 
also in Buchner's Repertorinm and in Soubeiran's Traite de Phar- 
macie, the German translation by Schoedler which I have here for 
your inspection devoting seven pages (pp. 123-129) to this subject. 
On pages 127 and 128 the fineness of the powder and the method 
of packing are described by Soubeiran and the German pharmacist 
Geiger. Philip Lorenz Geiger, the discoverer of a number of alka- 
loids, as coniine, atropine, hyoscyamine, aconitine, and colchicine, 
also wrote a little book, Real's Aufioesungspresse, Heidelberg, 181 7. 

A very important point in Real's process is that he recommended 
to macerate the ground drug with 50 per cent, menstruum for 
several hours before packing it in the apparatus. No doubt the 
Real process smoothed the way for the coming percolation method. 

In 1834 the French pharmacist Theophile Jules Pelouze em- 
ployed the process of displacement in his laboratory by extracting 
nutgalls in the preparation of tannic acid. 

In 1835 the French pharmacist Boullay and son (the father dis- 
covered picrotoxin in 18 18) published in the Journal de Pharmacie, 
vol. 21, pp. 1-22, their paper: "Considerations nouvelles sur la 
methode de deplacement," 5 giving the experience of Soubeiran, 
Limonin, Boudet, Buchner, Dublanc, Pelletier, and Pelouze. In the 
same journal, p. 113, Robiguet criticizes Boullay's claims to priority, 
having used the methode de deplacement for five to six years in 
his laboratory and factory. I beg to point out that in Boullay's 
method the drug was put dry into the apparatus. 

Dr. Fr. Schoedler, the translator of Soubeiran's Traite de 
Pharmacie, states, p. 115: "The science of pharmacy has not been 
enriched through the much praised methode de deplacement of M. 
Boullay nor through the experiments of Guillermond. The princi- 
ple and application of their method are the same as the Real process, 
which has been in use over twenty years." 

An abstract of the paper of M. A. Guillermond was reported 
as early as 1836 in the American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. vii, 
p. 308, and I am glad to state that this Journal of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy has been the recipient of the largest portion 
of the literature on percolation ever since. 



38 



Maceration and Percolation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( January, 1910. 



In 1838 the Philadelphia pharmacist, Augustine Duhamel, pub- 
lished in the AJ.Ph., vol. x, pp. 1-17, an essay, " Boullay's Filter 
and System of Displacement with Observations drawn from Ex- 
perience." Duhamel deserves special credit, as he was the first 
to present this subject to the American pharmaceutical profession. 

In 1839 A. Duhamel and Wm. Procter, Jr., published in the 
AJ.Ph., vol. xi, pp. 189-201 : " Observations on the Method of 
Displacement," in which paper they state that in France this method 
is extensively applied and was made official in the Codex 1835, but 
in the U. S. it is hardly known, much less applied, and they make 
a plea for its introduction into the next U.S. P. And it was intro- 
duced into the U.S. P. 1840, which authority states in the preface: 
" As to the kind of filtration commonly called displacement, it is 
strongly recommended to those who have not made themselves prac- 
tically familiar with the various sources of error in the matter of 
displacement to postpone its application whenever an alternative is 
given in this work, until they shall have acquired the requisite skill." 

In 1840 this process was also sanctioned by the Edinburgh 
Pharmacopoeia, which states : " A much superior method has been 
introduced which answers well for most tinctures — namely the 
method of displacement by percolation." This is the first men- 
tioning of percolation, which word is used instead of displacement. 
Quite a dispute arose which pharmacopoeia adopted percolation first. 
As a matter of fact it was made official in both pharmacopoeias 
in their edition of 1840, but the U.S.P. 1840 did not appear until 
1843 an d the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia 1840 was published in 1839. 

As we have seen before Real moistened the ground drug with 
half its weight of menstruum, Boullay used the dry powder, and the 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia moistened it sufficiently with menstruum 
to form a thick pulp. 

The British Pharmacopoeia of 1864 in which percolation was 
introduced gives the following, according to Ince very unsatisfactory, 
general directions : " Macerate for forty-eight hours in three-quar- 
ters of the spirit in a closed vessel, agitating occasionally ; then trans- 
fer to percolator and when fluid ceases to pass, continue the perco- 
lation with the remainder of the spirit." Such an authority as Ince 
criticizes this method as unnecessary, wasteful, and messy. As this 
combination method is even used to-day by some druggists, I hope 
they will consider these criticisms and discard this process in favor 
of the up-to-date percolation method. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

January, 1910. j 



Maceration and Percolation. 



39 



Before the A.Ph.A., in 1858, Prof. Israel G. Grahame read an 
excellent paper: "The Process of Percolation or Displacement, its 
History and Application to Pharmacy," 6 in which he makes the 
following remarks which still hold good to-day: " If I have a just 
conception of the principle upon which it is based, it is, that the 
substance to be treated and the menstruum should be presented to 
each other under such circumstances, that each particle of the sol- 
vent shall be fully charged with soluble matter and immediately 
displaced with another particle, to become in its turn saturated in 
a like manner ; and if all the conditions of the process have been 
properly observed, these saturated particles collect and escape from 
the apparatus, and contain to the fullest possible extent all that 
the menstruum is capable of taking up and even more than could 
be taken up by any other means/' Prof. Grahame, aside from sug- 
gesting the use of the funnel as a percolator, deserves credit for 
advocating the use of powdered drugs of regular and definite degree 
of fineness, as well as the proper moistening before packing it in 
the percolator; both of these suggestions are even now considered 
indispensable to successful percolation. 

A committee of the A.Ph.A., consisting of E. Parrish, I. J. 
Grahame, and C. T. Carney, presented a report on percolation at 
the 1859 meeting, giving an account of the introduction of the kind 
of titration commonly called displacement into U.S. P. 1840, its 
extended use in U.S. P. 1850, and a proposed general description of 
percolation for U.S. P. i860. 7 

Four pages (pp. 3-6) are devoted to percolation by U.S. P. i860, 
" The kind of filtration known as percolation or the process of 
displacement," the use of a funnel being also permissible and the 
uniform powder being moistened with one-quarter to one-half its 
weight of the menstruum. In U.S. P. 1870 we find the same general 
description (pp. 3-6), with the exception that the powder is to be 
moistened with a specified quantity of the menstruum. In U.S. P. 
1880 and 1890 this chapter has been improved by giving more ex- 
plicit directions, by passing the moistened powder through a sieve, 
by the attachment of a long rubber tube to the percolator to regulate 
the flow, by directions to percolate the dregs of a tincture, and by 
authorizing repercolation in the preparation of fluidextracts. In 
U.S. P. VIII this chapter has been further improved by dividing 
it into distinct paragraphs, as percolators, the process, repercolation, 
rate of flow, and maceration, stating under the latter that percolation 



40 



Maceration and Percolation. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1910. 



is not suitable for exhausting some drugs and that the process of 
maceration is employed for some of the tinctures as aloes, asafetida, 
sweet orange peel, etc. 

U.S. P. VIII has made a number of improvements in the manipu- 
lation of the percolation process. The quantity of menstruum to 
moisten the drug has been reduced, f. i. tinct. hydrastis : U.S. P. 1890 
used 150 c.c, and U.S. P. VIII only 60 c.c. ; tinct. cinchon co. 
U.S. P. 1890 used 200 c.c, and U.S. P. VIII only 80 c.c. Further- 
more the U.S. P. 1890 directed to macerate the moistened drug for 
twenty-four hours and then pack it in the percolator and proceed 
with percolation. The U.S. P. VIII has made a great improvement 
in the macero-percolation process by directing to transfer the 
moistened drug to the percolator and, without pressing, allow it to 
stand, well covered, for six or in some cases twelve hours, then 
pack it firmly, pour on the menstruum, and when the liquid begins 
to drop close the lower orifice and macerate again from twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours and then allow the percolation to proceed 
slowly, in the case of tinctures from eight to fifteen drops per 
minute. This rate of flow in the new Swiss Pharmacopoeia is 
twenty drops per minute, in the new Austrian Pharmacopoeia thirty 
drops, and in the German Pharmacopoeia (under extracta fluida) 
forty drops per minute. The new French Codex states that the 
twenty-four hours' percolate should weigh about one and a half 
times the amount of drug employed. 

The fruitful work which Dr. E. R. Squibb has done as to perco- 
lation requires no further comment. 

Repereolation or fractional percolation as called by Prof. Diehl 
was introduced by Squibb in 1866 with the object of saving alcoholic 
menstruum and to prepare strong solutions, as fluidextracts, with- 
out the application of heat. The origin of fluidextracts is generally 
credited to American pharmacy, and the work of Grahame, 8 Proc- 
ter, 9 Squibb, 10 and others is well known. The U.S. P. 1850 recog- 
nized seven fluidextracts, i860, twenty-five, 1870, forty-six, 1880, 
seventy-nine, 1890, eighty-eight, and U.S. P. VIII, eighty-five, now 
under the official title " Fluidextractum." Besides this, fluidextracts 
have become official in almost all pharmacopoeias and are recognized 
as (l liquid extracts " in the British Pharmacopoeia. 

Percolation is also gradually but steadily replacing maceration in 
the foreign pharmacopoeias. Chapters on percolation, similar to the 
U.S. P. process, are adopted in these books and general formulas 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
January, 1910. J 



Maceration and Percolation. 



4i 



for fluidextracts and tinctures are given. The greatest victory, 
however, which percolation has gained is its recognition by the 
Brussels International Conference for the Unification of Pharma- 
copceial Formulae for Potent Medicaments, a copy of which can be 
found in that excellent " Digest of Comments on U.S. P.", Bulletin 
No. 49, Hygienic Laboratory, by Murray Gait Motter and Martin I. 
Wilbert, pp. 64-68. Article 2, b, of the Protocol states : " Tinctures 
of potent drugs shall be prepared of the strength of 10 per cent, 
and by percolation/' September 20, 1902, the day on which this 
agreement was signed, will be a memorable one in the annals of 
pharmacy — it marks the advent of a new era, the attainment of 
attempts covering nearly fifty years to unify the formulae for potent 
medicaments throughout the world. It might be of interest to 
learn that when this Protocol was signed again by the duly author- 
ized representatives of the various governments on November 29, 
1906, at the Belgian ministry for foreign affairs, the Swedish gov- 
ernment formulated the following reservation : " As the prepara- 
tion of tinctures of drugs by percolation involves an increase in the 
price of these products, this method seems not altogether suitable 
for employment in a general manner in Sweden." 

In connection with this subject it might be of interest to learn 
that the new Austrian and Swiss Pharmacopoeias order tincture of 
opium to be prepared by maceration instead of percolation, the latter 
authority calling attention to this in a footnote. The new French 
Codex, by the way, orders this tincture to be prepared by dissolving 
5 Gm. of extract of opium in 95 Gm. of 70 per cent, alcohol. Our 
U.S. P. VIII seems to have solved this problem in an excellent 
manner, by first extracting the opium with boiling water, then macer- 
ating in diluted alcohol, and lastly percolating. 

In summing up I want to say that the disadvantages of macera- 
tion, i.e., the shaking, expressing, and filtering, the retention 
of strong menstruum in the marc, and the indefinite quantity and 
strength of the finished product, are the principal advantages of per- 
colation. The advantages of maceration are very little indeed. The 
uniform fineness of the ground drug used in percolation can be 
easily regulated by the sieve. The necessary skill and care in the 
manipulation of the percolation will certainly be acquired by the col- 
lege teaching and principally by the practical experience, and I beg to 
lemind you that the clerk who cannot conduct percolation properly 
ought not to be employed. As to the increased loss of alcoholic 



42 



Mahlon N. Kline. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ January, 1910. 



menstruum by percolation, being left in the marc, the same can be 
expressed, distilled, or displaced by water. 

In my experience the percolation process, and especially the 
improved macero-percolation method of our U.S.P. VIII, although 
the same cannot be used for the exhaustion of all drugs, decreases 
the labor and saves time and is a scientific method par excellence. 
When properly carried on all the advantages of maceration are 
obtained and furthermore it is superior to maceration, inasmuch as 
no strong menstruum is retained in the marc. 

In conclusion I want to state that, although percolation has been 
originated in a foreign country, American pharmacists have greatly 
perfected this process and American pharmacy can justly be proud 
of it. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1 Meyer-McGowan, History of Chemistry, 1906, p. 21. 

2 Schelenz, Geschichte der Pharmazie, 1904, p. 104. 

8 Ibid., p. 328. 
4 Ibid., p. 566. 

6 Journal de Pharmacie, 1835, vol. 21, pp. 1-22. 

c Proc. A.Ph.A., vol. 7, pp. 285-294, and AJ.Ph., vol. 31, p. 354. 

7 Ibid., vol. 8, pp. 220-239. 
'Ibid. 1858. 

9 Ibid., 1863, vol. 11, pp. 222-248. 

10 Ibid, and Percolation by Brandel and Kremers, Ph. Review, 1906, p. 363, 

1908, p. 270. 



MAHLON N. KLINE. 

Mahlon N. Kline, President of the Smith, Kline & French Co., 
wholesale druggists, Philadelphia, died suddenly of heart failure 
on Saturday evening, November 27, while attending a meeting 
of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew at the Church of the Saviour, 
Philadelphia. Mr. Kline was so long and so intimately associated 
with the drug trade, both wholesale and retail, and did such 
excellent work in connection with drug and pharmaceutical matters 
that his death will be felt as a distinct loss to the industry. 

Of all his other affiliations it may truly be said that none were 
of more deep concern to him that his relations with the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and his work as a member and officer reflects 
credit alike on his ability and loyalty to its interests. He was 
elected an active member in 1886 and a member of its Board of 
Trustees in 1897, of which latter body he became Chairman in 
1901. He was elected First Vice-president of the College in 1905, 



Am. Jour. Fharm. \ 
January, 1910. j 



Mahlon N. Kline. 



43 



and at the time of his death was also Chairman of the committees 
on legislation and finance of the College, besides holding other 
minor offices. Mr. Kline's interest in the College was also mani- 
fested in other ways. Since 1897 he had offered an annual prize 
of a prescription balance to the student passing the best examina- 
tion in the theory and practice of pharmacy. He was liberal in 
contributing to the financial support of the College, and probably 
his most notable contribution was as a member of the Smith, Kline 
& French Co. in conjunction with Mr. Howard B. French in 
purchasing and donating the Martindale Herbarium, in 1894. 

Mr. Kline was born February 6, 1846, near Hamburg, Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, and was educated in the public schools. In 
1865 he went to Philadelphia and laid the foundation of his suc- 
cessful business career in the employ of the wholesale drug house 
of Smith & Shoemaker. His merit was quickly recognized and 
three years later he was admitted to partnership in the firm. 

Mr. Shoemaker retired in 1869 and the name of the firm was 
changed to Smith, Kline & Co., which in 1888 was incorporated 
under the style of The Smith & Kline Co. In 1891 a wholesale 
drug business of French, Richards & Co. was liquidated and Harry 
B. French of this firm joined the Smith & Kline Co., as its Vice- 
president, the name being again changed to Smith, Kline & French 
Co. 

Mr. Kline joined the National Wholesale Druggists' Associa- 
tion at the time of its formation in 1882 and in 1885 was elected 
its President. For ten years, from 1887 to 1897, Mr. Kline served 
conspicuously and efficiently as the Chairman of the Committee 
on Proprietary Goods, which he relinquished to assume the chair- 
manship of the Committee on Suits against members of the asso- 
ciation. In this connection he had proved himself invaluable in 
shaping the course which was pursued in the " Park " suits and in 
the litigation which ultimately led to the " Indianapolis Decree." 
In 1898 at the annual meeting of the association held in St. 
Louis that year, he was made Chairman of the Legislative 
Committee, which position with but one year's interruption he 
retained up to the time of his death. While acting as Chairman 
of the Legislative Committee Mr. Kline was largely responsible 
for the passage of the denatured alcohol bill and it was through 
his efforts largely that the law permitting of the drawback allow- 
ance on grain alcohol for export when used in medicinal and 



44 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A j; n ^° a u r y iJ" m " 

toilet preparations or by itself was passed. He was also largely in- 
strumental in persuading the Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
to allow manufacturing druggists a free use of fortified sweet 
wines in compounding their preparations. 

He was a staunch advocate of the Pure Food and Drugs Act 
and devoted much effort towards bringing about uniformity of 
State law to conform with it. 

Mr. Kline always took an active interest in the affairs of the 
city of Philadelphia and was foremost in many of the municipal 
reform matters. He was a prominent member of the Trade 
League of Philadelphia, which afterward became the Philadelphia 
Chamber of Commerce, and he likewise served on the Executive 
Committee of the National Chamber of Commerce instituted by 
Secretary Straus. 

Always alive to the interest of his retail friends of the drug 
trade, Mr. Kline was an active member of the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association and had he lived would have represented 
that organization at the Pharmacopceial Convention to be held 
next May. 

Mr. Kline was a devoted member of the Church of the Saviour 
from which he was buried on November 30. The funeral was 
largely attended and among those present besides the officers, 
members of the Board of Trustees, and faculty of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, was a substantial delegation from the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association and various pharmaceutical or- 
ganizations with which he was identified. In connection with his 
church affiliations Mr. Kline was the Philadelphia leader of the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew. 

Mr. Kline is survived by a widow, two daughters, Mrs. Harry 
F. Valentine and Mrs. T. Carrick Jordan, and one son, Clarence 
M. Kline. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

A special meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was held December 10 to take action on the death of 
Mahlon N. Kline, First Vice-President and Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees. 

The President read the call for the meeting which had been 
signed by seventeen members of the College and of the Board of 



A janu^y wio"' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 45 

Trustees. He then said that in the death of Mr. Kline the College 
had lost one of its' most able and energetic members ; and as an 
officer the College had lost the services of a man hard to replace. 
He was a strong man, energetic, ready to assume any responsibility, 
and ready to work in any and all lines of duty. Personally his loss 
was a sad blow to him. The circumstance connected with his 
sudden death was a severe shock to him as he had been in consul- 
tation with Mr. Kline about College matters up to within four hours 
before his death. On this occasion Mr. Kline had advised him to 
take care of his health by taking a rest from business cares. His 
concern for others was a characteristic feature. 

Communications were read from Professor L. E. Sayre, Mr. 
Frank G. Ryan, and Mr. C. Carroll Meyer, and a telegram from 
Mr. Wallace Procter, expressive of their appreciation of Mr. 
Kline and regret at his death. 

In response to the call of the President for remarks a number of 
the members responded, as follows : 

Dr. A. W. Miller stated that his acquaintance with Mr. Kline 
probably extended further back than most of those present. Their 
business relations brought them together almost daily for many 
years past, and Dr. Miller said that he always admired Mr. Kline's 
behavior in business affairs. He occupied a leading position in all 
the associations in the drug trade with which he was connected. 
Much of his energy was directed towards the legal questions 
concerning the trade. He had a singular aptitude in handling these 
questions and was of great service in all organizations with which 
he was connected. He had the highest feeling of respect for Mr. 
Kline, and his sudden death was a severe shock as it brought vividly 
to mind the uncertainty of life and the certainty of death, and as 
such a life should ever be kept in mind, he suggested that steps 
be taken to procure a portrait of Mr. Kline that should be displayed 
on the walls of the College. 

Professor Joseph P. Remington, after referring to the illness of 
Mr. Kline, said: 

" The almost tragic death of this noble man, occurring as it did 
in the church which he loved so well, while shocking to his family 
and friends possessed an appropriateness which develops in the mind 
after some time has elapsed for reflection. Mahlon N. Kline was a 
marvel for energy and ability, with a capacity for long persistence 
in grinding labor. He never shirked responsibility, and although 



46 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A j^^.mT' 

probably the majority of his tasks were distasteful to him, and in 
committee work others might leave him to bear the burden alone, 
he would simply gird on his armor and do the work; this was not 
due to an overweening opinion of his abilities, but, having grasped 
the handles of the plow and satisfied that the labor was honorable 
and for the betterment of his fellows. He would not allow diffi- 
culties to daunt him, nor obstacles to stand in his way, but with his 
great experience and knowledge of men he would find a way where 
the less able or courageous man would succumb. 

" One of his favorite expressions was, * I had no business what- 
ever to go into this, but nobody else seems to care to push this so 
I must go on with it.' He frequently sought advice from those 
whom he believed could throw light on the problems in which he 
was engaged, and when discussing suggestions his quick grasp of 
possibilities was one of the prominent characteristics of his mind. 

" His conscientiousness was a marked trait : if he had received 
a thought or suggestion which seemed to him valuable it was not 
his habit to appropriate it as his own, but he was glad to give credit 
to whom credit was due, and if he made a mistake or committed 
an error in judgment he seemed to take a delight in saying, ' I at 
one time thought thus and so, but I know better now.' 

" Service was the keynote of his life. He had the power of 
directing others and gathering around him subordinates, but, at 
the same time, he loved detail, for he realized that many a great 
work would be ruined by neglect of some important detail which 
might seem trifling to the inexperienced but was really the key of 
the situation. He never thought much of his ability to speak and 
yet his friends, without exception, were glad to have him on their 
side. As a speaker he was convincing, relying upon righteousness 
of the cause which he was advocating and believing that all that 
was necessary to do to win was to state the facts. He well knew 
the value of a phrase or a witty turn, and he often confused the 
enemy by a bright sally; his repartee was remarkable and when he 
and his friend Redsecker were surrounded by congenial spirits, who 
could appreciate the play of wit, he was at his best. His sense of 
humor was a saving element, and the relief which it gave him when 
harassed by carking cares was most effective; but now that he is 
gone the memory of the great work that he has done in uplifting 
pharmacy, and his great work in moulding and influencing legisla- 
tion, his quickness to detect defects in laws bearing upon pharmacy, 



A j;nuT;. igST'} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 47 

and his great influence with legislators made him a power for 
good, and it will be impossible for any one to take his place in this 
line of work. 

" His religious life was characterized by a simplicity in devotion 
which was most remarkable. Caring little for the applause of men, 
a large part of his work was given to quiet deeds of charity and 
service. Whether it was a man besotted with drink at the Galilee 
Mission, a little child in his Sunday-school, an aged woman tottering 
to the grave, or a young man suffering from the effects of sin, his 
ear was ready and his hand stretched forth to help, because the 
secret of his life was service to his Master." 

Professor C. B. Lowe said he was glad Professor Remington 
had prepared this true and grateful record of Mr. Kline, whose life 
was so full of usefulness. In many places he would be greatly 
missed, especially in the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association 
where he was a tower of strength. In connection with his friend 
Mr. Redsecker, it was a great treat to listen to their sallies of wit 
and repartee. He would also be greatly missed in the College, but 
more especially in church work. He was glad that Mr, Kline 
showed by his activities in the church that a very busy man in busi- 
ness affairs could also prove to his business associates and to all 
others that business activity need not prevent a person being active 
and useful in the affairs of the church. 

Joseph W. England said he felt that the highest tribute he could 
give to Mr. Kline was that he was a strong, broad-gauged Christian 
gentleman, one who practised what he preached. He loved work 
and in fact revelled in it. He was enthusiastic in all he did and 
strove to make each day's work better than the previous one. He 
had a most keenly developed sense of honor, and this was notable 
in his labors in assisting to frame the Pure Food and Drug Law. 
Doctor Wiley had said he owed more to Mr. Kline than any one 
else in framing that law. His death was tragic, but he had pre- 
viously said that were it not for the shock to the living he preferred 
a sudden death. One of his favorite hymns was " Abide with 
me, fast falls the eventide," and especially the last verse; and his 
last moments were typical of his faith in these last lines, and in 
this faith he had his wish. 

Professor Henry Kraemer said : " While some of us knew 
Mr. Kline and recognized his activities in this College and in the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association, I must confess I was 



48 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A j^ n J °ary wio™" 

not prepared for the outpouring of friends to attest to his worth and 
to show their respect for him, as was seen at the funeral services 
held November 30. I could not help but feel that as I had not 
comprehended the magnitude of his labors and had possibly under- 
rated his influence and efforts as attested by the large congregation 
on that day, possibly there are others here in our midst whose 
services we should more deeply appreciate and with whom we should 
more willingly co-operate. 

" The College needs every good man it can enlist in its work 
and for its support. We need to work together as men who are 
joined in a common cause. I am sure that if we all practised more 
of the open and manly criticism that characterized Mr. Kline, and 
were ready to deal fairly and squarely with each issue as though 
each one were bound by ties of comradeship and friendship, our 
College would in the future stand on a still higher plane. It would 
be safe in the keeping of those who remain and those who follow. 
May we always have the wisdom and the will to do our work in this 
exemplary way." 

W. A. Ramsey said that he had known Mr. Kline for a number 
of years, more particularly because of his work in the Church of the 
Saviour, of which Mr. Kline was the Accounting Warden and 
Superintendent of the Sunday-school. He was a great help to the 
Rector and when the selection of a Superintendent of the Sunday- 
school was to be made and Mr. Kline was selected for the position 
the Rector said that no better choice could be made. The church 
will sadly miss him because he was always striving to do good to 
others, and the last act in his life was working and planning for the 
good of others. 

Warren H. Poley said that Mr. Kline was too truthful a man 
for his own best interests. When interests conflicted between the 
wholesale and the retail drug trade his stand was always on the 
side of truth and honesty even if against his own business interests. 

Edwin M. Boring said he had known Mr. Kline for over thirty 
years, and as he listened to the remarks that had been made his 
heart responded, and he wished to say that he was in full accord 
with all that had been said. 

At this point in the proceedings Professor Remington moved that 
a committee of three be appointed to draft suitable resolutions and 
to report at the quarterly meeting of the College on December 27 — 
seconded and agreed to. 



A j a n J n^y i9io m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 49 

E. Fullerton Cook said that he would like to say a few words 
as a representative of the young men. Mr. Kline's labors in behalf 
of the College House for three years were of very active interest 
in it and had endeared him to the young men. They felt his influ- 
ence for good while there and they felt it also in the church. The 
life he had lived was one not so much to mourn for as lost, as it 
was to be glad that we had come in contact with it. Its influence 
was such as to make it a model for us all to pattern after. 

John F. Hancock, of Baltimore, said he was very sorry he could 
not get in earlier but there was no train he could take that would 
permit him to be present at the opening of the meeting. He said 
that he admired Mr. Kline very much and that he had known him 
many years, and he had never met any man more poised and 
reliable. No doubt the eulogies passed on him in this meeting were 
by men who knew him better. He w T ill be missed by a large circle. 
He was a great, a good, a useful man, fitted for every position he 
had been called to fill. These qualities must have been laid in his 
youth. He made the best use of his opportunities. All these 
memories should cause us to cherish him, for he was full of energy 
and devoted to his work. It made one feel proud to know such a 
man and to have been associated with him. This influence extended 
more and more like the ripple on the lake. He will continue to 
live in our memories. Mr. Kline's life connected closely with other 
great and good men who lived in Philadelphia. Their labors will 
serve to broaden and extend the work of the College as time goes 
on, and this will be a cherished memory with me. Others will rise 
to take Mr. Kline's place, but there will be no duplication of his 
life. Others will work on and leave to others the work that Mr. 
Kline and others have carried on for the best interests of pharmacy 
and the College. 

The President in closing the meeting said that he felt that Mr. 
Hancock had greatly honored the College by his presence and he 
highly appreciated the sentiments he expressed. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

DECEMBER PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy w r as held Tuesday, December 21, with Dr. A. W. 
Miller, Corresponding Secretary, in the chair. 

Mr. Stewardson Brown, Curator of the Botanical Section of the 



50 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A ™;^^^J m - 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, gave an illustrated 
lecture on the subject " Botanizing in the Canadian Rockies." Mr. 
Brown gave an interesting account of a botanizing trip made in 
the summer of 1908 along with a geographical exploration party. 
The territory explored was that near the headwaters of the Sas- 
katchewan and Athabasca Rivers, which have their origin in the 
great Columbia ice-fields. Mr. Brown collected some 3500 speci- 
mens, and exhibited beautifully colored lantern slides of the most 
characteristic and abundant of these, such as Salix herbacea, a small 
plant consisting of three or four leaves and catkins, which is the 
most abundant plant above the timber line, growing at an elevation 
of 7000 or 8000 feet; species of primrose; species of pulsatilla, in- 
cluding Pulsatilla occidentals, found in bloom on the edge of a 
snow bank; species of saxifrage, orchid, etc. 

Remarks on Mr. Brown's address were made by the Chairman, 
and Professors Remington, Kraemer, and La Wall, the latter of 
whom moved a special vote of thanks to Mr. Brown, which was 
unanimously adopted. 

A paper entitled " The Practical Application of the Twitchell 
Process of Fat Decomposition and Recovery of Glycerin," by W. J. 
Warner, of Los Angeles, Cal., was read on behalf of the author by 
Professor LaWall. 

A resolution pertaining to pharmacopceial revision offered by 
M. I. Wilbert at the previous meeting and laid on the table for fur- 
ther consideration (Am. Jour. Pharm., December, 1909, vol. 81, 
p. 593) was read by Professor Kraemer, and on motion of Professor 
Remington adopted as published. 

Professor Kraemer spoke of the work being done by Dr. Joseph 
NefT, Director of the Department of Health of Philadelphia, to pro- 
tect the health of the citizens, and after discussion offered the follow- 
ing resolution, which was adopted : 

We, the members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
assembled at this meeting, desire to place on record a statement 
that the attitude taken by the Director of the Department of Public 
Health of Philadelphia is in accord with the principles of the mem- 
bers, and that we heartily endorse his efforts for the suppression of 
nostrums of all kinds used or advertised as being of use in the 
treatment of diphtheria, or other infectious diseases, and further 
that we also heartily endorse his efforts to enlighten the public in 
preventing disease and promoting the health of this community. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tern. 



THE AMEKIOA]Sr 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, ipio 

• Vf ^ 

PHARMACOGNOSY AND THE UNITED STATES 
PHARMACOPOEIA.* 

By Henry Kraemer. 

Pharmacognosy in both the modern acceptation and application 
of the 'term is a comparatively new department of science, although 
the history of the use of vegetable drugs is as old as that of medi- 
cine itself. While we have been accustomed to look upon pharma- 
cognosy as a division of botany, it has so expanded within the past 
twenty-five years as properly to be regarded as a distinct branch of 
science. As in bacteriology the problems in the study of bacteria 
are different from those of the botanist, so in pharmacognosy the 
problems differ from those in pure botany, being on the one hand 
similar to those which are considered by the modern agriculturist. 
In other words, pharmacognosy involves not only a study of botany, 
including morphology and anatomy, but also studies in chemistry, 
including both plant chemistry (phyto-chemistry) and drug chemis- 
try (pharmaco-chemistry). The pharmacognosist is not merely 
concerned with the dried drug as he sees it, but also with those 
conditions which influence the development of the constituents £ 
the plant or which modify those constituents in the drug on which 
medicinal activity depends. Indeed the subject is a very broad one 
and a very complicated one when viewed from all sides, and it is a 
long way from the living plant from which the drug is derived to 
the laboratory of the pharmacist who makes the preparation. There 

* Read before the City of Washington Branch of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, January 5, 1910. 

(5i) 



52 Pharmacognosy and the US.P. { A is£Sh^SS^ 

are problems at every point in the ofttimes circuitous route which 
the drug travels before reaching its final destination in the finished 
preparation. In addition to the field problems, as those involving 
the determination of the identity of the plants and variation in the 
constituents at different seasons of the year, there are also other 
factors of which cognizance must be taken that influence the quality 
and appearance of vegetable drugs, as the degree of skill used in the 
drying and curing of the drugs ; the proportion of other plant parts, 
as of stems attached to roots ; the manner and length of time of 
keeping; and attacks of fungi and insects, etc. We may say, there- 
fore, that pharmacognosy begins with the study of the plants yield- 
ing vegetable drugs and ends with the determination not alone of 
their identity but of their quality also. 

When one considers that about 70 per cent, of the articles in- 
cluded in the Pharmacopoeia are vegetable drugs, their constituents, 
or their preparations, it is seen that the users of the Pharmacopoeia 
must have a knowledge of pharmacognosy, and that the physician is 
directly dependent upon the work of the pharmacognosist for the 
therapeutic efficiency of many of the most important medicines which 
he prescribes. It matters not how perfect the methods for making 
preparations are if the materials used in their preparation are 
spurious, worthless, or vary in quality to a considerable extent. 
There is no doubt that many useful drugs and their preparations 
have become and are becoming obsolete for the reason that other 
drugs which are inert or have different properties have been or are 
being substituted for them. Such a condition not only baffles the 
efforts of the therapeutist but also tends to deprive him of remedies 
which heretofore were considered to have certain valuable proper- 
ties. But some will say that the drugs are becoming scarce. This 
is true in some instances, but instead of simplifying the question, 
renders it more complicated in that the necessity arises for detecting 
the spurious substitutes that are frequently admixed with the gen- 
uine drug or even entirely replace it. 

THE U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA. 

While it is not possible to consider all the various phases of 
pharmacognosy in the Pharmacopoeia, it is desirable to give defini- 
tions and descriptions of the official vegetable drugs which are 
adequate for the establishment of their identity and efficiency. In 
other words, it is the results of the studies in applied pharmacog- 



A Febma^ P i9io m '} Pharmacognosy and the US. P. 53 

nosy which should be included in the Pharmacopoeia, leaving the 
problems and studies in' pure pharmacognosy for the text-books 
and reference books. 

That part of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia VIII devoted to pharma- 
cognosy is not only not abreast with the other departments of thi? 
work, but, furthermore, when this part is compared with that in 
the foreign pharmacopoeias it is found to be lacking in important 
particulars. This would lead to the conclusion that we in this 
country not only do not recognize the importance of the subject but 
that we are more or less indifferent to the nature of the drugs which 
we employ. That this condition, or worse, still prevails, is shown 
by the expressed desire to eliminate standards for crude drugs. It 
has been proposed to permit all grades of crude drugs to be admitted 
to this country and to be sold and used in the making of galenicals, 
the only provision suggested being that the finished preparations 
shall be standardized. Apart from the many objections that can 
be raised against such a procedure, as, for example, the inadequacy 
of the assay processes themselves to confirm the identity of the 
drug on the one hand or its full medicinal value on the other, there 
are other practical difficulties in the way. To illustrate, Dr. J. M. 
Francis states in commenting on the results of his assay of many 
thousands of pounds of belladonna root of the market, that, " While 
theoretically an increased quantity of poor drug will make a good 
fluidextract, if the latter be standardized by assay, there are, 
however, practical objections to using an excessive quantity of drug, 
as the fluid will be highly charged with extractive matter and will 
not keep well." 

On the face of it, it is not reasonable to suppose or believe that 
a good fluidextract or tincture can be made from a poor drug any 
more than to suppose that good malt can be prepared from barley 
grains of poor quality or a good extract of beef from meat of poor 
quality. It is true that a certain amount of alkaloid may be extracted 
in some instances from a mouldy, wormy, or otherwise inferior 
drug, but no one would contend that in the majority of cases the 
medicinal properties of a tincture, fluidextract, or infusion are 
wholly dependent upon the percentage of one such principle alone 
or that the preparations would be as good in other respects as those 
made from drugs of good quality. If, however, this be contended, 
then the better procedure would be to use the alkaloids and other 
isolated principles themselves. Discussing this question in a recent 



54 Pharmacognosy and the US.P. {^JuZyfwt 

paper Tschirch 1 writes : " For when the isolated substances are 
tested pharmacologically, it becomes evident that their action does 
not correspond with that of the drug itself — for the latter scarcely 
ever contains a single active constituent but frequently a remarkable 
mixture of substances that are often antagonistic in their effects. 
I will refer only to rhubarb, which, in addition to laxative anthra- 
glucosides, contains astringent tannoglucosides, and owes its thera- 
peutical use to the simultaneous occurrence of these two antagonistic 
groups of substances. Although, unable to free ourselves from 
the views of Galen, drugs are still called ' simples,' they are in 
reality far from simple ; indeed they are extraordinarily complex 
substances." 

Again, Turner in a recent paper 2 has called attention to some 
of the newer views in regard to> the components of drugs on which 
medicinal activity depends and to' a tendency to abandon the idea 
that the principles separated by assay truly represent the value of 
the drug. He says : " Boulanger-Dausse in Bulletin des Sciences 
Pharm., No. I, 1908, pays particular attention to this question and 
comes to the following conclusions : 

" The endeavor to isolate the ' alkaloid ' to which scientific phar- 
macy paid such vivid attention for nearly one hundred years begins 
to lose its practical significance. The chemistry of colloids partly 
takes its place and the chemist and pharmacologist pay more and 
more attention to certain complex ingredients of drugs, or, as they 
are usually called, ' extractives ' of drugs. 

" A diligent and successful investigation of certain drugs showed 
conclusively that the active principles isolated from them in the 
course of one hundred years and studied both chemically and phar- 
macologically did not satisfy the requirements which the physician 
had right to put to them. Cinchona, digitalis, ergot, rhubarb, buck- 
thorn, cascara sagrada, kola, opium and mix vomica are the best 
examples illustrating what was said before. 

" Many prominent pharmaceutic chemists and, lately, especially 
Kunz-Krause, recognized this in proper time and showed that in 
many cases the production of chemically pure active principles of 
drugs can no longer be the ultimate purpose of pharmacy. It is 
more proper to expect that in the future pharmaceutical science will 
direct its work toward production of chemically unchanged colloidal 



1 Pharm. Jour. (London), 83, 420, October, 1909. 
2 Am. Jour. Pharm., 81, 125, March, 1909. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February. 1910. 



} Pharmacognosy and the U.S. P. 55 



drug preparations which will have the total action of the respective 
drug." 

At any rate, we have not advanced to that point where we know 
or can isolate the active constituents in all cases, or where we are 
willing to say in those cases where certain active constituents have 
been isolated that they represent the full medicinal value of the 
drug and could replace the preparations. Hence it cannot be gain- 
said that there is an urgent demand for accurate and adequate, if 
not full, pharmacognostic descriptions in the Pharmacopoeia. With 
the introduction of standards for crude drugs which not only fix 
the percentage of certain active constituents but which assure their 
quality in other ways, preparations can be made by the pharmacist 
on which the physician can rely for their therapeutic efficiency. 

It is not too much to claim that with every drug it is possible 
to indicate by adequate descriptions and if necessary by other tests 
than assays a standard quality which will insure uniformity, stability, 
and efficiency of the preparations into which the drug enters. If 
there is any class of articles included in the Pharmacopoeia which 
requires a purity rubric it is the vegetable drugs, as they vary in 
medicinal activity from practically zero up to 99 per cent., the 
official drugs being in some instances entirely substituted by other 
drugs, or they are of varying degree of quality because of their 
age, or the conditions under which they have been kept, or because 
of the presence of a large excess of other parts of the plant than 
that designated as the. drug, or because of foreign impurities. It 
would seem to be unnecessary to refer to this subject, as the prin- 
ciple is one so self-evident and fundamental to the observing phar- 
macist, as well as critical practitioner, who is studying the effects 
of drugs and their preparations on his patients. The manufacturers 
of specialties understand this, as do also some of the large manu- 
facturing houses, and this is no doubt one of the reasons why their 
preparations are specified and will continue to be used by those 
physicians who are not trusting to luck or chance. 

FOREIGN PHARMACOPOEIAS. 

The importance of adequate pharmacognostic descriptions and 
tests appears to be recognized by the compilers of all the more 
recent foreign pharmacopoeias that have come to my notice. The 
question with the revisers of these books seems to be not a matter 
of considering the pharmacist's ability or inability to apply the 



Pharmacognosy and the U.S.P. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1910. 



required tests and use the knowledge given, but primarily to include 
such descriptions and tests as will insure the quality and genuineness 
of the articles both under vegetable drugs and medicinal chemicals. 
One does not go very far in the examination of these books without 
getting the idea that the pharmacist is expected to have the neces- 
sary books of reference, the apparatus, and the training which will 
enable him to use the pharmacopoeia in determining the character 
of the products therein given. While some of these pharmacopoeias 
do not include tests requiring special expensive pieces of apparatus 
as is required in our own Pharmacopoeia, as in the tests involving 
the use of the polariscope, they all require the use of the microscope. 
In other words, the foreign pharmacopoeias are more balanced in 
their treatment of the various subjects, and we would not be likely 
to hear the comment on a foreign pharmacopoeia, as we have regard- 
ing our own standard, that it is a-" chemist's book." 

The treatment of vegetable drugs in the foreign pharmacopoeias 
may be quite complete, as in the Netherlands Pharmacopoeia, where 
a page or more is frequently given to each drug. Or it may be what 
would be termed adequate, the intention being that the user shall 
be familiar with the structure of the typical drug either from the 
study of the drug itself or the books of reference, as in the Swiss 
Pharmacopoeia, the French Codex, the Pharmacopoeia of Japan, and 
others. Besides, in a number of foreign pharmacopoeias various 
constants are given, including percentage of ash, percentage of 
extractive, as also various special tests, some of these being micro- 
chemical. Generally speaking, the treatment of the microscopic 
structure is an essential feature of the descriptions, and may be of 
the crude drug alone, or more especially of the powdered or ground 
drug, or of both. In some of these pharmacopoeias powdered drugs 
are not recognized or only occasionally referred to, probably from a 
recognition of the difficulty of identifying and determining the per- 
centage of impurity or admixture, and also perhaps in view of the 
fact that very many drugs deteriorate or lose certain desirable prop- 
erties when in the comminuted condition. As one goes through these 
pharmacopoeias he is impressed by the fact that there are standards 
for vegetable drugs as there are for medicinal chemicals and the 
adequate descriptions and special tests correspond to the identity 
tests given for chemicals, and the revisers have availed themselves 
of the scientific progress that has been made in all lines touching 
their own work. 



^™y P i9?o m -} Pharmacognosy and the US.P. 57 

PHARMACOGNOSY AND COMMERCIAL DRUGS. 

It appears to me to be unfortunate that the Committee on Drug 
Market of the A. Ph. A., representing as it does an association com- 
posed of the leaders in education and the scientific workers in 
pharmacy in this country, should have presented at the last annual 
meeting a report which tends to throw discredit upon practical or 
applied pharmacognosy in this country. This is the more to be 
deplored because of the fact that the Committee on Drug Market of 
the National Wholesale Druggists' Association incorporated the 
findings of the A. Ph. A. committee in its report presented at the 
Richmond meeting and also because the report has been commented 
upon and considered to represent an actual condition. The N. W. 
D. A. Committee cannot of course be blamed for accepting the 
findings of a committee of our leading scientific association. While 
I do not know who the experts were to whom specimens were sub- 
mitted by the A. Ph. A. committee, I may say that I have in mind a 
recent graduate of a college of pharmacy who was able to take a 
drug like the one reported on by the A. Ph. A. committee and quan- 
titatively separate the component drugs of the mixture. I do not 
mean to imply that this is a piece of ofif-hand work, but that it 
requires a certain amount of knowledge, training, and some pa- 
tience ; but on the other hand I do want to state that any one claim- 
ing to be trained in applied pharmacognosy should be able readily 
to make a differentiation of the component drugs of such a mixture 
as is referred to in the report of the committee of the A. Ph. A., 
and, furthermore, that the condition of the drug market creates the 
necessity for work of this kind. As a matter of fact, questions of 
this kind arise daily in the drug market, and it behooves us to 
frame the Pharmacopoeia in such a manner as to make it a valuable 
aid and guide in this practical and all-important work, and warrants 
us in looking to the colleges of pharmacy to train their students in 
such a manner as to enable them to be useful in this particular field. 

Such a report as that of the A. Ph. A. committee tends to hinder 
progress in that it leads importers and dealers to think that there 
is no way out of their difficulties, and, what is still more deplorable, 
leads those who engage in fraudulent practices to feel that there 
are probabilities that their practices will not be detected. Again, 
such reports tend to minimize the importance of the question in the 
eyes of dealers, and finally to cause delays in the progress of the 
sciences of both pharmacy and medicine. 



5 8 



Pharmacognosy and the US.P. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1910. 



However, we have a responsibility in these matters which we 
cannot evade, and the dealers in drugs look to us to study the con- 
ditions and the materials, and to furnish descriptions and tests for 
determining identity and establishing standards of quality which 
will be of practical assistance and which they can rely upon with 
as much certainty as their tests and standards for chemicals. There 
appears to me to be no reason why the whole subject of the purchase 
and sale of vegetable drugs should not at least be on as satisfactory 
a basis as that of spices. I have sufficient faith to believe that when 
the standards and tests for vegetable drugs are developed as they 
should be, or adopted even as we know them to-day, there will be 
no more quibbling about the difficulties of obtaining vegetable drugs 
of satisfactory quality than there is about medicinal chemical-s at 
the present time, and that the dealers will be glad for the adoption 
of such standards. With the establishment of fair standards it will 
be possible for importers and wholesale dealers to insist that the 
garbling of drugs and the removal of extraneous matter shall be 
carried on by the collectors and distributors before thev enter com- 
merce. Such a procedure would be wholly in accordance with the 
modern way of handling problems of this kind. Why shall 40.000 
druegists be worried about gross adulterations and admixtures 
when these can for the most part be detected at the point where 
the drugs enter commerce and where such pressure can be broup-ht 
to bear upon the collectors abroad as well as in this countrv as will 
cause them to remedv deficiencies in their knowledge of the drues 
or plants from which they are derived and prevent continued care- 
lessness in their collection. T am satisfied that the lack of uniformity 
in the prenarations of vegetable drugs at the present time, as shown 
both bv chemical and pharmacological assav, is due to vanous fetors 
not connected with plant growth, rather than to inherent variation 
in the drnp-s themselves, which usually only vary within certain 
narrow limits. 

U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA IX. 

It has been pointed out that in the commerce of drues practical 
problems are continuallv arising, and hence the PharmacoDceia 
should contain such information as will help in the solution of these 
problems. That part of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia devoted to phar- 
macoenosv has not had a thorough revision since at least 1890, 
and with the progress that has been made in applied pharmacognosy 



A ^b™ y , P i h 9io m '} Pharmacognosy and the US. P. 59 

in that time, the necessity arises for a vast amount of work in bring- 
ing this part up to date and in making it a guide and standard for 
practical purposes. 

In a previous paper 3 I pointed out some of the difficulties con- 
nected with revision work, particularly in this department. Soon 
after the Subcommittee on Pharmacognosy of the last revision 
began its work it became evident that it was not a question of 
developing the special work in hand or improving the Pharmaco- 
poeia, as it was of conducting a campaign of education showing the 
necessity for and importance of the work. While it remains to be 
seen what has been accomplished by this campaign of education, 
there can be no question as to what is required in the inspection 
and selection of drugs. 

In order that the U. S. Pharmacopoeia IX may not onlv be 
abreast of the times but also be a valuable guide and handbook, 
and at the same time a credit to the revisers as well as a source of 
pride to the physicians and pharmacists of this country, it is impor- 
tant in the first place that the Pharmacopceial Convention abstain 
from passing anv resolutions which would tend to bind the hands 
of the Subcommittee on Pharmacognosy and prevent them from 
doinsr their best work. Tentative recommendations might be made 
by the Convention and referred to the subcommittee for their con- 
sideration and final decision, and these should be welcomed. 

This leads me to sav that the work of a subcommittee mav'not 
onlv be handicapped by binding resolutions adopted by the Conven- 
tion but also by the giving of instructions bv the Committee of 
Revision which tend to hinder the work. Here it mav be pointed out 
that the Committee of Revision as a whole does not appear to me 
to be so constituted as to be anv more capable of making binding 
recommendations on special subjects than the Convention itself. 
Therefore it is to be hoped that in the work of the next revision 
the subcommittees will be free to carrv on the work to the best of 
their knowledee, experience, and ability, and for which thev will 
be held responsible. In mv previous paper, to which reference has 
alreadv been made, I have discussed this matter at some length, and 
it will not be necessarv to go into it further at this time. But after 
all, as I have elsewhere 4 stated, " it is not so much a matter of 



3 Am. Jour. Pharm., 8o, 8i, February, 1908. 

4 Am. Dr., 55, 378, 1909. 



6o 



Pharmacognosy and the U.S.P. 



f Am. Jour. Phann 
\ February, 1910. 



method as it is of selecting men to carry on the work of revision 
who comprehend the scope and intent of a pharmacopoeia/' for even 
with the most perfect system there is yet a possibility that the best 
will not be attained. 

In view of the large amount of work which the Subcommittee on 
Pharmacognosy will have to do in the next revision this committee 
should be increased and empowered to employ assistance for carry- 
ing on certain detail work. Of the subjects to which special con- 
sideration should be given, the following may be mentioned : the 
definitions both in relation to commercial varieties and botanic 
species, with the object of making them more exact and at the same 
time more easily understood ; the microscopic structure of the drugs, 
with the view of aiding identification ; special tests and standards 
for assisting in the determination of quality ; and finally the question 
of the inclusion of powdered drugs with adequate descriptions and 
tests. In order to carry on this work in a thorough manner it is 
desirable that the Subcommittee on Pharmacognosy be closely allied 
with the Bureau of Plant Industry and the Botanical Society of 
America. Again, it is desirable that this committee be in close touch 
with the large crude drug dealers and importers, for they could 
undoubtedly supply much information that cannot be gotten in any 
other way and would be in a position to procure material for the 
use of the committee. Furthermore, the Subcommittee on Assays 
should co-operate very closely with the Subcommittee on Pharma- 
cognosy, and the latter should not only furnish the drugs to be 
assayed but provide, where possible, microscopical or other suitable 
tests for the identity of the proximate principles obtained in the 
assays. 

But already I hear objections to the development of this work 
along modern lines. The first is that if there is an increase in the 
number of vegetable drugs or an extension of the space devoted to 
their consideration, the Pharmacopoeia will be less popular with 
physicians. To this I merely wish to reply that I have reason to 
believe that the work will be more popular with physicians in that 
they will be assured of greater uniformity and efficiency in the 
official preparations. 

The other objection that will be brought forward is that the 
pharmacist will not be able to apply the information given. While 
this may be true to a certain extent, it is not an objection which 
should be allowed to hinder progress, and it is one which is met in 



A Febma^, P i9" m '} Principles of Pharmacopoeia Revision. 61 



part abroad by the colleges of pharmacy providing special courses 
of instruction for pharmacists following each revision of the Phar- 
macopoeia. But if the colleges do their part it is only a question of 
time when this objection can be eliminated entirely.' 



CONCLUSIONS. 

In this paper I have attempted to show that pharmacognosy is 
a science of fundamental importance to the pharmacist, and that the 
results of the studies in pharmacognosy are of the greatest value 
to the physician in assuring him uniform and efficient medicines. 

I have called attention to the fact that the foreign pharmacopoeias 
give more uniform consideration to the various subjects and are 
as strong- in their treatment of pharmacognosy as is that of chemistry 
and pharmacy. 

It was pointed out that the pharmacognosy of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia has not been thoroughly revised for a decade or more, 
and that the existing needs demand that it shall be completely mod- 
ernized. Some of the features that should be considered have been 
enumerated. The work before the next Subcommittee on Pharma- 
cognosy will be an extensive one, and a wide co-operation is 
desirable. 

Finally, it may be again pointed out that the colleges and schools 
of pharmacy have a certain share and responsibility in this work. 
Therefore their courses should in part be based upon the Pharma- 
copoeia and should be such as to forestall the assertion that pharma- 
cists will not be able to use the Pharmacopoeia when improved to 
the extent that existing conditions demand and by virtue of which 
it should alone exist. 



THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOPOEIA 
REVISION. 

By H. H. Rusby, M.D. 

A careful reading- of the papers by Messrs. Wilbert and Reming- 
ton in the December number of the American Journal of Phar- 
macy prompts a few words of comment concerning the basic prin- 
ciples on which revision should proceed. 

Mr. Wilbert's able handling of those principles which he has 
considered cannot be criticized, though Prof. Remington has 



62 Principles of Pharmacopoeia Revision. {^'J^^xiS^' 

pointed out in good time some serious misstatements of fact. Mr. 
Wilbert's serious error has been his complete omission of reference 
to other principles of far more importance than those which he has 
considered. It is of great importance, as he has pointed out, 
that physicians' views as to articles which they desire to have recog- 
nized in the Pharmacopoeia should receive the closest attention, and 
should be met as far as possible, but it is of equal importance, that 
the pharmacists should have standards of identity and purity for 
the articles which they are compelled to supply, on demand, without 
any regard to the views of physicians as to whether that demand is 
judicious. It is of even greater importance that the administrators 
of Federal and State laws should have standards for the identity 
and purity of drugs and medicines commonly imported and used, 
without any regard whatever to the views of physicians as to the 
therapeutical merits of those articles. The physicians' duty is to 
educate the members of their profession as to the proper articles 
to employ. They have innumerable text-books for this purpose, and' 
they, and not the Pharmacopoeia, constitute the medium that should 
be employed in that educational work. The Pharmacopoeia is in 
no sense a text-book. If physicians have neglected their duty, or 
failed in its performance, they should correct themselves. Mr. 
Wilbert calls for a book that will " command the respect and 
admiration of physicians." They now have more such books than 
they can use, but the Pharmacopoeia was never designed as an 
object of admiration, however well it might be if it could be 
admired. It is a working standard, and it should go wherever there 
is work to do. Moreover, it is a legal instrument and that alone 
debars it from being made the subject of class legislation. Finally, 
after all has been said as to what it should be, it may be pointed out 
that its own fate depends upon its meeting the requirements above 
referred to. If it should be converted by the committee into a text- 
book for the sole use of physicians, and only of those of a certain 
class, it will be at once relegated to that position, will cease to be 
an official work, and will be superseded by one constructed on the 
only plan that can fit it for the work for which a national Pharma- 
copoeia is intended, and for the use of other classes who far out- 
number the physicians. 



Am jour. Pharm. i The Purity Rubric and US.P. Tests. 63 

February, 1910. ) J 

THE PURITY RUBRIC AND THE U.S.P. TESTS.* 

With Notes on Quantitative Methods for Certain Pharmacopoeial 

Compounds. 

By Atherton Seidell and M. I. Wilbert. 

Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health 
and Marine-Hospital Service, Washington, D. C. 

As has been repeatedly pointed out, the Federal and States Pure 
Food and Drug laws have given to the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States an entirely different standing from that occupied by it at the 
time that the present official revision was authorized by the Phar- 
macopoeial Convention, which met in May, 1900, and it is also well 
known that the Pharmacopoeial Convention which is to be held in 
the City of Washington in May, 1910, will meet, as a legally char- 
tered organization, under entirely different conditions from those 
prevailing at any one of the previous nine conventions. The respon- 
sibilities assumed by the delegates attending this convention are 
therefore such that they and all others who are in any way interested 
in the scope and content of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States 
should thoroughly inform themselves beforehand on the general 
principles that will come up for discussion. 

From the point of view of the chemist, no one feature of the 
prospective revision of the Pharmacopoeia is of greater importance 
than the establishment of reasonable standards of strength and 
purity, and the co-relating of the several tests and assays with the 
requirements under what has become known as the purity rubric. 

Our Chairman, in his recent circular letter, calls renewed atten- 
tion to the fact that, " in many cases the Pharmacopoeia requires 
that its products shall be of a definite strength or purity without 
supplying the method to secure such results." 

It is also well known that while many of the chemical tests in 
the U.S.P. are described in detail, others are but briefly outlined, 
and in connection with some the language used is ambiguous even to 
the trained chemist and certainly meaningless or misleading to those 
of limited experience. 

Many, if not all of you, will agree with the dictum that if the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States is to serve, as it really should, 

* Read at the Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry of the American 
Chemical Society, December, 1909. 



64 The Purity Rubric and US.P. Tests. {^S^uST' 

as the standard for purity and strength of the medicines enumerated 
in its pages, the requirements should be attainable and the tests 
necessary to establish the identity, strength, and purity of these 
medicinal substances should be such as can be followed by all of 
the directly responsible persons engaged in the medicine supply 
business. 

In other words, given a reasonable standard for a substance, the 
identity, purity, and activity of this compound should be controlled 
and guaranteed by each person handling it. It follows, therefore, 
that the passage from the producer to the consumer should be safe- 
guarded from cupidity and ignorance in such a way that at no point 
will there be opportunity for deterioration or sophistication without 
at least a fair chance of the shortcomings being detected before 
the medicine reaches the consumer. 

A prescribed purity rubric which is not accompanied by a clearly 
described analytical method gives an opportunity for differences in 
the results which may be obtained by even the most careful analysis 
working with different methods. As a general principle it would, 
therefore, appear that in so far as it is possible quantitative analytical 
methods be selected for all substances of the Pharmacopoeia for 
which a purity rubric is given. Furthermore, it is desirable that, 
other things being equal, the method applicable to the largest 
number of compounds containing a given constituent should be 
selected. Such general methods could then be described at some 
length in the Appendix, and simply referred to under the description 
of the compound, in much the same way as the now official titri- 
metric processes are referred to in the U.S. P. 

As a practical demonstration of the possibility of elaborating 
such efficient yet simple quantitative methods, the following labora- 
tory notes on some of the Pharmacopceial compounds examined in 
the Division of Pharmacology of the Hygienic Laboratory during 
the past year are herewith presented. 

Red Mercuric Iodide. — The Pharmacopceial purity rubric for 
this salt requires that it contain not less than 98.5 per cent, of pure 
mercuric iodide. Tests for the identity and for the presence of 
certain impurities are given by the Pharmacopoeia but no quanti- 
tative method by which the required purity may be determined. 
There are a number of processes which probably could be adapted 
to the present purpose, but the one which has been found most 
satisfactory is as follows : 

A weighed quantity of the sample (about 1.0 Gm.) is mixed 



Am. jour. Pharm.) jlie p ur ity Rubric and US.P. Tests. 

February, 1910. j J 



65 



with about 50 c.c. of H 2 0, 5 Gms. KOH, and 10 to 20 c.c. of 3 
per cent, solution of. hydrogen dioxide; the solution warmed gently 
until the decomposition of the mercuric iodide is complete. 1 The 
gray mercury residue is filtered on a weighed porcelain Gooch 
crucible, washed with cold H 2 0, dried at about 6o° and weighed. 
Hg X 2.2692 = Hgl 2 . For the iodide, the filtrate from the mercury 
is evaporated to about 50 c.c, cooled and filtered into a glass 
stoppered bottle; about twice its volume of concentrated HC1 and 
10 c.c. of chloroform are added. The mixture is then titrated to 
disappearance of the pink color of the chloroform wth 0.1 N KIO s 
solution. 2 The potassium iodate solution may be conveniently 
standardized against pure potassium iodide. Duplicate determina- 
tions upon a sample of red mercuric iodide gave the following 
results : 

Wt. of Gooch Crucible Calc. % C.c. o.i N Calc. % 

Sample ist. 2nd. Gm. Hg. Hgl 2 . KIO3 Sol. Hgl 2 . 

[a] i.oGm. 8.1786 8.6152 0.4366 09.1 43.7 99-2 

[b] I.oGm. 7.1758 7.6143 0.4385 99.5 437 99-2 

The process as here outlined is rapid enough for all ordinary 
purposes. Only one weighed portion of the sample is required for 
the determination of both constituents, and the method will no 
doubt yield concordant results in the hands of different analysts. 

Potassium Iodide. — The quantitative method given by the Phar- 
macopoeia for this salt is the usual argentometric titration which, of 
course, does not differentiate between the several halogens. The 
titration with standard potassium iodate as outlined above offers 
certain advantages over the use of silver nitrate, which more detailed 
experiments will no doubt demonstrate. It is to be noted in con- 
nection with the iodate titration that the end point of the reaction 
is to be taken at the disappearance of the pink color of the chloro- 
form indicator without reference to the pale yellow color of the 
aqueous layer which persists. 

Tincture of Iodine. — The titration of a 5 c.c. portion of tincture 
of iodine as prescribed by the Pharmacopoeia gives rise to somewhat 
variable results due to inaccuracies in correctly measuring this 
relatively small volume of the sample. The quantity of iodine 
calculated from several duplicate titrations may vary by as much 
as 0.3 Gm. The use of aliquot portions of the sample after dilution 

1 M. Kohn, Z. anorg. chem., 59, 108-10; Chem. Abstracts, 2, 2911. 
2 L. W. Andrews, /. Am. Chem. Soc, 25, 756, 1903. 



66 



The Purity Rubric and US.P. Tests. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1910. 



would, of course, obviate this difficulty. Although no determination 
of the potassium iodide in tincture of iodine is prescribed by the 
Pharmacopoeia, a definite amount of this ingredient is specified by 
the formula. It therefore appears that a quantitative test for 
potassium iodide might well be included. A satisfactory method 
for this determination is as follows : 25 c.c. of the sample are 
evaporated to dryness in a dish and the free iodine removed by 
volatilization. The residue after being heated to dull redness is 
dissolved in water, the solution filtered and diluted to 100 c.c. ; 
25 c.c. of the latter are then placed in a glass stoppered bottle with 
50 c.c. of cone. HC1 and 10 c.c. of chloroform and titrated to dis- 
appearance of pink color of the chloroform with 0.1 N KI0 3 solu- 
tion. Several determinations upon two samples of tincture of iodine 
gave the following results : 



No. used empty and. residue .Residue residue Gm. KI tinctures 



234 25 31.8809 33.I l60 I.2351 18.6 = 0.3089 4.94 
229 25 31.8915 32.9640 I.0725 16.0 = 0.2656 4.25 
229 25 3I-8855 32.9747 I.0892 16.3=0.2706 4.32 

The preceding results indicate that this iodate titration method 
can probably be applied with success to many of the iodine com- 
pounds of the Pharmacopoeia for which quantitative methods are 
at present not given. It may also be expected that the determination 
of mercury in many of its salts can be satisfactorily accomplished 
by a modification for the method described above for red mercuric 
iodide. 

Lead Acetate. — The purity rubric of the U.S. P. requires that 
this product should contain not less than 99.5 per cent, of 
Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 + 3H 2 0, since, however, no quantitative method is 
prescribed by which this limit of purity may be determined, the fol- 
lowing plan was applied to two samples of the salt with satisfactory 
results : A weighed sample was dissolved in about 50 c.c. of water 
and a slight excess of dilute H 2 S0 4 added. The precipitated lead 
sulphate was filtered on a weighed Gooch crucible, heated gently 
over a Bunsen flame, cooled, and weighed. The results were as 
follows : 



Wt. of Platinum Dish 



C.C.0.1KIO3 
for y± 



Gm. KI 
per 100 c.c. 



Sample C.c. 



Wt. of Gooch crucible 



Sample Gms. 

No. used 

207 0.5 

226 0.5 



7-1533 
8.3308 



Alone 



+PbS0 4 
7.5706 
8.7368 



Wt. of Calc. % 

PbS0 4 Pb(CH 3 COO)o+3HoO 



O.4173 IO4.3 

0.4060 10 1. 6 



treb?Sy, P i h 9 a i r o m "} The Purity Rubric and US. P. Tests. 67 

Both of the above samples and indeed a number of others failed 
to give a clear or only, slightly opalescent solution when dissolved 
(1 in 10) in recently boiled water. It is therefore questionable 
whether this test for limit of carbonate is a satisfactory criterion 
for judging the quality of lead acetate samples. The gravimetric 
determination as above outlined shows conclusively that the samples 
have either lost water of crystallization or, as is more probable, are 
contaminated with the basic salt. 

Acetanilide. — A rapid procedure for the quantitative analysis of 
this compound is the bromate titration method proposed by one of 
us in 1907. 3 A standard bromate solution which may be the Kop- 
peschaar's solution of the Pharmacopceia is required. The weighed 
sample of acetanilide is dissolved in about 50 c.c. of a mixture of 
one part concentrated HQ and 2-3 parts water, the solution boiled 
for five minutes and titrated to the appearance of pale-yellow color 
with standard bromate solution, 1 c.c. 0.2 N bromate solution being 
equivalent to 0.004504 Gm. acetanilide. The following results were 
recently obtained upon a sample of acetanilide, m. pt. Ii2°-ii3° : 



Weighing Bottle and Sample Am't used C c. 0.2 N 

, " v for KBrOs sol. Calc. % 

1st. Wt. 2nd. Wt. Sample titration required acetanilide 

14.0581 13.6807 0.3774 all 84.2 100.5 

13.6807 13.I282 O.5525 y 2 6l.5 I0O.2 

13.1282 12.5965 0.5317 y A 29.7 100.7 



Ammonium Benzoate and other Ammonium Salts. — As has been 
shown in another paper 4 (Seidell and Menge), a simplified distilla- 
tion method is well adapted to the analysis of ammonium benzoate 
samples, and the formaldehyde titration method of Schiff and other 
investigators is applicable to practically all other ammonium salts 
for which the Pharmacopceia gives a purity rubric but no quantita- 
tive method of analysis. 

As an illustration of Pharmacopceial tests that appear to require 
some additional elaboration it will suffice to call attention to the 
following : 

Sodium Benzoate. — The quantitative test for this salt as pre- 
scribed by the Pharmacopceia requires that the sample be ignited 
at red heat and the aqueous solution of the residue be titrated with 

3 Seidell, /. Am. Chem. Soc, 29, 1091, 1907. 

4 This Journal, 82, 12. 



68 The Purity Rubric and US.P. Tests. {^^SBT" 

0.5 N HQ, using methyl orange as indicator. The experience in 
this laboratory has shown that even in spite of the greatest care 
the unburned carbon left after the extraction of the incinerated 
residue retains an appreciable amount of alkali, and therefore in 
order to obtain satisfactory results it is necessary to make a second 
ignition of this unburned and extracted carbon, and add the solution 
of the second residue to that of the first, before making the titration 
for the total alkali. The modified procedure may be conveniently 
carried out as follows : 

The weighed sample is ignited thoroughly in a platinum dish, 
the residue extracted with hot water, and the solution filtered 
through an ashless filter, the unburned carbon washed several times, 
and then returned together with the filter paper to the platinum dish 
and ignited. The second residue is dissolved in water and added 
to the filtered extract of the first residue and the solution titrated 
with 0.5 N HC1. The following typical results indicate the necessity 
of the above modification : 

C.c. 0.5 N HCl required. Calculated C 6 H 5 COOXa. 



Sample 


Wt. used 










No. 


Gm. 


1st Extract. 


2d Extract. 


U. S. P. 


Modified. 


232 


1.0 


13-15 


0-35 


94-7 


974 


232 


I.O 


12.7 


O.85 


91-5 


97.6 


232 


I.O 


12.9 


0-5 


92.9 


96.5 


232 


I.O 


12.6 


0.8 


90.7 


96.5 



A number of samples of sodium benzoate from several sources 
have been examined by the above modified method, but none con- 
tained the 99 per cent, pure sodium benzoate required by the purity 
rubric of the Pharmacopoeia. It must be mentioned that the experi- 
mental error in the determination could be reduced considerably by 
either the use of a larger sample or of a more dilute standard acid. 
With the present quantities, an error of 0.1 c.c. of the standard 
acid corresponds to about 1.0 per cent, of the salt. 

As indicated above, we believe that the foregoing notes serve to 
illustrate the possibility of adapting more or less well-known quan- 
titative methods of analysis to the examination of Pharmacopceial 
compounds. Such simple and accurate quantitative methods 
together with qualitative tests for impurities of a serious character 
will give a ready means for controlling the purity rubric of the 
Pharmacopoeia, and raise this requirement to the degree of impor- 
tance that it deserves. 



Am. Jour. Pharin. \ 

February, 1910. J 



Peroxide of Hydrogen. 



69 



PEROXIDE OF HYDROGEX. 
By A. R. L. Dohme, Ph.D., and H. Exgelhardt, Ph.D. 

Some months ago an article by Dr. Francis appeared dealing 
with the preserving of solutions of peroxide of hydrogen by the 
addition of a comparatively small amount of acetanilide. As nearly 
as the writers remember, it was stated there that the solutions kept 
well for more than a year, and that a deterioration did not take 
place after eleven months, as stated by Professor Coblentz. We 
have had opportunity frequently to examine samples. of peroxide of 
hydrogen preserved with acetanilide from different manufacturers, 
and in most cases we found that the preparation smelled strongly 
of nitrobenzene, showing- that a decomposition had taken place. 
Unfortunately we were not able to learn the age of the preparations. 
If such a decomposition of the preserving agent takes place, the 
value of the addition of such material should be seriously questioned. 
A process of W. Heinrici which is covered by the American Patent 
825 883 to preserve peroxide of hydrogen solutions depends on the 
addition of amino derivatives. Acetanilide, which belongs to this 
class of compounds, is used in this country only, while in Europe 
the preserving of peroxide of hydrogen is effected by other 
chemicals. 

Among the preservatives used, the following may be named : 
Renault and Lepinois recommend the addition of boric acid. Allain 
recommends the addition of about I per cent, of sodium chloride, 
magnesium chloride, or calcium chloride. According to L. Martin, 
an addition of 0.5 per cent, of borax preserves the peroxide of hydro- 
gen satisfactorily, rendering it at the same time slightly acid without 
decreasing the titre of the preparation. From many sides, the addi- 
tion of an excess of acid has been recommended, since this addition 
both preserves the peroxide of hydrogen solution and neutralizes the 
alkalinity of the glass. The fact that acid exerts a good preserving 
power on the peroxide of hydrogen seems to be acknowledged by 
most of the manufacturers, because we found recently that samples 
of nearly all the leading makes of peroxide solution prepared in this 
country (about six in all) of which some had been preserved by 
the addition of acetanilide, showed on examination an acidity 
exceeding that allowed by the U.S. P. If in future the use of 
acetanilide for preserving peroxide solutions should be prohibited, 
as it should in our opinion, we strongly recommend the use of an 



70 



Peroxide of Hydrogen. 



t Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1910. 



excess of either sulphuric acid or phosphoric acid, inasmuch as these 
two acids are not liable to be acted upon by the peroxide. The use 
of hydrochloric acid or chlorides might lead to the formation of 
decomposition products which might render the peroxide injurious. 
The amount of the excess of free acid should in our opinion also 
be increased above what the U.S. P. now allows, say about double 
the present amount, as the present official amount is soon reduced 
sufficiently by the alkalinity of glass containers and the shaking- 
experienced in transit to distant sections to bring it below the safety 
point, resulting in decomposition and blown corks very frequently. 
No make that we examined only a few weeks ago contained as little 
acid as the U.S. P. allows; all of them contained more and the most 
of them considerably more, though of course in no instance enough 
to interfere with the usefulness of the product or to cause any irrita- 
tion when used in wounds or any other, sensitive surfaces. If free 
acid in sufficient quantity will fully preserve peroxide of hydrogen 
and at the same time in no wise interfere with its usefulness as a 
remedial or prophylactic agent, surely this is the simplest way to 
preserve it — but this will of course have to be shown and proven 
by experiments. In our opinion the value and desirability of acetani- 
lide as a preservative for peroxide solutions is open to question. 

In No. 45 of the Schweiz. Wochsch. faer Chem. and Pharm., an 
article by Fleissig appears, in which it is stated that out of eight 
samples of peroxide of hydrogen purchased from various German 
and Swiss manufacturers, only two showed an acidity below that 
allowed by the Swiss Pharmacopoeia, which allows the same acidity 
as the U.S. P. ; the other six having an acidity about three and four 
times higher than permitted. The author believes that the official 
amount of acid (0.036 per cent.) is entirely too small, and that an 
addition of 1 to 3 per cent, of acid should be allowed. This per- 
centage, however, we consider entirely too high, inasmuch as perox- 
ide of hydrogen'is frequently used for sterilizing surgical instruments 
and such a high acidity might corrode these. 

Fleissig further gives an interesting account about the stability 
of the above peroxide of hydrogen solutions. He found that after 
two months' standing'the strength of two was reduced to two-thirds 
of their original peroxide strength, of four to about one-half, and 
of two to less than one-quarter when kept in flint glass bottles. 
When kept in amber bottles, he found that after standing for eight 
months the strength of three was reduced to two-thirds, of one to 
about one-third of its original peroxide strength, while four hardly 



A Febmaryfi b 9io m j Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 71 

showed the presence of peroxide of hydrogen. Unfortunately the 
author only gives a few results about the same preparation when 
kept in flint glass bottles for a longer period, but from what can 
be learned from his data the deterioration of the peroxide of hydro- 
gen solution is usually much greater when kept in flint glass bottles 
than when kept in amber colored containers. It may be stated at 
the same time that those preparations, in which the percentage of 
absolute peroxide of hydrogen was reduced to two-thirds of their 
original peroxide strength only, possessed a rather high acidity. 
This indicates that higher acidity tends to preserve the peroxide 
strength of peroxide of hydrogen solutions. 

Since writing the above, a paper by Prof. Coblentz on this subject 
has been presented to the Revision Committee in which he shows that 
acetanilide is not necessary for preserving peroxide solutions, but 
also holds out against increasing the acidity because of its interfering 
with the usefulness of the solution in surgical work, and because 
manufacturers should use less alkaline glass. We agree with him 
on the acetanilide proposition, but we think he is wrong on the other 
two, for even if the amount of acid allowed by the present U.S. P. 
is doubled as we suggest, it will not affect the most sensitive mucous 
surface in the human body. And as to glassware, we have seen that 
both flint and amber glass possess ample alkalinity to soon neutralize 
the small amount of free acid allowed by the 8th Revision require- 
ments, and when one considers the increased contact with the glass 
affected by the shaking during transportation, and this must be 
considered by the Revision Committee, the neutralization of the free 
acid is greatly augmented as compared with the condition presented 
by mere standing contact in a laboratory. 



PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE TWITCHELL PROC- 
ESS OF FAT DECOMPOSITION AND RECOVERY 
OF GLYCERIN. 

By W. J. Warner. 

The intention of this article is to state the advantages of the 
process as applied to refining of glycerin and its advantages and 
applicability to soap making, as well as a description of the process 
as " worked " on a commercial basis in a plant handling 50,000 lbs. 
of fat per day. 

The Twitchell process has superseded all others 'in the candle 



72 Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. { ^b^im™' 

trade, and is being more extensively used by the soap manufacturers 
who have recognized the advantages of the process for the recovery 
of glycerin, in that 95 per cent, of all the glycerin in the fat can 
be obtained as CP. This will give yields from : good tallow, 
9 to 10 per cent, absolute glycerin ; cocoanut oil, 12 to 13 per cent, 
absolute glycerin ; cotton oil, 10 per cent, absolute glycerin approx. ; 
grease and poor tallow, 6 to 8 per cent, absolute glycerin. 

The sweet water to be evaporated contains 15 per cent, glycerin 
instead of from 2 to 4 per cent, as in spent lye, and therefore about 
25 per cent, as much water has to be evaporated to make crude 
glycerin as with soap lye. As an illustration : 

The glycerin refiner is supposed to obtain 9 per cent, of absolute 
glycerin by weight ; of the total amount of tallow saponified, actually 
about yy 2 per cent, is obtained ; as the tallow contained approxi- 
mately 10 per cent, of glycerin the loss is considerable. Instead of 
having to handle 200,000 lbs. of spent lye containing 3.75 to 4.25 
per cent, of glycerin, by the Twitchell process of first deglycerizing 
the fats there would be approximately 60,000 lbs. of sweet water 
containing 15 per cent, of glycerin. Besides having to handle such 
a large quantity, the spent lye contains salt, alkali, and fats, which 
are troublesome to remove ; the Twitchell sweet water only has to 
be neutralized with lime before concentrating, consequently there 
is a reduction in loss of glycerin to almost nothing and a product 
of crude glycerin containing 90 per cent, of absolute glycerin 
against 80 from soap lye, which means a less expense in the refinery. 
The Twitchell crude is of better quality, containing but a few tenths 
of one per cent, of ash and CP. can be made in one distillation, 
while it often requires three distillations from soap lye crude, so 
that a still will handle about 30 per cent, more per hour of the 
Twitchell crude and produce less glycerin foots. 

The fatty acid obtained can be saponified with soda ash instead 
of caustic, which means a net saving of 12 cents per hundred 
pounds of fat saponified, and finally the fatty acid is of much better 
odor than the original stock. 

In some cases it is of more importance to obtain good color 
fatty acid than high yield of glycerin, and for working convenience 
the stock is divided into three classes : 

First. No. 1 tallow, mutton tallow, yellow or white cotton oil, 
cocoanut and palm kernel oil, white grease, olive oil, corn oil, lard, 
and good stearin. The color and odor are of prime importance. 

Second. No. 1 and No. 2 tallow and " off " cotton oil, all the 



A FJb™a? y , P i h 9S m 'i Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 73 



glycerin possible is obtained consistent with good color. Neither 
the first nor second class of goods goes to the distillation plant. 

Third. Very 41 off " cotton oil, house grease, olive oil foots, and 
cotton-seed foots go to the distillation plant and are " robbed " of 
all the glycerin, as color, in the Twitchell plant, is of no importance 
— the distilled product will be white any way. 

Outside of the distillation plant the work is carried on exclusively 
in wooden vats or tanks, each tank numbered for convenience and 
record, and are designated as decomposing, acid boil, Twitchell, and 
storage. The decomposing and acid boil tanks are preferably lead 
lined. The Twitchell tanks are closely covered with snug fitting 
lids with an " up take " for steam. Experience has taught that cer- 
tain precautions must be taken to carry out the process successfully 
and economically and these will be referred to at the proper time. 

Assuming that a plant has just been installed, it is of prime 
importance to understand that in a glycerin refinery and a Twitchell 
distillation plant twenty-four hours make one day and seven days 
make a week and there are fifty-two weeks in one year, and there 
are no Sundays, holidays, or even lunch hours, one shift of em- 
ployees relieving the other without any interruption of work. The 
plant is ready, a tank car of cotton-seed foots has been set about 
5.30 p.m., each tank car is fitted with a closed steam coil with outside 
connections, the coil is connected with a steam supply in the " pump 
house " before which the tank has been placed, and steam turned on 
to heat and soften the " foots " for pumping in the morning. 
One of the precautions for successfully working the process is that 
the fat must be freed from all dirt, lime, bone, tissue, and other 
impurities, which sounds complicated but is very simply done. 
The dirt settles ' and is run off to the sewer. The contents of 
the car being softened the pump is started. A " pet cock " on the 
pressure side of the cylinder enables the operator to obtain a 
" running sample " of the contents of the car. This amounts to 
about three gallons. This sample is taken to the laboratory, thor- 
oughly mixed and divided into four parts, three parts sealed in pint 
jars until the car of stock is run through and the fourth part for 
" immediate analysis " of total fatty acid. Five to 10 grammes are 
weighed into a 500 c.c. Erlenmeyer and 50 c.c. of a 5 per cent, 
alcoholic soda solution added. Boil to dryness. Add an excess of 
dilute sulphuric acid and boil until all soap is decomposed. Transfer 
to a separatory funnel using some petroleum ether to rinse Erlen- 
meyer. Draw water and acid off the Erlenmeyer. Pour the solution 



74 Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. { A FetaX y , P i9io m ' 

of fatty acids in petroleum ether onto a filter and filter into a tared 
dish, add more ether to the water, thoroughly washing Erlenmeyer 
and separatory funnel, each time pouring the ethereal washings 
onto filter. Finally wash filter and funnel stem. You now have the 
total fatty acids in a petroleum ether solution in a tared dish. Dry 
until the loss is not more than 0.02 grammes in 20 min. at ioo° C. 
Before the pump was started six to nine inches of water was turned 
into the decomposing tank and the steam turned on, an open coil 
being fitted in the tank. (The water is only used in starting a new 
plant, thereafter the decomposing tank will contain an indefinite 
amount of waste acid from the rest of the plant.) 

Cotton-seed foots are 50 per cent, saponified when received and 
are " decomposed " into " black oil " by boiling with sulphuric acid. 
When there is waste acid in the decomposing tanks it is started 
boiling the same time the car is being emptie'd so that the saponifica- 
tion is broken up almost as fast as it can be pumped. After boiling 
an hour it is tested by allowing same to run off a paddle and should 
show no trace of soap. It is allowed to settle, the water and dirt 
going to the sewer. (If the first boil has been on waste acid the 
acid is exhausted when it tastes salty.) After running the settlings 
into the sewer add about three inches of water and 1 per cent, of 
sulphuric acid and boil until fat is brilliant and clear. Allow to 
settle. This is waste acid, tastes sour, and does for the first boil 
on the next car. After settling " skim " the oil from the top with 
a gravity suction pipe into " black oil storage tank." From storage 
the clear black oil is run into " acid boil tank " and shows a varying 
analysis : dry black oil ; 50 to 75 per cent, fatty acid ; 2 to 4 per cent, 
unsaponified ; 4 to 2 per cent, glycerin ; 1 to 2 per cent, moisture ; 
y 2 to i J /2 per cent, dirt 

In the acid boil tank 1 per cent, of sulphuric acid and just enough 
water to cover the coil are added. The precaution here is that the 
waste acid should be 18 B, for cotton-seed foots, to obtain a good 
product; this waste acid goes to the decomposing tanks. The fat 
is boiled in the acid boil tank for about two hours, a sample taken 
for analysis and the stock is ready for the Twitchell tank. 

It requires a man of intelligence somewhat above the average 
unskilled employee to be " Twitchellman." He does the " rough 
analysis " of the tanks during operation and keeps the records of 
each tank. Where there are so many tanks it is practically impos- 
sible to weigh each charge, so that the tanks are measured and 
weight of contents per inch calculated. Six inches of water are 



A FebSS^ f P i9i™'} Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 75 

run in the Twitchell tank and thirty-two inch (30,000 lbs.) black 
oil, cotton-seed foots being handled, 3 per cent, of the weight of the 
charge of black oil of Twitchell reagent is added, steam turned into 
the perforated coil, the trap door closed, and the Twitchellman starts 
his record of that particular tank. First he would ascertain the 
per cent, of fatty acid in the black oil as follows : 

The oil would be put in an Erlenmeyer and heated until abso- 
lutely dry. Bluish vapors on the surface of the oil indicate a dry 
condition. Fifty c.c. alcohol are put into another Erlenmeyer and 
warmed, 4.1 c.c. of the dry oil are run into the 50 c.c. alcohol, 
alkaline blue used as ian indicator, and half normal NaOH run in 
until neutralized. The number of c.c. of NaOH multiplied by 4 
gives the per cent, of fatty acid. The result is noted in the record. 
This record must show the number of the tank, amount of charge 
and class of goods, the per cent, of fatty acid the goods contained, 
amount of Twitchell reagent added, the hour it started boiling, the 
hour it stopped boiling, the number of hours of the first boil, amount 
of sweet water run off, and the B° strength and per cent, of fatty 
acid at end of first boil, the hour of starting and ending second boil, 
number of hours boiling, amount of Twitchell fat run off, and per 
cent, of fatty acid at the finish. The length of time for the first 
boil is about thirty hours and should show from 87 to 90 per cent, 
fatty acid. After settling the glycerin water is run off into a 
storage tank, the number of inches and B° taken. The second boil 
lasts about twenty-four hours ; no reagent is added to the second 
boil. A sample is taken and should show 93 to 95 per cent, of fatty 
acid, it is allowed to settle and is ready for the distillation plant. 
The Twitchell fatty acid, as the product is now known, shows on 
analysis : 92 to 95 per cent, free fatty acid ; 4 to 1 per cent, unsa- 
ponifiable ; 2 to 3 neutral fat ; 1 to y 2 per cent. dirt. 

When the fat has thoroughly settled it is run into an intermediate 
storage stand and then into the " dry boxes." These dry boxes 
are of cast iron, built up of sections 2 ft. 6 in. square with machined 
edges to make a tight joint, the boxes are 5 ft. wide, 5 ft. deep, 
and 10 ft. long, and when the fat is drv and at about 275 F. 
measure 285 lbs. per inch. Each box is fitted with a closed brass 
coil and connections to the still. It is essential that the fat be abso- 
lutely dry when fed into the still. The distillation is carried on by 
live fire, each still being fitted with a perforated cross on the bottom 
of the inside of the still through which superheated steam is injected. 
A siow fire is^started under the still and the vacuum pump started. 



y6 Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 

When a vacuum of 28 in. is obtained, 32 in. of fat, about 9100 lbs. 
are drawn into the still and the temperature gradually raised to 
475 F. on the still and 575 F. on the superheater. The super- 
heated steam is then turned into the still through the perforated 
cross and collection of distilled fatty acid begins. This is continued, 
slowly feeding fat into the still until 155 in. has been fed out of 
the dry boxes, approximately 34,000 lbs. The stillman keeps close 
watch of measurement of the distilled product because he only 
obtains 82 per cent, of what he feeds in, the residue gradually becom- 
ing bulky. When the " charge " has been fed in, the temperature 
has been raised gradually to 525 F. on the still and 650 F. on the 
superheater and the time has been about three days of twenty-four 
hours. The distillation is continued until fat begins to color, when 
the fires are drawn, superheater shut off, and temperature on the 
still allowed to drop below 500 F. Then the tar is pumped into 
a tar still. This tar seems to have a " flashing point " of 500 F. 
in contact with cold air. The safe point to pump is 475 F. ; it 
has been pumped at 495 F. but only once, and when the wreck 
was cleaned up the yield of tar was not quite as large as it should 
have been. The tar still is the same as the fat still, except it is not 
operated under a vacuum. The remaining grease is blown out of 
the tar with superheated steam, the tar allowed to cool, run off and 
barrelled. In the meantime, the fatty acid still is again started. 
The process described applies only to the lower grade of fat or 
Class No. 3. Classes No. 1 and No. 2 do not go to the distillation 
plant. The Twitchell tank for handling these goods is the same as for 
Class No. 3 with the addition of being fitted with a steam jet imme- 
diately under the cover and above the surface of the fat. The 
method followed for, say, prime tallow applies to all other fats in 
Classes No. 1 and No. 2. 

The tallow is " steamed out " of barrels into the acid boil tank 
and 5 lbs. of sulphuric acid to each barrel of tallow added and 
boiled for two hours, then allowed to settle overnight. Run water 
off and drop to Twitchell tank. Assuming the Twitchell tank is 
clean, add about Yz as much water as there is tallow and % of 
1 per cent, of the weight of tallow of reagent and boil with open 
coil until test shows 90 per cent, free fatty acid, shut off open coil 
and turn steam through jet and keep it going all during the settling 
process. Air coming in contact with the fat at this stage would 
discolor it. When the sweet water has settled, run off, put in more 
fresh water and give second boil until test shows 96 per cent, free 



A FebS^, P i9ir'} Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 77 

fatty acid, shut off steam, turn on jet, and add barium carbonate 
mixed with a little water in proportion of % lb. barium to every 
500 lbs. stock. In a few moments take a sample from cock in side 
of tank and test if water is neutral to methyl orange. If it is, 
steam may be turned off jet and water allowed to settle. The fatty 
acids are now perfectly stable and may be stored in wood until 
wanted. 

The glycerin waters are treated with milk of lime until dis- 
tinctly alkaline, the liquor being kept agitated to prevent settling 
of the calcium sulphate. The treated glycerin water, or sweet water 
as it is designated, is pumped through a filter press into a storage 
tank from which it is drawn for evaporating into crude. This can 
be done in an open tank with closed steam coil or in a vacuum 
apparatus either single, double or triple effect, to 34 B, which for 
Twitchell crude is 90 per cent, absolute glycerin and 80 per cent, 
absolute glycerin for soap lye crude. All crudes are analyzed before 
refining, the acetin method being generally used by the large refiners, 
experience showing the results obtained are more nearly accurate 
than by the bichromate method. 

To conduct this test take: 1^2 Gm. crude glycerin; 10 Gm. 
anhydrous soda acetate ; 8 c.c. acetic anhydride. Boil under reflex 
condenser for iy 2 hours, cool a little and dissolve tri-acetin formed 
in 50 c.c. warm water. Do this while still under reflex, cool and 
filter, washing filter well, add phenolphthalein to filtrate and neu- 
tralize excess of acetic acid with 2 per cent, solution NaOH, taking 
great care not to run over end point or let solution become alkaline 
locally while adding the NaOH. Then add an excess of 10 per 
cent, solution NaOH and boil 20 minutes. Titrate excess, also 
run blank on the 10 per cent. NaOH. Titration of blank minus 
titration of excess divided by weight of sample, multiplied by 1.533, 
equals per cent of glycerin. 

The following yield and capacity tests (the cost test for obvious 
reasons being omitted) will indicate how thoroughly a plant and 
laboratory can check results. 

Cotton foots. .703,580 lbs. Laboratory test, 58.32 per cent, fatty acid 
Reagent 17,812 lbs. Laboratory test, 75 per cent, fatty acid 



This shows for the foots. . . .410,333 lbs. fatty acid 
and for the reagent. . . . 13,359 lbs. fatty acid 



A total of 423,692 lbs. fatty acid to be accounted for. 



78 Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. { A r e *braaS P i9io m * 

The product, based on a total distillation : 

Distilled fatty acid 355,725 lbs. 83.97 per cent. 

Tar residue 65,419 lbs. . 15.44 per cent. 

Total recovered product 421,144 lbs. 

Showing a loss of 2,548 lbs. .59 per cent. 

423,692 lbs. 100.00 per cent. 
The yield based on analysis of black oil : 

Distilled fatty acid 342,505 lbs. 82.31 per cent. 

Glycerin 5,775 lbs. 1.40 per cent. 

Tar 65,4,19 lbs. 1572 per cent. 

413,699 Ids. 

Laboratory test -.58.32 per cent. 410,333 lbs. 

Glycerin 82 per cent. 5,775 lbs. 

416,108 lbs. 

Equals a loss of 2409 lbs., or .60 per cent. 
The yield based on total product handled : 

Distilled fatty acid 355,7^5 lbs. 49.31 per cent. 

Glycerin 5,775 lbs. .82 per cent. 

Tar 65,419 lbs. 9.70 per cent. 

Total recovered 59-20 per cent, of foots 

Laboratory test 59-55 per cent. 

Loss 35 per cent. 

The manufacturers of lard compounds refine their own cotton 
oil and sometimes decompose the resulting foots into black oil for 
economy in storage. This black oil is marketed for Twitchell, a 
test of a car showed : black oil, 45460 lbs. ; reagent, 2025 lbs. 

Product : 

Distilled fatty acid 30,618 lbs. 67.35 per cent. - 

Glycerin 3,173 lbs. 6.98 per cent. 

Tar 11,028 lbs. 24.25 per cent. 

Loss 641 lbs. 142- per cent. 



45,460 lbs. 



100.00 per cent. 



^ehmaiT^ic?* } Fat Decomposition and Glycerin. 79 

The yield of tar on this test was excessive and indicated that 
some one was not familiar with the process of decomposing foots to 
the advantage of the distillation plant. If the process is properly 
handled, the quality of the stock considered, the yield of tar rarely 
exceeds 12 per cent, of the amount of Twitchell grease handled. 

Test on house grease : 

Amount of grease 30,750 lbs., less moisture 6 per cent 30,566 lbs. 

Reagent 675 lbs. 

ANALYSIS OF GREASE. 

Titre 39.8 per cent. 

Saponified value O.K. 

Fatty acid 26.8 per cent. 

Moisture 6 per cent. 

Unsaponifiable 96 per cent. 

ANALYSIS TWITCHELL FAT 

Fatty acid 92.39 per cent. 

Unsaponifiable 1.96 per cent. 

Moisture Trace 

ANALYSIS OIL BLOWN OUT OF TAR. 

Fatty acid 3.86 per cent. 

Unsaponifiable 96.14 per cent. 

ANALYSIS DISTTLLED FAT. 

Titre 40.5 per cent. 

Moisture 8 per cent. 

Unsaponifiable 65 per cent. 

Saponifiable _ 98.55 per cent. 

Yield : 



Distilled fat 24,182 lbs. 7740 per cent. 

Glycerin 1,360 lbs. 4.40 per cent. 

Tar 2,200 lbs. 7 per cent. 

Unsaponifiable 1,172 lbs. 3.80 per cent. 

Loss 2,327 lbs. 7.40 per cent. 



100.00 per cent. 



The loss on handling house grease was excessively high and 
was due to the large percentage of volatile or higher fatty acids 



8o 



Sampling of Ground Spices. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 

I February, 1910. 



in the grease, which passed through the entire system of condensors, 
even through the duplex wet vacuum pump, % appearing in billows 
of grease, perfectly white on the surface of the hot well. They 
clogged the valve chambers of the pump so that the plant had to 
shut down, the grease be cleaned out and new valves put in. To 
have collected and identified those fatty acids would have been an 
interesting experience, but being a commercial plant one car of such 
stock gave all the experience cared for. 



SAMPLING OF GROUND SPICES.* 

By Harry E. Sindall. 

This subject is of considerable interest to the food chemist. It 
is a well-known fact that the spices as imported contain consider- 
able foreign matter, mostly small pebbles and sand, to remove which 
is a difficult task for the miller, especially the pebbles. Another 
point to bear in mind is that some spices after being ground have a 
tendency to separate into layers, depending upon the difference in 
specific gravity of the particles. This tendency is most noticeable 
in black pepper. 

The most satisfactory method found by the writer for the 
sampling of black pepper is, first, to catch about 8 to 10 oz. of the 
pepper as it leaves the mill at different intervals during the process 
of grinding. Then these several samples are thoroughly mixed 
together, the mixture separated into four parts by means of a 
spatula, one of these quarters divided into four parts in the same 
manner, and the division continued until a uniform sample of about 
4 oz. is obtained. In proceeding with the analysis, care should be 
taken to mix the contents in the sample bottle before each weighing. 

If ground black pepper, the hulls of which are lighter in weight 
than the other constituents, be allowed to remain in a pile for a few 
days, a sample taken from the surface would far exceed the standard 
allowance for crude fibre, and would run low in acid insoluble ash, 
while a sample taken after throwing off the top layers would run 



* Read at the Boston meeting of the American Chemical Society, Decem- 
ber, 1909. 



A Feb™aLv P i9io m '} Sampling of Ground Spices. 



just the reverse, that is, low in crude fibre and high in acid insoluble 
ash, due to the sand \Vorking through the product. 

From experience, I have found that to get satisfactory results 
from ground spices packed in cartons or cans, it is necessary to 
procure at least four cartons or cans of the same kind, to empty 
the contents and to mix them thoroughly together, after which the 
samples are obtained by the method described above ; as it is gener- 
ally unfair to pass an opinion on a smaller sample, unless, of course, 
the product is highly adulterated, in which case the adulterant 
could readily be detected by aid of the microscope in any one 
package. 

The same method of sampling gives very good results in the 
cases of cinnamon and ginger, although aside from the sand's 
working to the bottom the separation here is hardly noticeable. 

With spices like mace, cloves and nutmegs, which contain con- 
siderable oil, the sampling is much easier. I have found by going 
over a pile of the finished products with a spatula, taking about 
2 mgs. here and there, shaking up a little with a scoop, and repeat- 
ing the sampling and mixing with the samples thus taken, the results 
obtained are good duplicates of the results obtained with samples 
taken by the first method, i.e., when both samples have been taken 
from the same material. 

The samples of whole spices obtained from brokers are often 
very misleading. They are, as a rule, very clean. On one occasion, 
the broker's sample ran something like 1.75 per cent, acid insoluble 
ash, but one bale of the material after grinding and being sampled by 
the first method mentioned ran between 7 and 8 per cent, acid insolu- 
ble ash. On sending my report to the broker he declared that there 
was some mistake and desired a sample. I sent him about fifteen 
pounds of the whole material out of another bale, and in due time 
he offered to take back the goods, which offer was immediately 
accepted. I should say that these bales weighed about 300 lbs. each. 
I merely mention this to show the necessity of taking a large sample 
and subdividing it. 

In mustard, the best results are obtained by sampling the whole 
seed, for this is where the adulterant is found; especially is this 
the case with the brown seed. The sampling is done with an ordi- 
nary coffee sampler. About a handful of the seed is taken from each 
bag and examined separately under a strong magnifying glass. The 
adulterants here, which are readily detected, are chiefly rape, turnip, 



82 The American Materia Medica. {^bS^^E*' 

or charlock seeds. A sample taken from any part of the dry mustard 
flour may be taken to test for artificial color or added starch, as these 
adulterants are generally worked up pretty well in the material. 

Red pepper seems to be the most difficult spice to obtain a uni- 
form sample, owing to the manner in which the pods are ground. 
The first method is impracticable with this spice, while the results 
obtained by sampling, using the second method, are about fair. The 
most satisfactory method to employ is the following: 

A metal tube about one inch in diameter and about three feet 
long, with a sharp end, and so constructed that it can be forced 
from the top of the barrel containing the red pepper through to the 
bottom of the barrel, is used. The tube is emptied, inserted several 
times through the pepper in the barrel, the samples are mixed and 
subdivided until a sufficient sample is obtained for the analysis. I 
may say that this method of sampling gives good results with the 
majority of the spices where samples have to be taken from barrels. 



CONCERNING THE AMERICAN MATERIA MEDICA * 

By John Uri Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
(Concluded from page n.) 

The Lobelia Epoch. — One of the main tenets of the Thom- 
sonians was the employment of no poisonous remedies. They aimed 
to exclude ail mineral substances, as well as every vegetable sub- 
stance that could produce death or that could be reckoned among 
those antagonistic to life processes. Thus the list of remedies used 
by Thomson omitted even such drugs as sanguinaria, or veratrum, 
or gelsemium. 

Comes now the irony of fate ! The sheet anchor of the Thom- 
sonians was lobelia. A lobelia course was preliminary, in most 
instances, to any other form of treatment whatsoever. A vital 
blow was now struck by the antagonists of Thomson. Lobelia was 
by them thrown into the list of poisons! Many were the deaths 
reported as resulting from the heroic medication of the Thomson- 
ians in which lobelia was shown (or asserted) to have been the chief 
offender. Came at last the arrest, prosecution (or as some prefer 



* Address delivered before the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
November 4, 1909, being the third of a series of special lectures for 1909-10. 



Am. Jour. Puarm. ) 
February, 1910. j 



The American Materia Medica. 



83 



persecution) , and trial of Thomson, and next the famous trial of 
Dr. Frost. This persecution, as the Thomsonians accepted it to 
be, did not dismay Thomson's votaries or discourage their leader. 
On the contrary, it led to the more pronounced arraying of the forces 
of Thomson against the legalized medical profession. Thomson be- 
came a martyr in the eyes of thousands of adherents from Massa- 
chusetts to the Carolinas. A mighty rebellion had been bred among 
the people, having as its centre Thomson and his system of medi- 
cation, its object being the extermination of the " fashionable 
methods " of treating disease by what was accepted as death-dealing 
processes imported from Europe. It was a second American Revo- 
lution, that marshalled in its ranks, as insurgents, a far greater 
army than had marched under the flag of Washington, an army 
made up of those who fought in the other Revolution as well as 
their descendants. The prison cell of Thomson and the prosecution 
of Dr. Frost became living watchwords and mighty battle cries. 
Forgotten was the good of established therapy. Overlooked were 
the sacrifices as well as the kindnesses of physicians engaged in 
orthodox medication. All who practised by authority were thrown 
into one group, and that group received the titles already mentioned, 
" bleeders/' " blisterers," " salivaters," and even " murderers ! " 
Most excruciatingly did they picture the process of salivation by the 
mercurials, the depleting effect of cantharides blister, the exhaustion 
of those bled of their life blood, the terrible suffering of those to 
whom were applied the horrible tartar emetic plaster. In every 
family was an object lesson. 

Through it all, such men as Barton, Dunglison, Zollickoffer, 
Tully, and others pursued the even tenor of their way, seemingly 
unaffected. But yet the influence of Thomsonianism was fast under- 
mining orthodox heroic medication. It is questionable, as this 
speaker looks back at those days and events, whether any other 
process or mode of action could have accomplished that which fol- 
lowed the methods of the revolutionists, although many believe that, 
had plain discussions in a balanced way been employed by the mem- 
bers of the schools of medicine, the cruel features of such medication 
as then prevailed would sooner have disappeared. Be this as it may, 
the regular medical profession generally, conceding nothing, arrayed 
itself against the outsiders. It protected the theory and maintained 
the practice based on the application of the heroic in medication. 

The Cruelties of Thomsonianism. — But the Thomsonian 



84 



The American Materia Medica. 



f Am. Jour. Phaim. 
\ February, 1U1U. 



revolutionists were at a disadvantage not alone in the direction of 
the unquestioned energy of lobelia. Accompanying methods that 
they advocated partook of much that would, to-day, be called bar- 
barism. Their large doses of compounds containing capsicum and 
myrrh were excruciatingly severe. Their sweating process, repeat- 
edly applied to the same patient, was debilitating. Their " composi- 
tion draughts-" were almost unbearable, as this writer knows from 
experience. These, combined with other features of a course of 
Thomsonian medication, seem to have been dreaded by many of the 
afflicted almost as much as were the blistering, bleeding, and salivat- 
ing processes of Thomson's antagonists, although the after-conse- 
quences were surely not as necessarily lasting or as fatal. Thomson 
had unquestionably combined the sweating 'methods of the aborigines 
of America with the emetic processes prevalent in " fashionable " 
medication, complicated with which was the burning as by fire of 
irritating materials like capsicum and bayberry. Taken altogether, 
the people, in escaping from one form of torture, had become in- 
volved, although to a lesser degree, in another. A little devil had 
replaced a bigger one. Then, too, it must be remembered that in the 
regular profession an educated man possessed of more or less mis- 
applied learning usually conducted the ordeal test, while in the other 
case whoever could read or could comprehend the processes promul- 
gated in Thomson's patent was considered fully qualified to treat 
disease. The one was scientifically or professionally cruel, the other 
cruelly unscientific and unprofessional. Helpless were the sick in 
the hands of either or both. 

Again a spirit of unrest came upon the people. Was it necessary 
that the step of the man of medicine should make the afflicted shud- 
der ? From him children ran in affright. Did the treatment of 
disease demand this ? 

Wooster Beach, the " Father of Eclecticism.' —Just at this 
point came Wooster Beach (1833). Unlike Thomson he was an 
educated man. Like Thomson he was a revolutionist. Unlike 
Thomson he was a believer in colleges and in education. Like 
Thomson he had great faith in America's materia medica. A 
graduate of the medical department of the University of New York, 
his first publication, " The American Practice of Medicine," pub- 
lished in three volumes in New York in 1833, was rebelliously ad- 
dressed to the people and not limited to the profession of medicine. 
Thus, although believing in college education, he defied the legalized 



A Feb^ y , P i h 9io m '} The American Materia Medica. 85 



practitioners, in that his publication, concerning medicine, was pre- 
sented to a non-professional audience. Thus, Wooster Beach an- 
tagonized both sections we have been considering. It was at once 
seen that he had invaded the field of Thomson, but not in any wise 
as his disciple, and that he had also irrevocably violated the ethics 
as well as the dogmas of the dominant school. The Thomsonians 
turned upon Beach and his followers, abusing them even more 
viciously than they did their old enemies, the " bleeders." The 
regulars raised their battle-axes. Between the two stood Dr. 
Wooster Beach, the prey of both. We have seen .Thomson to be 
a man of indomitable will, determined and fearless and most fertile 
in resources, though illiterate. Let us now consider kia rival. 

Dr. Wooster Beach was conversant -with the literature of -the past. 
Barton's " Collections,'! Rafinesque's " Materia Medica Americana,!' 
Schoepf's " Materia Medica," the writings of Dunglison, Tully, and 
Zollickoffer, the Pharmacopoeias of the United States of 1820 and 
1830, the Proceedings of the different medical societies, these and 
such as these were to him familiar. With the ideal of reform but 
with high regard for others' efforts, he unhesitatingly selected from 
all these sources that which he considered best, his object being the 
kindly treatment of disease and a replacing of powerful remedies 
by those less energetic, whenever such were capable of serving 
equally as well. He believed in a reduction of energetic doses to 
such an extent that poisonous drugs, if used, should produce no toxic 
or harmful effect, and in the modifying of compounds in which 
poisons took a part, so that if the disease was not cured 110 dominat- 
ing constituents should thereby cause fatal results. 

The motto adopted by Beach and his followers, " Vires V it ales 
Sustinete " (Sustain the Vital Forces), made it necessary that 
these objects should be accomplished. It was the opposite of that 
of both his antagonists, for both depleted. Thus Beach, the an- 
tithesis of Thomson, and yet his colaborer, became the founder of 
an American system in medicine, antagonistic to that of Thomson. 
His followers believed in education, they believed in colleges, they 
believed in surgery and the sciences, and in rationally employing 
whatever could be properly utilized, from whatever source it came, 
whilst the methods of Thomson were those of teaching the people 
directly, through travelling agents and by person. Antagonistic 
were these two, in all points touching systematic medical education. 
The name " eclectic " was applied to the followers of Beach, who 



86 The American Materia Medica. 

claimed the privilege of selecting from any source whatever, as they 
saw proper, whatever could' be properly utilized. They made their 
code of ethics the " Golden Rule " only. They did not recognize 
the authority of the regular profession as concerns doses or medi- 
cines. Thus, they too were " irregulars " in the eyes of the legalized 
part of the medical profession and needs be suppressed. 

But yet the widely divergent Thomsonians or botanies (for 
Thomson eschewed minerals altogether) were, strangely enough, 
confounded by most legalized practitioners with the eclectics, whose 
precepts were merely those of greater kindness to the sick and a 
closer study of the American materia medica than was practised by 
either the Thomsonians or the regulars. 'The eclectics, as was their 
duty, even more forcibly and systematically than did the Thomson- 
ians, fought bitterly the bleeding, blistering, mercurial purging and 
salivating methods still prevalent in the mother school, but not less 
earnestly did they oppose the sweating, the vomiting, and the heroic, 
enervating " courses " of the Thomsonians. But not even the 
eclectics of that early day could altogether escape the prevalent 
theories concerning disease and disease names, as well as many 
questionable methods, inculcated from abroad. Slow, indeed, is 
the process mankind travels from established error to intellectual 
freedom ! Aiming to parallel, in a more kindly way, the processes 
of both the regular school and the Thomsonians, the eclectics yet 
believed in treating diseases by name, in the use of violent cathartics, 
and, as is known, in this direction they (King) introduced the 
" resin of podophyllum " (1835), subsequently known as the " eclec- 
tic calomel." They also believed in counter-irritants, producing thus 
running sores, for the purpose of relieving underlying affections, and 
in this direction devised their " compound tar plaster." to be used 
instead of old school applications of croton oil, cantharides, and 
tartar emetic. Whoever has seen its effect will not question its 
severity. They believed somewhat in emesis, and for this purpose 
devised " compound tincture of sanguinaria," and " compound lo- 
belia powder," utilizing in the^first a drug introduced by Barton, and 
in the other the banner drug of Thomsonianism. In view of such 
facts as these, as perhaps seems reasonable, the adherents of the 
eclectic school, coming in the height of the warfare between Thom- 
son and his antagonists and at the most vicious period of that con- 
flict, were viewed as renegades by the old-school physicians, and 
by the Thomsonians as pirates. Between 1840 and i860 this trian- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 

February, 1910. ) 



The American Materia Medica. 



87 



gular war waxed hotter and hotter, each faction fighting bitterly 
the others, but each engaged earnestly, as they saw life's duties in 
their task of relieving mankind of ills, even though the attainment 
of the object necessitated, where heroic medication was involved, 
the death of the individual. 

Warring of the Heroics. — But in all this, let us not forget the 
people who were so vitally concerned in this war of the professions. 
The good in each benefited the people, the wrong of one or of all 
injured them. Each home in America became involved, one way or 
the other. Under the influence of Thomson and of Beach home- 
made remedies increased, whilst under their combined but yet dis- 
connected attacks criticisms of the profession became more pro- 
nounced. The cruelties of the transplanted mediaeval ages, as 
exemplified for centuries in bleeding, blistering, and salivating, were 
illustrated in print and depicted in lecture, in the home, the school 
house, the church. The dominant school as well as the Thomsonians 
felt the touch. They indignantly resisted, but yet under the influence 
of transpiring events they lessened their doses and gradually aban- 
doned their depleting processes. Then, at last, it was discovered 
that barbarism, in these lines at least, was unnecessary. But yet, all 
seemed to believe in fighting disease, not in preventing its occurrence. 

Came, now, in the seeming day of victory, tribulation to the 
Thomsonians. The people had become better educated, better fed, 
and better clothed. The methods of times gone by would no longer 
be tolerated. The eclectics, too, felt the influence of the times, 
and discovered that their enormous and too often nauseating doses 
of syrups, of vinegars, and of compound tinctures were neither desir- 
able nor necessary. They, too, began to look upon what had pre- 
viously been their ideal of greater kindness as a process of less 
cruelty. About i860, came the ending of the more heroic phases 
and processes of eclectic medication. The old school, as shown 
by the records, had during this period assimilated many remedies 
native to America, the Thomsonians had about abandoned their 
lobelia courses and had lessened the enormous doses hitherto 
employed, whilst the eclectics had discovered that disease expres- 
sions could be controlled by more kindly methods and by smaller 
doses than had been advocated by Beach. A great number of the 
remedial agents suggested by Barton, but neglected during this 
period bv his old-school disciples, had in small doses become favor- 
ites in the eclectic school, some of them being reintroduced from 



88 The American Materia Medica. { k fJ™r*^™' 



eclecticism to the school of Barton. Some remedies developed by 
the rivals of the school with which Barton affiliated had also become 
established, in many cases, the world over. To such an extent was 
this true as to have given (about i860) to the major number of 
American remedies of the eclectics the name, " eclectic medicines." 

Advent of Homceopathy. — Let us now consider a phase of the 
American materia medica as yet neglected but of more than a little 
consequence. This was the advent of homoeopathy about the begin- 
ning of the last century. The homceopathists believed in kindness 
to the sick and practised it. They believed in sanitary methods 
and in good nursing, and, as far as possible, these precepts were 
enforced. They believed in cleanliness and made this one of the 
tenets of their practice. They believed in small doses, even unto 
what, in the opinion of the other schools, was mathematical exter- 
mination of a remedy. These -together constitute some phases of 
preventive medication. Such as this appealed to many of the more 
cultured portions of the people, who, in the face of ridicule, gave 
the homoeopathic physician a hearing. About the middle of the last 
century the influence exerted by the homceopathist was certainly 
greater than was* 'appreciated by those involved in other directions 
in medicine. Indeed, it is questionable whether homoeopathy has 
been, even to the present day, credited with its due part as concerns 
the extermination of the conspicuous barbarisms connected with the 
overdosing and underfeeding of those days, and its attendant evils. 
Be this as it may, the advent of homoeopathy at the beginning of the 
last -century wa-s— considered- so unimportant and their beliefs so 
chimerical as to have attracted little attention other than passing 
ridicule from any of the active forces we have mentioned. The 
chief antagonism against homceopathy came from those who had 
no conceptions of preventive processes but who believed that the 
value of medication consisted in heavy, materialistic sledge-hammer 
doses. By such, it was felt that homceopathy meant an abandon- 
ment of the afflicted to the enemy, disease. Those who advocated 
homoeopathy were naturally thrown into the class of charlatans and 
quacks. Their opposition to heroic measures was considered as a 
neglect of the patient, while the theory of attenuations was incom- 
prehensible. Nor was this view of the methods of the homceopa- 
thists restricted altogether to the dominant school, for the eclectics 
and the Thomsonians differed from the homceopathists as concerns 
dosage about as much as did the regulars. A common cause, how- 



A rebraan- P i h 9io m '} The American Materia Medico. 89 

ever, threw the minority (irregular) sections together, in the face 
of a general enemy bound on their subjugation. Their efforts, re- 
gardless of the theories that each maintained, were, when necessary, 
united against professional extinction of the " irregulars." Thus 
the crusades went on, until about i860 it became apparent to a few 
leaders in the eclectic section in medicine that not only was there 
no necessity for excessive doses of even innocuous drugs, but that 
the action of drugs, in a therapeutic sense, was far separated from 
active physiological shock. It became apparent, indeed, that shock 
to the patient, even that of post-eclectic methods, often retarded or 
even prevented a return to the normal. Thus was introduced a 
new epoch in the direction of American medicine as concerns the 
men now chiefly concerned in the evolution of the American materia 
medica. 

PART III. 

Conditions in i860. — Let us remember that under the afore- 
named influences and the age of reason, in i860, the physician 
of the allopathic or old school, who bled, blistered, and salivated, 
had become the exception. Indeed, the cantharides plaster and the 
croton-oil vesicant were at that date about all that lingeringly main- 
tained a place in the practice of the followers of old-time heroics. 
Let it be remembered that the followers of Thomson had changed 
their name to physiomedical, and that they had practically abandoned 
the sweating and the lobelia courses of their founder. The eclectics, 
also, as the result of reflective opportunities and experimental ex- 
periences, as well as from their pharmacy studies of plant products, 
had abandoned many of their cruder compounds of the early days 
of Beach, and had become discouraged as concerns a system of 
therapy dependent upon the physiological action of such remedies 
as they had themselves introduced and developed. Even cathartics 
were no longer viewed with favor. 

John Milton Scudder (Eclectic Revolutionist). — Came, 
then, John M. Scudder, a man of resources, an observer, independent, 
hopeful. If he did not originate the theory so actively promul- 
gated by him, he grasped the situation, and, being at the head of 
the eclectic school, commanded their forces. With a courage that 
even his antagonists (for necessarily he had many) admired, Scud- 
der berated, the weaknesses in the eclectic school. Although he 
never lost an opportunity to attack wrong of outsiders as he saw 
the wrong, his crusade was directed more in the direction of over- 



90 



The American Materia Medica. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ February, 1910. 



coming evils from within and correcting home faults. The " eclec- 
tic compounds " of old were within a reasonable period practically 
exterminated by him and his adherents. Conglomerations (syrups, 
compound tinctures, powders, " shotgun mixtures," etc.), with a few 
exceptions, were irresistibly decried. The theory of diseases being 
treated by names was combatted, both with ridicule and with argu- 
ment. The specific action of a drug, not the guessing of the effect 
of a mixture, became his slogan. The individuality of a single 
remedy was studied in connection with its action in varying phases 
of disease expression. No longer was'a disease viewed as an invad- 
ing enemy known by a name, but as a rational departure from the 
normal, in which a systematic wrong might, under many disease 
names, cry for the same remedy. The doses advocated were very small, 
and for the therapeutic action only, never the physiological shock. 
Such views were, in the very nature of things, revolutionary. An- 
tagonists from w T ithin the eclectic school called Scudder a pseudo- 
homceopath. They resisted and combatted him, separately and col- 
lectively. Serenely, however, Scudder, unruffled, pursued his care- 
fully devised course. Neither vindictive nor personal was he, his 
object being the eradication of the questionable materia medica part 
of eclectic medication, and the rational application of drug remedies 
where it could be proven that they exerted a direct, kindly influence. 
Never torture a helpless man. Why should the sick be fed drugs 
and doses that the well cannot eat? That was his argument. He 
sought in homoeopathic literature that which the homceopathists had 
in his opinion established, and he credited them therefor. He like- 
wise sought the good that he felt had been established in Thom- 
sonian directions, and to the followers of Thomson he gave a kind 
word. With no less care he searched the materia medica of the 
regular school, culling freely therefrom and giving credit therefor. 
But in it all, his doses were attenuations, as contrasted with any- 
thing preceding him in eclecticism, and many were the kindly reme- 
dies, before untouched, that he introduced to replace those more 
severe. He claimed that the simplest form of the remedy was the 
one that the physician could best comprehend, either in action or 
dosage, and rejected polypharmacy and its conglomerates as neither 
scientific nor rational. He demanded in eclecticism that the reme- 
dies employed should be simple pharmaceutical preparations, of 
established drugs, under their true scientific names. " Let the doctor 
do the prescribing and know what he prescribes," threaded his argu- 



Am. Jour, pharm. ) j ne American Materia Medica. Qi 

February, 1910. j ^ 

ments. In it all, however, he appealed more directly than any be- 
fore him had done to the American materia medica, inaugurating 
a process of clinical therapeutic investigations more systematic, per- 
haps, than had previously been comprehended. His antagonists 
within the school were many, because the ideals of the past were be- 
ing shattered by the man who so well appreciated both the oppor- 
tunity and necessities of the present. But of this in its detail we 
need not speak, our object being to introduce the materia medica 
problem of the epoch of i860. Through the heirlooms of the past 
and the processes of the then present, the eclectics had come to be the 
principal and the recognized developers of the American materia 
medica, which had once been the hope of such as Schoepf, Barton, 
Thacher, Thomson, and of Beach. To the plant remedies used by 
these men, Scudder and his adherents now added, one by one, as 
necessity and opportunity for investigation presented, this or that 
remedial agent before unknown, abandoning many in turn as being 
less valuable than others thus introduced. Each drug was studied 
after the new method, which was not that of the destruction cf the 
drug's individuality, not that of compounding it with a number of 
other substances and overloading it with sugar and glycerin and 
other extraneous materials, but of utilizing its qualities in the most 
eligible and permanent form, when the plant was in its best condition. 
Under such methods of investigation and such ideals, the eclectic 
school has progressed, from the advent of Scudder, for a period of 
nearly half a century. 

Commercialism. — It will be observed that I have aimed in this 
record of the American materia medica to restrict my study to in- 
fluences mainly connected with what is understood as the profes- 
sional side of life. Excepting the introductory complications in the 
direction of the pioneer in domestic medication, no reference has 
been made to what many consider commercialism in medicine. Alas, 
from beginning to end this has been too great a factor. Had this 
phase of my subject been incorporated into this paper, an additional 
chapter, fully as long as the present paper, would have been required. 
These so-called commercial influences were not abruptly nor yet 
recently thrown into the field. Upon the contrary, beginning in the 
earliest days of the therapy of American drugs, we find a dominating 
influence to be what is known as commercialism but which is very 
difficult to define. It was linked with the early record, in Massachu- 
setts as well as in Pennsylvania. It was woven into some of the 



92 



The American Materia Medica. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1910. 



efforts of conspicuous men, who wrote and copyrighted books, as 
well as of Samuel Thomson and some of his followers. It touched 
nearly every phase of professional effort throughout America, con- 
tinuously pursuing its course under various phases, until about the 
middle of the last century, when came into play such factors as the 
manufacturing establishments that in pharmacy wedged themselves 
into the field of medicine, dominating at last, as can be perceived, 
many sections in manipulative pharmacy that had previously be- 
longed exclusively to the apothecary. Of these, their influences, 
methods, and such, we cannot now speak. Let us not forget that 
in the opening of the present century and the closing of the last 
came another phase of commercialism in the university methods, 
chiefly centering in the progressive German institutions of scientific 
instruction. Needless is it to suggest that these influences have 
come to be a mighty factor at the present time and that, in the 
processes now in vogue, wherever patent protection is possible 
through the opportunities of patent laws, the contrasted attempt 
Samuel Thomson once made to secure protection by his patent proc- 
ess is insignificant. But as already intimated, these phases of the 
problem, entering as a thread into the very beginning and at the 
present time sweeping all before it as in a mighty net, can only be 
referred to as a subject which must not be overlooked, and cannot 
rest unmentioned. 

What of the Present? — Thus we come to the present day. 
And if this history of the past be correct, we can, through this brief 
synopsis, form an opinion of the tortuous journey of the American 
materia medica from its beginning in the day of the Colonial pioneer 
to the present. In it, as we look back, the men constituting these 
antagonistic forces were incapable of comprehending the part they 
were taking in a far-reaching problem, whose end, in connection 
with the efforts of those to-day involved, is not less surely hidden 
from us of the present. However, into this problem, which I had 
hoped to make the substance of this paper, time will not permit me 
to enter. I must therefore close by remarking that it seems to 
me, when I revert to what I have said, as though the most interesting 
phases and side lines connected with the pharmacy (altogether 
neglected), the educational problems (practically untouched), the 
hopes, ambitions and antagonisms, the personalities of the parties 
involved, the many authorities, important as well as seemingly unim- 
portant, unmentioned by me, the forgotten or overlooked ideals of 



A re'bSary,^9io m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 93 

good men involved in antagonistic directions, these and such as these 
far overshadow that which I have presented. It has been my aim 
to present a comprehensive view of the important features or epochs 
connected with the history and the development of what is known as 
the American materia medica, as an introduction to that which 
appeals to me more deeply than does this story of the passing along. 

And in this, my closing remark, permit me again to say that 
the features alluded to in the beginning of this paper, concerning 
the infinities in, and the opportunities of the American materia 
medica, as I view that subject and have for years longed to present 
it, have not as yet been reached. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PLIARMACY. 

MINUTES OF THE QUARTERLY MEETING. 

Owing to the delay in transit facilities resulting from the severe 
snowstorm, the regular quarterly meeting of the College called 
for December 27, 1909, could not be held for lack of quorum, but 
five members being in attendance. Adjournment was had to Janu- 
ary 4, 1910, when twenty members were in attendance. The Presi- 
dent, Howard B. French, presided. The minutes of the semi-annual 
meeting held September 27, 1909, were read and approved. 1 The 
minutes of the Board of Trustees for September, October, Novem- 
ber, and December were read by the Registrar, J. S. Beetem, and 
approved. 

Mr. George M. Beringer, for the Committee on Centenary Cele- 
bration in 1921, presented the following as a tentative scope and plan 
for consideration : 

First. — Scope : That the celebration in 1921 be not only a Centenary 
Anniversary of the College, but be so broadened as to make it likewise a 
celebration of the initiatory movement for establishing pharmaceutical edu- 
cation in America, and its subsequent development. 

Second. — Plan: That in connection with the anniversary celebration 
there be arranged an exhibition in the College that shall present the work 
of this institution, its collection of historical matters and souvenirs, and its 



1 The minutes of the special meeting held December 10 (memorial to 
Mahlon N. Kline, First Vice-President), were approved. 



94 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { k ™'J™^*w™' 

various collections of botanical and materia medica specimens and apparatus. 
This feature, it may later be deemed advisable to broaden out into a more 
extensive exhibit including manufactured pharmaceutical products. 

Third. — That there be prepared and published in connection with this 
Centenary Celebration a historical work covering the progress of pharmacy 
in America, the history of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and of its 
graduates. 

Fourth.- — That a standing committee of the College be appointed at once 
to continue this work, and that in ample time before the Centenary Celebration 
this committee be enlarged and that it co-operate with similar committees 
from the alumni association and other organizations if found desirable. 

Fifth. — Financial: (This section is reported as amended.) It is apparent 
that to carry out these plans there will be entailed a heavy expenditure, and 
in order to provide the necessary funds it is recommended that this committee 
be empowered to establish an account and solicit subscriptions to pay the 
expenses of this jubilee meeting and the College contribute thereto the sum 
of three hundred dollars per annum commencing with the year 1910. It is 
hereby provided that all moneys contributed and the yearly contribution of the 
College under this plan shall be paid to the Treasurer of the College and by 
him kept as a separate account to be known as the Centennial Fund subject 
to the requisition and use of the special committee to be appointed. 

Sixth. — That the alumni be requested to set aside in each monthly issue 
of the Alumni Report a sufficient number of pages to be used in the con- 
tinous presentation of the centenary and the historical work of the committee 
to the graduates of the College. 

Seventh. — The details and the perfecting of the plans and arrangements 
for the celebration, will, of course, develop as the work of the standing 
committee progresses, and the above is simply submitted as a tentative outline 
covering the broader principles that should be considered. Signed by the 
Committee. 

(Committee) Joseph P. Remington, Henry Kraemer, Samuel P. Sadtler, 
M. I. Wilbert, George M. Beringer. 



The report was discussed by Messrs. Cliffe, French, Remington. 
Poley, Sadtler, and Beringer, and after being amended was heartily 
approved and adopted. 

The committee appointed at the meeting held December 10, 
1909, to draft suitable resolutions on the death of First Vice-Presi- 
dent Mahlon N. Kline, reported by its Chairman, Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, as follows : 

Whereas, Mahlon N. Kline, First Vice-President and Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees, passed from this life November twenty-seventh, nineteen 
hundred and nine in the full vigor of manhood : 

His services to this College since he matriculated in 1868 have been, 
particularly in late years, constant and of the greatest value. 



A FebiuarV P ma ' } Philadelphia C allege ' of Pharmacy. 95 

In public as in private station he was ever aggressive, conscientious, and 
true, actuated by the highest ideals and a sense of deep responsibility to a 
Higher Power. 

He never swerved from the performance of his duty, and his loss, in 
the full tide of activity, has come upon us as a severe affliction. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the Board of Trustees are 
overcome with grief at the sudden loss which we have sustained, and we 
tender to his stricken widow and children our heartfelt sympathy. 

(Signed) Joseph P. Remington, 
Clement B. Lowe, 
Joseph W. England. 

The report was accepted, and at the suggestion of the President 
was adopted by a rising vote. It was also* agreed that the resolu- 
tions be engrossed and a copy sent to the family. 

The Secretary was authorized to have a new supply of " Appli- 
cation for Membership with, the Code of Ethics " printed, containing 
the amended requirements for membership. 

The President appointed the following members as the Commit- 
tee on Legislation : Joseph P. Remington, Chairman, M. I. Wilbert, 
William Mclntyre, Warren H. Foley, Theodore Campbell, and 
Charles Leedom. 

Announcement was made of the death of Mahlon N. Kline, J. B. 
Moore, and Bennett L. Smedley. 

The Secretary stated that on account of the death of Mr. Kline, 
First Vice-President, several certificates of Honorary Membership 
were lacking his signature, when it was ordered that the Secretary of 
the College be authorized to fill in the missing signature, appending 
in a foot-note the reason for so doing. 

A letter was read from Mrs. Anna M. Huntington, daughter of 
Thomas S. Wiegand, acknowledging the receipt of the memorial 
resolutions and expressing her appreciation of it and of the many 
and continuous acts of appreciation he had received from the College. 

A communication was read from our fellow member Charles G. 
Dodson, donating to the College a prescription balance that was used 
in the store of Frederick Brown and which Mr. Wiegand used when 
as a young man he was employed there. 

Our fellow member Joseph A. Heintzelman presented to the 
Library three volumes on chemistry and pharmacy — one of them 
edited by Professor Robert P. Thomas, a former professor in the 
College. The thanks of the College were tendered both the donors. 



96 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^'J^^mo 1 

ABSTRACT FROM MINUTES OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

September 7, 1909. — The stated meeting called for this day could 
not be held for lack of a quorum, and therefore it was decided to call 
the meeting for September 21, 1909. 

September 21, 1909. — -Meeting called to order, fourteen members 
present. The Committee on Examination reported the names of 
Harmon H. Sechler and Ralph Thomas Ulrich, P.D., as having 
satisfactorily passed all examination in the Pure Food and Drug 
Course, and they were therefore entitled to the Certificate of Pro- 
ficiency, which upon ballot being taken, was awarded to them. Mr. 
Beringer reported that Mr. J. Redsecker Beetem had kindly con- 
sented to continue the Maisch Pharmacognosy Prize, under the 
same conditions as heretofore. He also stated that Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs, of Atlanta, Ga., proposed presenting annually a prize to be 
known as the Maisch Botany Prize, conditions for awarding same 
to be arranged for by the Board. These offers were accepted with 
thanks. Mr. Americus H. Moser, class of 1865, made application 
for a duplicate diploma, to replace the original, which had been 
damaged by fire. The request was granted, under the usual condi- 
tions. Professor Remington, who had recently returned from the 
Pacific Coast, reported that the graduates of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy on the Pacific Coast had formed a branch alumni 
association, and had arranged to raise $2000 to establish a Pacific 
Coast Scholarship ; and Mr. England supplemented this information 
by stating that he had already received a subscription towards the 
fund. 

October 5, 1909. — Meeting called to order, with fifteen members 
present. The Committee on Instruction reported that a special 
course of fourteen lectures had been arranged for, and requested 
the members of the Board to give their earnest support to same. 
A variety of subjects were to be lectured upon, and the speakers 
would be leaders in their respective branches. The Committee on 
Scholarships reported the names of nine students who had been 
awarded scholarships, and, upon vote, their action was confirmed by 
the Board. The Committee on Examination reported that Jay Dana 
Beck, John Joseph Bridgeman, Jr., Walter Henry Bronner, Philip 
Christ Dosch, Charles Duvoisin, Marie Duvoisin, Frank Gannon 
Ebner, Homer Willis Eakle, Henry Stites Godshall, John Elias 
Faison Hicks, Vastine Atkinson Keister, John Moser, Jr., Aase 



A F;biuarVfmo m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 97 

Teisen (Miss.), Frank P. Van Inwegen, Howard Eakle Young had 
successfully passed their 'final examinations in the Optional Course 
in Bacteriology, and were entitled to special certificates of proficiency 
in said branch. Upon ballot being taken, they were declared eligible 
to have the certificate awarded them. A communication was re- 
ceiyed from the Board of Education recommending Robert Gracey, 
a graduate of the Central Manual Training School, class of 1909, 
as worthy of a full course scholarship, which on motion was 
awarded. Mr. Cliffe, on behalf of the class of 1884, presented to the 
College a barometer, that they had installed in the Chemical Labora- 
tory, for which the thanks of the Board was extended. John Moser, 
Jr., was elected to associate membership. 

November 3, 1909. — The Committee on Scholarships reported 
that after a competitive examination, Albert Worthington Moore, 
of Trenton, N. J., and James Vansant Hewitt, of Vineland, N. J., 
had passed the best examination for admission to the Dobbins 
Scholarship. The committee, therefore, recommended the awarding 
of scholarships to both of these men, as the Treasurer reported 
sufficient funds available to the credit of the scholarship to admit 
of doing so. Their recommendation was accepted. Professor 
Remington reported that the Wiegand Scholarship Fund of $3000 
was completed by a subscription just received from Samuel Fair- 
child, of New York. The Secretary was instructed to express to 
Mr. Fairchild the appreciation of the Board for his contribution. 
A communication from Miss Sarah L. Naly, class of 1895, requesting 
the Board to allow the women graduates of the College, who had 
been students of Dr. Susan Hayhurst, to place in the Museum her 
portrait, as she was the first woman graduate of the College, was 
read and the request was granted. 

December 7, 1909. — Meeting called to order, with seventeen mem- 
bers present. Upon motion of Professor Remington, it was decided 
to have the members present sign and call for a special meeting of 
the College to be held on Friday, December 10, 1909, at ten a.m., 
to take action on the death of their late Chairman and First Vice- 
President of the College, Mahlon N. Kline; which motion was 
agreed to, and on motion of Mr. Poley the Board adjourned until 
December 14, 1909. 

December 14, 1909. — Meeting called to order and fourteen mem- 
bers present. The Committee on Property reported the completion 
of a hothouse upon the roof of the Annex Laboratory. Committee 



98 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. jY^S' 

on Library reported the presentation of a copy of the Founders' 
Week Memorial Volume of the scientific institutions, medical col- 
leges and hospitals of Philadelphia, which contained a very interest- 
ing and instructive account of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
The Committee on Announcement reported the issue of Bulletin 
No. 2, Volume No. 2. The Committee on Instruction presented a 
new roster, to go into effect January 3, 19 10. By the changes made 
in same, the number of hours of laboratory instruction was largely 
increased. A large photograph of the late Thomas S. Wiegand, 
Librarian of the College, was presented to the College by Mr. Gute- 
kunst, and the thanks of the Board were extended to him for the 
gift. Frank W. Fluck was elected to active membership. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

JANUARY PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting was held Tuesday, January 
18, 1910, at 3 o'clock, with Prof. C. B. Lowe presiding. 

Harry E. Sindall, chemist for the Weikel & Smith Spice Co., 
read a brief paper on the sampling of spices (see p. 80). The paper 
was discussed by the Chairman, Dr. C. A. Weidemann, Messrs. 
E. M. Boring, Warren H. Poley, and others. In reply to questions 
which arose during the discussion, Mr. Sindall stated that the im- 
proved mills for the grinding of spices, including ginger and capsi- 
cum, are constructed in such a manner as to prevent the escape of 
the very fine material, and thus of excessive irritation of the respira- 
tory tract, the effects generally not being noticeable after the first 
day; that there is not much adulteration of spices in those States 
having food laws, as in Pennsylvania, but in those States having 
no food laws, as in Maryland, there is considerable sophistication; 
and that one of the most common examples of sophistication is that 
furnished by ground ginger, the method being to add capsicum to 
ginger which has been previously partly exhausted for other 
purposes. 

John K. Thum, apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, read a paper giving abstracts of the Researches of the Pharma- 
ceutical Institute of the University of Berlin for 1908, which will 
be published in a later issue of this Journal. The paper elicited 
queries and comments from Professor Lowe, and Drs. Weidemann 
and Osterlund. 



'^Febniarv^TtT ; Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 99 

Prof. Henry Kraemer called attention to some of the features 
of the third and latest edition of the Pharmacopoeia of Japan, stat- 
ing that inasmuch as the revision of our own Pharmacopoeia is being 
considered from so many points of view, a more intimate knowledge 
of the various foreign pharmacopoeias is desirable. He stated that 
the Japanese Pharmacopoeia is issued by an edict of the Govern- 
ment, that it is a very practical and well-arranged work, and is essen- 
tially a pharmacist's book. 

Among the features to which he particularly referred are the 
following: The aromatic waters are mostly made directly from 
the drug by distillation ; extracts, tinctures, and wines are made by 
maceration ; sesame oil is directed in the formulae for ammonia lini- 
ment and lime liniment ; formulae are given for the preparation of 
medicated cottons and gauzes (telaej ; in addition to antidiphtberic 
serum, antitetanic serum and tuberculin are official ; besides the fer- 
ments, pepsin and pancreatin, diastase is official ; to the assay 
processes identity tests for the alkaloids are usually appended; the 
descriptions for vegetable drugs are very simple in some cases, 
as that for licorice root, but when the drug requires special con- 
sideration the description is given in more detail. Of the vegetable 
drugs the following were mentioned as of special interest : scopolia 
preparations replace those of belladonna, although belladonna leaves 
are official ; under ipecac directions are given for removing the 
wood before using the drug in the making of preparations ; three 
starches are official, that derived from the potato tuber, one from 
the root of Erythroniitm dens cants L. and one from the root of 
Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. Other of the official drugs were 
also mentioned, as follows: the rhizome (root) of Phytolacca aci- 
nosa var. csculenta, the whole plant of Taraxacum officinale var. 
glaucescens, the rhizome of Coptis an em once folia and of other 
species of Coptis, the rhizome and roots of Gentiana scabra var. 
Buergeri, the wood of Picrasma quassioides, the seed of Prunus 
armeniaca, and the leaves of Prunus macrophylla. Another notice- 
able feature is the number of American and European drugs which 
are recognized, as the tuberous root of Aconitnm Napellns, cascara 
sagrada, and hydrastis. Among the official alkaloids, agaricine was 
noted. 

The terms and general directions used throughout the text are 
explained in the preface; the metric system is used, and quantities 
given in the formulae are in parts by weight. In the appendices 



roo Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

are given a list of the common official medicines which should 
always be kept in every dispensary; a list of the official medicines 
which belong to the class of poisonous medicines, which should be 
kept with special care and separated from others ; a list of the 
official medicines that belong to the class of strong or energetic 
medicines, and which also should be kept with care separated from 
others ; and a list of medicines together with their doses for an 
adult. 

In commenting on some of the features to. which Professor 
Kraemer called attention, Prof. I. V. S. Stanislaus said that he 
thought it rather remarkable that antitetanic serum and tuberculin 
should have been made official in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia when 
they are used so little in practice as curative agents. With regard 
to the preparation of aromatic waters, he said that, generally speak- 
ing, the oil does not represent the drug or contain all of the odorous 
principles, as in the case of oil of rose where the benzene alcohol, 
one of the constituents which gives to rose its peculiar odor, does not 
come over with the distillate. 

Mr. Thum expressed the opinion that medicated gauzes should 
be admitted to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and stated that the official 
standards for ether are not sufficient to insure an ether of proper 
strength and purity for anaesthesia. He said that the best ether on 
the market varies, and that the next edition should recognize an 
ether for anaesthesia, the standards for which should be very high 
regardless of cost, although he thought that ether could be manufac- 
tured more cheaply now than formerly. Remarks were also made 
by Professor Lowe and Messrs. Boring and Poley. 

Florence Yaple. 
Secretary pro tern. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, igio 



PHYSIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION: ITS VALUE 
AND LIMITATIONS. 

By Horatio C. Wood, Jr., 
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania. 

You have probably heard of the old Irishman who, when asked 
if he could play the violin replied, " Bedad I don't know ; I have 
never tried." Most men are not so modest in regard to their 
ability as pharmacologists. It is one of the peculiar traits of the 
human intellect that there are certain things that almost every 
man believes he can do as well naturally as those who have made 
them the pursuit of a lifetime. Among these occupations that are 
supposed to be Nature's free gift are preaching, boat-sailing and 
physiological assaying. 

It is not mere jealousy, however, that excites the indignation 
of the professional waterman at the conceit of the amateur sailor, 
it is the knowledge that human lives are the price of his presumption. 
So I trust you will pardon me if my language should become em- 
phatic, for you realize as do I that men are paying, if not with their 
lives, at least with their health, for the ignorance of self-styled 
pharmacologists. 

I shall not attempt, therefore, to discuss with you this afternoon 
how to make biological assays, for those of you who are trained in 
the methods of pharmacology need no instruction from me, and to 
those of you who are not it would be impossible to impart any useful 
information concerning the biological assay in the short space of a 
single afternoon. I purpose speaking to you, not as to those who 
are meditating making these tests themselves but as to those who' are 

(IOI) 



102 Physiological Standardization. {% a J r°ch"'mo ann ' 

weighing the advisability of introducing such tests into their busi- 
ness and who wish to know the likelihood of the innovation's paying, 
and are wondering where they can find some one qualified to under- 
take the work. To such I shall try to give some facts that may 
serve as an aid in deciding whether the biological assay is of suffi- 
cient value to justify the expense involved, by an unprejudiced 
summary of what in my opinion may and may not be hoped from it. 

And first I shall speak of its limitations. We sometimes read of 
the physiological test being used as a control of the chemical assay. 
To attempt to corroborate the findings of the chemist by a test 
on the living animal is about as sensible as it would be for a navi- 
gator to regulate his chronometer by an Ingersoll watch ; the relative 
accuracy of the chemical and physiological assay is about the same 
as that of the $200 chronometer and the dollar watch. The latter 
is in its place, however, a very useful apparatus ; a cheap watch is 
better than none at all. 

The experienced chemist can obtain accurate results because he 
knows the common sources of error which are likely to vitiate his 
conclusions and how to guard against them. In biological assay we 
know only of a few of the possible causes of inaccuracy and even 
some of these we cannot exclude. 

Foremost among the difficulties that destroy the accuracy of the 
biological test stands that mystery of which we know nothing but to 
which we give the name of idiosyncrasy. Every physician recog- 
nizes well the inexplicable susceptibilities of certain persons to cer- 
tain drugs, but many scientists forget that man is after all an animal 
and that the same biological facts hold for the humbler as for the 
highest type of mammal. After we learn to appreciate this possibil- 
ity of mistake the only means that we have to guard against it lies 
in the repetition of experiment sufficiently often that by the laws of 
chance any exceptional result will not greatly modify the average. 
Think of a chemist who would make routinely nine or ten assays 
of the same specimen and then expect an error of 10 or 20 per cent. 

Another well-known but frequently neglected fact is that disease 
has a potent influence on the reaction of the economy to chemical 
agents. Dogs and frogs are as likely to be sick as are men, indeed 
more so. It is often quite impossible to recognize an abnormal 
condition in an animal that you see but once for a few minutes im- 
mediately before the experiment ; against this fallacy the only defense 
we have is again the multiplicity of observation. 



Al March r "mo arm '} Physiological Standardization. 103 

From external conditions which affect the result it is easier to 
protect ourselves if we but know those which are likely to influence 
the effect of the drug under study. The difference in the suscepti- 
bility of frogs to many poisons in summer and winter is well known. 
Edmunds and Hale have conclusively shown the importance of this 
in the assay of digitalis, and my own experience has convinced me 
of the futility of hoping for accuracy in the assay of ergot on a hot 
summer day. There are many other circumstances whose impor- 
tance may be great but of which we know but little, as age, sex, 
breed, nourishment, etc. The difficulties arising from imperfect 
absorption, from the presence of antagonistic principles in crude 
drugs, of the perversities of inanimate objects, and similar technical 
obstacles I shall not occupy your time in discussing. I wish to 
emphasize, however, that even with the utmost care and with fre- 
quently repeated experiments we must be prepared for an error of 
from 10 to 15 per cent, or even more. 

Believing as I do that the biological assay is less accurate, more 
difficult, and often more costly, I cannot see how it can hope to 
compete with the chemical as a routine means of standardization. 
But when we recall that there are over a hundred crude vegetable 
drugs, including some of our most potent poisons, recognized by 
the Pharmacopoeia, for which we have no official process of assay, 
it is evident that there is need for a subsidiary method of determin- 
ing the comparative activity of our materia medica. It is probable 
that for some of these a chemical test will be provided in the next 
edition of that magnificent work which stands as incontrovertable 
evidence that in certain lines, at least, the sister professions of 
America are second to none in the world, but for many of these 
substances there is little hope that any reliable chemical test will be 
devised in the near future. Some of them are as unsuited for the 
pharmacologist as they are for the chemist, but many of them, and 
especially the more powerful ones, should lend themselves compara- 
tively readily to the physiological assay. Among those which seem 
pre-eminently suitable for biological standardization I may mention 
such important remedies as digitalis, squill, apocynum, aspidium, 
cannabis indica, ergot, gelsemium, lobelia, and veratrum, etc. If I 
can show you that the pharmacologist is able to solve many of the 
vexatious pharmaceutical problems that cling to these drugs, will 
you not grant me that he is worthy your most earnest encourage- 
ment in his work? 



104 Physiological Standardization. f Am. jour. Pharm. 



March. 1910. 



Let us try, therefore, to peer into the future and see what pros- 
pects of success lie before him who embarks on this enterprise. We 
can hope to penetrate the dark mist which hides from our vision what 
is to come, only through the telescope of history, and as a foundation 
for the prophecy of the destiny of biological assay I wish briefly 
to review with you some of the past accomplishments of the art. 

Before we seek to gauge the progress that has been made we must 
have a clear understanding of the goal towards which we are striv- 
ing, of the questions which we may hope to answer by the method. 
First and foremost of course we desire a means of determining the 
relative potency of individual samples of drugs ; in other words, 
to be able to distinguish between a specimen of good quality and one 
of poor grade. But allow me to emphasize with all the vigor that 
I can that this is not the ultimate nor even the chief aim of the real 
pharmacologist. The idea which is prevalent, that when a pharma- 
cologist has worked out a method of assay simple enough to be com- 
mercially available and accurate enough to be scientifically useful, 
he has fulfilled his whole duty to the pharmacist, is an error due I 
believe largely to the commercial dominance in the field of 
investigation. 

The man who is engaged in the drug business as a business is 
satisfied if his pharmacologist enables him to sell reliable goods, 
that is, to manufacture preparations of uniform strength ; but the 
scientific pharmacist wishes an answer to many and various ques- 
tions that have been perplexing his profession for years. He wants 
the biological assayer to aid him in discovering the most favorable 
condition under which the plant may be grown and the best method 
of collecting and preserving the crude drug ; the most useful solvent 
for extracting its activities ; the rate of deterioration which takes 
place both in the crude drug and its galenicals, and the methods 
of delaying these changes. Last but by no means least the pharma- 
cologist can be of invaluable assistance in working out methods of 
chemical standardization. 

Keeping these objectives before us, let us briefly review what has 
been accomplished with some individual drugs along the lines I 
have mentioned. 

Because of its great practical importance, and of its well-known 
liability to variations, and because it produces certain well-marked 
effects which would seem to make it an especially suitable object 
for physiological testing, digitalis has been more studied from the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1910. / 



P 1 iys iological S ta ndardiza tio n . 



105 



standpoint of biological standardization than any other drug. As 
long ago as 1866 Fagge and Stevenson attempted to determine the 
relative activity of several members of the digitalis group by their 
toxicity to frogs. Their studies, however, were undertaken chiefly 
with the idea of comparing bodies closely allied physiologically to 
digitalis, as antiarin, helleborein, and the like, rather than prepara- 
tions of digitalis itself. Apparently it was fifteen years later that the 
idea of using a similar method for determining the quality of 
preparations of digitalis was first projected. In the year 1881, 
two papers were published upon this subject, one by Bennefield, who 
used a method based upon the quantity of digitalis required to kill 
a rabbit, and the other by Frankel who based his calculations upon 
the changes caused in the movements of the dog's heart. It is not 
my purpose to enter into the vigorous discussion which has been 
waged as to the relative value of different methods of standardizing 
digitalis ; I wish only to express my conviction that no method of 
biological assay, the conclusions of which are expressed in units 
of a standard preparation, can be held to be satisfactory. The 
result of the physiological test must be such that it can be expressed 
in absolute language, perhaps like that which is used to express the 
standard for diphtheria toxin : the amount required to kill a certain 
weight of a certain animal in a given period of time, and under 
conditions which are accurately described. 

The first result of the physiological assays of digitalis was to 
yield scientific proof of a fact that was already shrewdly guessed, 
namely, that different samples of the drug varied enormously in their 
potency. It has been shown by a large number of investigators that 
the ordinary range of variation of different specimens of digitalis 
is anywhere within a limit of 400 per cent. That is, that the strong- 
est sample will be about four times as active as the weakest. Farr 
and Haynes found that the prejudice in favor of the second year 
leaves of the Digitalis purpurea is only partially justified; for while 
it is true that in the samples they examined the leaves of the second 
year's growth were slightly more active than those of the first year's 
growth, the difference was only as 8 to 10. Focke has shown that 
the leaves of the wild digitalis are more potent than those of the 
cultivated plant, and in the samples he examined Ott found that 
those which came from Bohemia were more potent than those from 
other parts of Europe. Wolff found that the deterioration of the 
crude digitalis leaves was due almost solely to improper methods 



io6 



P hysiol o gic a I Standard iza Hon. 



f Am. Jour. Ph&rm. 
\ March, 1910. 



of storing; if the leaves were dried in vacuo at a temperature of 
about i ocr and afterwards hermetically sealed, they retained their 
activity unimpaired for a long period of time. Dixon and Haynes 
were unable to observe any deterioration in a tincture of digitalis 
which was kept for four months without special precaution. Hough- 
ton found, however, that the present official liquid preparations of 
digitalis lost about 10 per cent, a year, although the tincture of 
strophanthus seemed permanent. A higher percentage of alcohol 
than at present required seemed also to be shown by his work to 
be desirable. 

Bennefield made an attempt to determine the quality of digitalis 
tincture by the percentage of the solid extractive matter which it 
contained, but found that this bore no relation to the physiological 
activities of the drug. In 1895 Keller described a method for the 
chemical assay of digitalis, based upon its percentage of digitoxin. 
Ziegenbein.and also Famulener and Lyons, found, however, by means 
of biological tests that Keller's method of assay was unreliable. In 
1904, Barger and Shaw confirmed these findings, and showed that 
the inaccuracy of Keller's method depended upon three facts : first, 
that it did not extract all the digitoxin ; second, that it did not iso- 
late the digitoxin in a pure condition : third, that digitoxin is not the 
only active ingredient of digitalis. Which reminds me of the story 
of the little girl, who when asked if she was going to Maggie Jones's 
party said, " No. she did not like Maggie Tones, she had nothing 
to wear and besides she was not invited." 

This hasty summary of what has been done through biological 
assay of digitalis seems to me to show great advancement in our 
knowledge of an extraordinary complex subject, for while we may be 
disappointed at the slowness of the progress it is undeniable that 
great advance has been made. Of the questions which we saw 
were within the province of the assayer to consider, all have been 
answered, if not with absolute finality, yet within the limits of 
scientific probability, except only the means of standardizing the drug 
chemically. He has told you how you may distinguish between 
active and feeble samples of digitalis, he has told you where grow 
the best quality of leaves, when to gather them and how to keep 
them with the minimum of deterioration, he has told you the best 
menstruum to extract their virtues and of the necessity of dating 
digitalis galenicals. I am convinced that did the pharmacist but 
hearken to the advice of the pharmacologist as to the manufacture 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1910. 



} Physiological Standardisation. 107 



of these preparations the clinician would cease to complain as to 
the quality of the tincture of digitalis which is dispensed to his 
patients. 

Another drug which has attracted attention as a worthy object 
of physiological assay is ergot. The earliest effort to ascertain the 
quality of ergot by biological means appears to have been made by 
Griinfeld with the method suggested by Prof. Kobert, of determining 
the dose necessary to interrupt the circulation in the comb and 
wattle of the rooster. Little practical use was made, however, 
of the biological method in connection with ergot until 1898, when 
Houghton published an account of some results of cock's comb 
assays practiced commercially. The workers with this drug have 
not been nearly so numerous as in the case of digitalis and the 
results are correspondingly meagre. Beyond the mere proof of 
the variability of galenical preparations of ergot almost nothing 
of value was added to our knowledge of this drug until within the 
last few years ; from a pharmaceutical standpoint no more was 
known of ergot at the opening of the present century than fifty 
years ago. 

Within the last three or four years, however, it has been the 
subject of more study and some very interesting facts have been 
brought to light by the work of Kraft, of Barger and Dale, of Ed- 
munds, and others. In the experiments which have been going on 
in the pharmacological laboratory of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania during the past two years we have been able to show that the 
inferior quality of the fluidextract of ergot which is at present on 
the market is due largely to changes which take place after its 
manufacture ; even in hermetically sealed bottles the loss of potency 
is at the rate of about 3 per cent, a month, and if the preparation 
is not guarded from contact with the air the deterioration may 
amount to 50 per cent, in a few weeks. Our recent evidence, 
although not conclusive, inclines us to the belief that, contrary to the 
popular opinion, the crude drug does not Aveaken so rapidly as the 
fluidextract. We have also worked out a method of chemically 
determining the quality of ergot which has so far yielded us figures 
fairly parallel to the results of physiological tests of the drug. 

I should like to mention one other individual example, very 
briefly, of progress in a pharmaceutical subject through physiologi- 
cal methods ; not so much because of the importance of the drug in 
question as for an evidence of what can be accomplished by a single 



108 Physiological Standardisation. {* m iiirch,5io* m ' 

capable worker in a comparatively short space of time. I refer to 
the contributions which have been made by Dr. Reid Hunt to our 
knowledge of the thyroid gland. In two interesting communications, 
published within a year of each other, Dr. Hunt described a method 
for standardization of the thyroid gland based upon principles 
which were absolutely new to biological assay ; showed the wide 
extent of variations in the commercial samples of the drug ; showed 
that the activity of the thyroid body varied not only with the species 
but with the age of the animal from which the glands were obtained, 
and the influences which special feeding of the animal may have 
upon the activity of the gland ; and, finally, determined that with 
unsophisticated glands the percentage of iodine was an accurate 
indicator of the quality of the drug. Truly, through this one man's 
efforts we have been led with dramatic suddenness from absolute 
darkness to the brilliancy of almost complete knowledge. 

I have chosen as examples of what may be accomplished three 
drugs which have yielded some interesting results, but I must con- 
fess that outside of these instances which I have mentioned little 
of importance has been added to our knowledge of practical phar- 
macy through physiological investigation. When we consider how 
much might have been done, and how little has been done, the 
pharmacologist may well bow his head in shame at the neglect of 
so fruitful a field. We cannot plead that the idea of biological 
assay is so recent that there has not been time enough for its de- 
velopment. More than forty years have elapsed since the method 
was earnestly suggested and for more than twenty-five years it has 
been more or less systematically applied in various laboratories 
of the world. There certainly has been time enough in this half 
century of an intellectual progress, whose rapidity has never been 
equalled at any stage of the world's history, for the development and 
application of the method of biological assay to a dozen drugs 
instead of one or two. 

But the laborers in this field have been so pitifully few that one 
should wonder not at the smallness of the harvest but at its abund- 
ance. We are, however, not altogether without excuse for the 
neglect of this field. Pharmacology is a young science — men some- 
times forget that the first pharmacologist in the modern sense of the 
word is still living and teaching — and in the enormous mass of 
problems the accumulations of centuries, many of them of funda- 
mental importance for its own development, which the world hurled 



Am." Jour. 'Pharm. 
March, 1910. 



| Physiological Standardization. 109 



at the infant science, it is little marvel that some have been neg- 
lected. And even to-day the little handful of men who are working 
in this line are being assailed on every hand to answer the widest 
variety of questions. We are supposed to tell immediately the 
exact physiological effects of new synthetics which are being dumped 
upon the profession by the wagon-load, to discover the laws which 
govern the relation of chemical composition to physiological action 
so that the chemists may dump their synthetized garbage upon us 
still more rapidly, we are asked to discover at once specifics for 
various fatal fevers which the growing intimacy with the tropics has 
made so important to civilized peoples, to furnish the means to the 
physiologist and pathologist for solving some of the obscure problems 
of their branches, to explain to the clinician the mode of action 
of the ancient remedies, and to convince him of the worthlessness of 
drugs whose inertness is hidden beneath the traditions of antiquity 
or the glitter of the advertiser's gold, to suggest new uses for old 
drugs and new drugs for old diseases, to — — Can you contemn 
pharmacologists that they have failed to recognize the importance 
of biological assay to practical medicine ? 

As a result of this the development of the physiological assay has 
been left largely in the hands of the manufacturers and they have 
been more interested in developing it as an advertising asset than as 
a means of standardization. This may seem a rather sweeping 
accusation but I think it no great exaggeration. You would think 
it strange, to say the least, if a manufacturing pharmacist were to 
entrust all his chemical work to a young man with no more experi- 
ence than is gathered in the ordinary course in a pharmaceutical 
college ; and if this same manufacturer were then boastingly to ad- 
vertise his chemical control of all his products you would hardly 
hesitate to criticize. Yet the situation in many of the so-called 
pharmacologic departments of wholesale druggists is even worse than 
this. You know that practical experience is necessary before a man 
can be trusted to turn out reliable chemical assays, no amount of 
book learning can take the place of the actual manipulation of the 
process. If this is true of chemical work in which we can put down 
in black and white the difficulties one is likely to encounter, how in- 
finitely more necessary is practical experience in a field where we 
know almost nothing of the way in which we may go astray, where 
reliable methods have not even been worked out, and where we are 



no Physiological Standardization. {^iSch'im" 11 ' 

dealing with a living reagent of whose delicacy of response we can 
never be sure. 

" But," say these men in defense, " it is not because we do not 
want them, but because we cannot get them, that we do not have 
competent experts in this line." To this I reply that the reason the 
manufacturers cannot get trained pharmacologists is because they 
will not pay the necessary price. I confess that at present the cost 
is large. The demand for pharmacologists to-day is greater than the 
supply and as is always the case in such conditions the price is high. 
Suppose a young pharmacologist holds a position at a university and 
is earning say $1500 a year, with congenial surroundings and good 
prospects for advancement, would he not be a fool to change such 
a position for a commercial one with the attached obloquy which 
justly or unjustly is associated with such work, in which the likeli- 
hood of further advance is remote, for practically the same financial 
recompense he is receiving for his university work? 

To tempt the scientist into commercial work requires two things : 
a larger salary than he is likely to receive for educational labor and 
a readjustment of the conditions which maintain in the laboratory of 
the drug manufacturers. He must cease to be regarded as a sort 
of attache to the advertising staff and be allowed at least a degree 
of scientific freedom. One of the chief reasons for the odium which 
pharmacologists consider inseparable from a commercial position 
is that the investigator must publish nothing or only that which 
his employer considers to be to the advantage of his business 
interests ; in other words, his work is limited not only as to its kind 
but also as to the results he shall obtain. Need I tell you that such 
a situation is utterly abhorrent to any man of scientific instincts? 

I see no reason why this last trouble should not be easily eradi- 
cated; just inject a little really ethical integrity into your business 
and the matter is arranged. As to the monetary question, I am not 
in a position to tell you whether you can stand the expense and 
continue to do business or not, that you must answer for yourself. 

If not, the problem becomes difficult, but it must be solved. If 
the next edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia includes more 
biological tests, and there is evidence of a growing sentiment in this 
direction, either the manufacturer will have to find, some one to 
make these tests or else stop making preparations of these drugs ; 
for if I read the times aright the inexperience of their experts is not 
going to be accepted by the Government as an excuse for the failure 



^March'wio™'} Physiological Standardization. in 

of their products to come up to the standard. Either the assay 
must be done rightly or, the manufacturer is going to have trouble 
with the law. 

While the number of drugs which require biological assay may 
seem at first thought too small to justify the outlay necessary to 
obtain a man competent to do the work, there are so many other ways 
in which a pharmacologist may make himself valuable, as, for in- 
stance, the introduction of new drugs and new preparations, that 
there is at least a strong possibility of such an expert being a paying 
investment even at present prices. If the manufacturer can afford 
to pay these necessary salaries let him step right up and do so and 
the dilemma is evaporated. 

If he cannot, I see but two possible alternatives : either the manu- 
facture of preparations of digitalis and other drugs which shall be 
biologically assayed will have to be left in the hands of the special- 
ists, as antitoxin is now, or else some artificial means of increasing 
the supply of pharmacologists will have to be adopted. 

To fulfil this latter the first step is to provide some place where 
the willing novitiate can obtain his education. At present the train- 
ing of a pharmacologist is almost universally an individual one ; that 
is, some young seeker for knowledge enters into the laboratory 
of some older man who> has previously trod the same path and 
labors and patiently accepts the simpler duties which he is fit to 
perform, watching his senior and gradually imbibing little by little 
a working knowledge of the art ; much the same process of education 
as the old fashioned apprentice was led through in the bygone days. 
Whether or not our modern more systematized and more rapid 
method turns out any better or as good workmen is a question open 
to debate, but at least it turns them out more rapidly, and quickness 
is the great desideratum in the eyes of the young America of to-day. 
The change of conditions occasioned by the passage of the various 
food and drug acts all over the country, and the consequent com- 
pulsion to abide by the standards in fact as well as in name, has 
led to the formation of courses intended for the training of experts 
in this line similar to the one established a year or two ago at this 
venerable College for nearly a century the pioneer in all movements 
looking to the uplift of the profession of pharmacy. 

But who is to give a course of training in methods of biological 
assay? Are the schools of medicine likely to do so? I think not, 
for while I grant you they are at present the best equipped institu- 



1 12 Assay of Medicinal Plasters. { ^mZ^ww™' 

tions for such work, the medical profession generally does not feel 
the pinch of necessity with quite the same sharpness that do the 
pharmacists. Will the schools of pharmacy undertake the task? 
Can they? I hardly think so unless some special aid is rendered 
them. Pharmacists generally speaking, teachers, retailers, and 
wholesalers, are only beginning to appreciate that under modern 
conditions all education has become a matter of philanthropy, 
not to' say charity. The world has long believed that a young man 
should be offered as much as he wants of general education and 
culture, at his own price, as is shown by our public school system, 
with its normal schools and high schools, and by our numerous 
partially endowed colleges. But we of to-day have gone a step 
further than our fathers and are giving young men not only their 
general education but are giving them their technical training- 
fitting them for their life-work, free of cost. You find the great 
universities of the land supporting their chemical departments, their 
engineering courses, their medical schools, etc., each being run at a 
large annual loss, and their continued existence made possible only 
through the aid of their alumni and friends. But the schools of 
pharmacy are attempting to struggle against this universal trend, 
to keep up the standard of their profession and yet make those who 
enter it pay for the privilege. It is a lost cause ; either you must 
be content to see the apothecary little by little degenerate into 
a minor merchant, or you must come to the financial assistance of 
your institutions of learning. There is no more practical way to 
begin than for you who most poignantly feel the need of pharmacol- 
ogists and who have been able to gather the means for the satisfying 
of your ambitions to establish in connection with your alma mater 
a post-graduate department for the training of young men for this 
work. The necessity is yours, the opportunity is yours, what will 
vou do with it? 



ASSAY OF MEDICINAL PLASTERS. 
By Frederick B. Kilmer. 

Comparatively little literature has appeared in scientific publi- 
cations in respect to the analysis or assay of medicinal plasters made 
with an India rubber base. 

The enactment of the Federal Food and Drugs Law and the 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 

March, 1910. J 



Assay of Medicinal Plasters. 



113 



enactment of similar laws in the various States has brought the 
subject to the attention, of the pharmaceutical chemist, and at the 
present time the subject is one of moment to both the medical and 
pharmaceutical professions. 

Prior to the issuance of the last revision of the Pharmacopoeia, 
no authoritative process of assay of any medicinal plaster appeared 
in that work. In this revision a process was given for the assay 
for mydriatic alkaloids in belladonna plasters made with a rubber 
base. Those who have given attention to the subject will no doubt 
agree with the statement that has been made, that it is a very 
difficult matter to assay some kinds of medicinal plasters made with 
a rubber base. It is a well-known fact that for some such plasters 
no method is known for the assay of the drugs contained therein, 
for the reason that the drug used has no alkaloid, or no alkaloid or 
no inorganic substance capable of definite measurement. 

In other varieties of these plasters the presence in the rubber base 
of resinous or other matters is such as to confuse the results and 
make them of doubtful value. In the laboratory of the writer con- 
siderable work has been done in the assay of this class of prepara- 
tions, and in our work we possess some advantages over any outside 
laboratory, in that as the laboratory is connected with the manufac- 
turing department it is at once known exactly what has been put into 
a plaster, and it is only necessary to provide methods of assay that 
will give the results looked for. The methods and processes which 
I herewith present are simply those which have been worked out in 
the laboratory, more particularly as a check to manufacturing proc- 
esses. They are presented for what they may be worth, with the 
hope that other workers may have an opportunity to try them and 
thus bring out information of value to those interested. 

BELLADONNA PLASTERS. 

For belladonna plasters we use the assay method of the eighth re- 
vision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. This process, with some 
slight modifications, has been entirely satisfactory in our laboratory, 
where assays running perhaps into thousands have been performed. 
It has also had the benefit of an extended check test, in that in this 
laboratory it is our practice to first assay the drug used in the 
manufacture of the plaster and then the solid extract made from the 
drug; the mass itself is made up of the assayed extract taken in an 
amount which will give in the finished product the desired percentage 



ii4 Assay of Medicinal Plasters. ■[ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1910. 



of alkaloid required in the plaster, and by this method of plaster 
assay the results have shown that in mixing several hundred pounds 
the assayed plaster corresponds with the calculated amount, often 
to the second and third decimal. 



, SALICYLIC ACID PLASTER. 

The method which we use for the analysis of salicylic acid plas- 
ter is a colorimetric method with ferric chloride. The depth of 
color imparted to a ferric chloride solution by a measured amount of 
a solution of the plaster is compared with that of a measured 
quantity of a -standard solution of salicylic acid of known strength. 
Colorimetric methods are always subject to some variation, chiefly 
on account of errors of eyesight ; but because of the presence of 
resinous materials in rubber plaster masses, no other method has 
been found to be satisfactory and we have found that in our hands, 
by careful manipulation, this color comparison method has given 
sufficiently satisfactory results. 

Plaster Solution. — Weigh out accurately about 5 Gm. of the 
plaster cut into rather small strips. Place on the table two beakers 
of about 1 50 c.c. capacity each. Designate them as No. 1 and No. 2. 
Place the weighed strips of plaster in No. 1. Add to it 50 c.c. of 
chloroform. Stir gently until all the compound is removed from the 
plaster-cloth and in solution. Pour the syrupy solution into beaker 
No. 2. Add to this in No. 2 beaker, 40 c.c. ordinary 94 per cent, 
alcohol, stir thoroughly to precipitate and coagulate the rubber and 
allow it to stand. Pour off all possible of the liquid into a glass 
stoppered graduate 250 c.c. flask. The rubber should be worked 
up into a compact mass so that no particles are carried over when 
the liquid is poured off and all possible liquid should be pressed out 
of the mass with a glass rod. To the plaster-cloth in beaker No. 1 
add 25 c.c. chloroform. Stir carefully and thoroughly until all the 
remaining plaster-mass is dissolved from the cloth and sides of the 
beaker. Again pour off the solution into beaker No. 2, which con- 
tains the precipitated rubber. Work up with glass rod until all of 
the rubber mass is again in solution in the chloroform. Now re- 
precipitate the rubber from this solution with 20 c.c. alcohol, work- 
ing up with rod and pouring off as before, mixing the fluid with 
the first portion in the flask. Once again wash the cloth in beaker 
No. 1 with 25 c.c. chloroform. Pour off into No. 2 beaker, dissolv- 
ing again the rubber mass in it. Re-precipitate the rubber from 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1910. J 



Assay of Medicinal Plasters. 



"5 



it with 20 cc. alcohol as before, pour of! and mix the decanted fluid 
with the other two portions in the flask which now contains all of the 
salicylic acid in solution. Fill the flask up to the 250 cc. mark with 
alcohol. Remove the cloth, which should now be white and clean, 
from beaker No. 1, allow it to dry spontaneously, and weigh. Sub- 
tract its weight from the total weight of plaster used, thus ascertain- 
ing the weight of plaster compound taken for assay. 

Standard Salicylic Acid - Solution. — Weigh out exactly 0.5 Gm. 
pure salicylic acid and dissolve it in 50 per cent, alcohol. Transfer 
to a 500 cc. glass stoppered graduated flask, rinse out the vessel, 
in which the acid was dissolved, with repeated portions of 50 per 
cent, alcohol, adding each portion to the solution in the flask. Make 
up to the 500 cc mark with 50 per cent, alcohol, shake thoroughly. 
One cc of this solution contains .001 Gm. salicylic acid. 

Analysis by Color Comparison. — For this work we use two large 
test-tubes of similar internal diameter (1% inches by 6 inches long). 
Any pair of glass cylinders or tubes will sufhce, but small diameter 
test-tubes do not give sufficient thickness of solution to secure enough 
depth of color with transmitted light. Place these tubes side by side. 
In a beaker place 100 cc. distilled water to which add one drop 
ferric chloride solution U.S. P. Stir the liquid and pour into each 
of the test-tubes 50 cc of it. Designate them No. 1 and No. 2. 
Now add to No. 1 tube from burette, sufficient of the standard sali- 
cylic acid solution to give a strong clean wine color. Stir with 
a glass rod after each addition of the acid solution. Multiply 
number of cc used by .001, which will give the weight in grammes 
of salicylic acid used in tube No. i-^the standard. Now add to tube 
No. 2 from another burette sufficient of the plaster solution exactly 
to match the color obtained in tube No. 1. This plaster solution 
must be added a little at a time and the solution in the test-tube 
well stirred with a glass rod after each addition. When the match- 
ing point is nearly reached it may be necessary to filter off the 
contents of the test-tube No. 2. Clean the tube and replace the 
fluid, proceeding thereafter to add the plaster solution a drop 
at a time. The reason for doing this is that the small amount 
of resinous matter separated from the solution may cloud the mix- 
ture in No. 2 test-tube and interfere with the color judgment. 
By closing one eye and observing the colors while holding the tubes 
side by side between the eye and a window the colors can be matched 
very closely. It is obvious that the quantity of plaster solution used 



n6 Assay of Medicinal Plasters. j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

March, 1910. 



contains the same amount of salicylic acid as was used in tube No. i. 
That quantity is already determined by means of the standard 
solution. Therefore 250 (total amount of plaster solution) divided 
by the number of c.c. plaster solution used in tube No. 2 and the 
result multiplied by grammes acid found to have been used in tube 
No. 1 gives the weight of acid in the plaster compound. Multiply 
the weight of the salicylic acid found by 100 and divide the result 
by the weight of the plaster compound used. The result is the per 
cent, of salicylic acid present. 

This method has been used chiefly with plasters containing 20, 
25, and 30 per cent, of salicylic acid. When very small percentages 
are present it will, of course, necessitate the addition of a much 
larger quantity of plaster solution to tube No. 2 in order to secure 
the same color as that of No. 1 tube and consequently the color of 
tube No. 2 will be unduly diluted. If by trial this is found to be 
the case, it will be necessary to prepare a weaker standard solution 
or else a more concentrated plaster solution. This matter can 
readily be determined by trial. 

In making these assays it is well to make three of each and to 
take the average. By doing this we have been able to get satisfac- 
tory results, the natural variations of color judgment balancing one 
another and the result being nearly correct in the average of the 
three determinations from one lot of plaster solution. 

MERCURIAL PLASTER. 

The requirement of the U.S. P. is that this plaster shall contain 
30 per cent, metallic mercury. 

Method of Assay. — Weigh out about 5 Gm. of the plaster, cut 
it into rather small strips. Place these in a beaker and add about 
50 c.c. benzol. Stir well for some time to soften and dissolve 
the compound. Pour the solution oft into a beaker of about 200 c.c. 
capacity, allowing the cloth to remain in the first beaker. To the 
cloth in the first beaker add repeated portions of about 50 c.c. 
benzol, stirring well and pouring oft each time into the second beaker 
until the mixed solutions amount to about 200 c.c. The clean 
cloth is now allowed to dry in the air, weighed, and its weight sub- 
tracted from the weight of the plaster taken. This gives the weight 
of the compound used. 

The mixed solutions of the compound, measuring about 200 c.c, 
are now well stirred and th«n allowed to stand covered in a tall 



Am." Jour. f'Phann. 1 
March, 1910. J 



Assay of Medicinal Plasters. 



117 



beaker until all the gray metallic mercury has settled to the bottom. 
This usually is accomplished in about twenty-four hours. Chloro- 
form can be substituted for benzol in this dissolving operation, but 
benzol is used in our work on account of its relative lightness, be- 
cause of which the mercury settles more quickly. 

When the gray mercury has settled out pour off carefully the 
supernatant benzol which contains the rubber and resins in solu- 
tion. On account of the high gravity of the mercury the benzol 
can be decanted until nothing remains but a slime of mercury pow- 
der. To this add at once one or two c.c. of aqua regia, warm it, 
stir, and let stand. If all gray color is not removed in about an 
hour add another c.c. of aqua regia, stir, warm, and let stand again, 
repeating the operation, if necessary, to dissolve all of the mercury. 
Use, however, as little acid as possible so as to avoid all but a slight 
excess, for much excess will interfere with the subsequent precipi- 
tation of the mercury by means of H 2 S. When the acid solution 
has lost all gray color, indicating the complete solution of the mer- 
cury, add about 50 c.c. water. Stir, and filter through a paper filter 
containing a tuft of absorbent cotton. The cotton catches the rloc- 
culent particles of resinous matter and prevents stoppage of the 
filtration by clogging. Rinse out the beaker with repeated portions 
of water, which is poured through the filter. Continue until about 
200 c.c. of filtrate is secured. Place this filtrate in an Erlenmeyer 
flask of ample capacity, pass H 2 S through it until the mercury is all 
precipitated as black HgS. Let it settle a few minutes and filter 
at once through a weighed filter paper of fine texture, wash the 
precipitate on the filter with a little water and dry at 100 C, cool, 
and weigh. Subtract the weight of the filter paper and calculate 
the resultant weight of the mercury sulphide to mercury, viz. : 

232 :20O = wt. HgS : x wt. mercury. 

The weight of mercury found multiplied by 100 and divided by 
the weight of the compound used gives the per cent, of mercury in 
the compound. 

AMMONIAC AND MERCURY PLASTER. 

The requirement of the U.S. P. is that this plaster shall contain 
18 per cent, metallic mercury. 

Method of Assay for Mercury. — This is the same as with mer- 
curial plaster. 



u8 



Assay of Medicinal Plasters. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1910. 



STRENGTHENING PLASTER. 

Assay for Iron. — Weigh out accurately two pieces of plaster of 
about 5 Gm. each, cutting them side by side from the same piece 
in order that the relative amount of compound to cloth will be the 
same in each piece. 

Dissolve off the compound from one of the pieces with repeated 
portions of chloroform until the cloth is clean. Allow the cloth to 
dry spontaneously and weigh it. Multiply its weight by 100 and 
divide by the total weight of plaster used. This gives the per cent, 
of cloth in the plaster, the figure so obtained to be used later. 

The second piece of plaster of known exact weight is placed in 
small clippings in a porcelain crucible and ignited. Dissolve the 
residue in warm concentrated hydrochloric acid, dilute to about 200 
c.c. with water, and filter. Pour the solution into a porcelain dish, 
heat nearly to boiling, and add ammonia in excess to precipitate 
the iron as Fe 2 OH 6 . Allow the precipitate to settle, decant on to a 
paper filter of known low ash value, wash the precipitate with hot 
water, and dry. This is now ignited in a weighed porcelain crucible 
with lid, the iron hydroxide being first carefully scraped from the 
filter and ignited alone in the crucible and the paper containing 
only a little adherent hydroxide is ignited separately on the lid 
of the crucible. When the paper is completely reduced to ashes, 
the lid is placed on the crucible and both are transferred to a desic- 
cator to cool. When cooled, weigh and subtract the weight of the 
crucible and lid from the weight of the same with contents. This 
gives the weight of iron oxide (Fe 2 O s ) contained in the crucible. 
This is calculated to metallic iron, viz. : 

160: ii2==wt. Fe 2 3 :^r wt. Fe. 

The percentage of cloth in the plaster has been determined as 
above in other piece of plaster, therefore the weight of the piece of 
plaster ignited is multiplied by the per cent, figure for cloth, deter- 
mined in the other piece of plaster. The weight so found is sub- 
tracted from the weight of plaster ignited, which result is the weight 
of compound ignited. 

The weight of Fe found, multiplied by 100, and divided by the 
weight of compound ignited gives the per cent, of Fe in the 
compound. 

To Arthur W. Clark and Powell Hampton acknowledgment is 
due for work in the elaboration of these processes. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 1 
March, 1910. / 



Chemical Assay of Ergot. 



119 



THE CHEMICAL ASSAY OF FLUIDEXTRACT OF ERGOT. 
By John R. Rippetoe. 

Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr., has recently shown (Am. Jour. 
Pharm., 8i, p. 215, May, 1909) that the benzol extract of the fluid- 
extract of ergot bears a proportional relation to its physiological 
action. Dr. Wood's physiological tests were made by the blood- 
pressure method. 

The writer for the past three years has been testing the fluid- 
extract by observing the action upon the cock's comb. Although 
the method is considered by most workers to be of little value, a 
marked difference is noted between fresh and old preparations. A 
fluidextract made from a drug of good quality, when injected into the 
thigh muscle of a Plymouth Rock rooster in a dose of 1.5 c.c. to one 
kilogramme bodyweight of rooster produces characteristic physio- 
logical reactions ; the breathing is dyspnceic, the wings are drooped, 
there is stupor, diarrhoea, and the wattles and comb become pale 
and then bluish-black in color. The dyspnoea usually passes off 
within three to five hours and the comb becomes normal within 
six to eight hours. After one year or more the preparation requires 
a larger dose to produce the same results. Apparently, so far as 
the action on the rooster is concerned, the preparation has 
deteriorated. 

Some of the preparations tested as above in the past have been 
recently assayed by Dr. Wood's benzol-extract method, the method 
having been modified as follows : Introduce 10 c.c. of the fluidextract 
into an eight-ounce bottle, add 20 c.c. water and 100 c.c. benzol. 
Shake the mixed liquids in a mechanical shaker for thirty minutes. 
Allow the liquid to stand until the benzol solution is clear. Decant 
50 c.c. of the benzol solution, evaporate, and dry the residue to con- 
stant weight on a water-bath at a low temperature. 

Date When Test on Rooster. Benzol Extract. 

Fluidextract Made. Date. Result. Oct. 1909. 

A June, 1907 July, 1907 Good 0.14 Gm. in 100 c.c. 

Feb., 1908 Poor 

B Nov., 1907 Feb., 1908 Good 0.20 Gm. in 100 c.c. 

Dec, 1908 Poor 



120 New Italian Pharmacopoeia. j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

March, 1910. 



C May, 1908 June. 1908 Good 0.26 Gm. in 100 c.c. 

Jan., 1909 Poor 

D June, 1909 July, 1909 Good 0.55 Gm. in 100 c.c. 

Alcoholic-drug Dec, 1908 Good 0.56 per cent, 
extract 

Glycerin-drug Dec, 1908 Very 0.09 per cent, 

extract poor 

The preparations were considered of " poor " quality when they 
required a 25 to 50 per cent, increase in the dose to produce the 
characteristic reaction of a preparation passed as " good." Each 
preparation was tested in duplicate, using two roosters and using 
the roosters for only one test. The samples marked alcoholic and 
glycerin-drug extract, were prepared and used for comparison of 
alcoholic and glycerin menstruums as reported by me in a paper 
published in the Amer. Jour. Pharm., 81, p. 85, Feb., 1909. 

While no previous assays of benzol extract were made on the 
samples, it is of interest to note that they contain a proportional 
lower amount of extract according to their age. It is also noted 
that the preparations after eight months' aging required larger 
doses to produce the desired action upon the cock's comb. 
Analytical Department, 
Schieffelin & Co., New York. 



THE NEW ITALIAN PHARMACOPOEIA. 
By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D.C. 

Farmacopea Ufficiale del regno d'ltalia, terza edizione, is the 
official title of the new Italian Pharmacopoeia bearing the imprint: 
" Roma Tipografia delle Mantellate, 1909," and advertised to sell 
for Lire 5 (about one dollar). 

Coming as this book does shortly before the convening of our 
own Pharmacopoeial Revision Convention, a review of some of 
the more characteristic features may perhaps be of interest as 
suggestions for innovations to avoid or to adopt. 

The book is printed in Italian with Latin sub-titles and con- 
tains a total of xiv and 452 pages, 8vo. As a pharmacopoeia it 
contains an innovation in the shape of an " Elenco " containing 
descriptions of proprietary preparations, including a total of 91 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 

March, 1910. / 



New Italian Pharmacopoeia. 



121 



titles ; several of these titles, however, include a long line of 
preparations, such as hypodermic solutions and medicinal granules. 

The official descriptions from the " Spirit of Minderer " (Acetato 
di Ammonio) to " Sugar " (Zucchero) cover a total of 340 pages 
and aggregate 659 titles or monographs: if animal drugs, 158 
vegetable drugs, 195 chemical substances, 257 pharmaceutical 
preparations, and 18 general descriptions or formulas. 

For the student who is not well versed in Italian this book is 
rather difficult to consult, as it is arranged alphabetically accord- 
ing to the Italian titles. 

Thirty titles were deleted and 54 new titles added. Among 
the new additions we find such old and new friends as acetyl 
salicylic acid ; adrenalin, diethymalonylurea, hexamethylene-tetra- 
mine, ether for anaesthesia, silver fluoride, quinine ethylcarbonate. 
sodium formate, sodium glycerophosphate, calcium glycerophos- 
phate, pyramidon, methyl salicylate, stovaine, talcum, trional, 
quinine tannate, trioxymethylene, seidlitz powder, and wine of 
antimony. 

The provisions of the International Congress for the unification 
of the formulae of potent medicaments are closely adhered to and 
all of the titles included in the Brussels protocol are designated 
(F. I.) " formola internazionale." The international drop counter 
is recognized and a table added giving the number of drops of 
official preparations necessary to weigh one gramme, also the 
weight of one drop in milligrammes. 

Many of the monographs include two or more drugs, thus under 
" arnica " we find descriptions of " arnicas flores et rhizoma " and 
under " arancia amaro " descriptions of " aurantii amari cortex, 
flores et folia." The botanical descriptions are general rather than 
detailed and there are comparatively few tests included in the 
descriptions for vegetable drugs. 

The titles of official preparations are all enumerated under the 
descriptions of the drugs and chemical substances. 

Volatile oils are classified under the general heading " Essenze," 
" olea volatilia " and the related aromatic waters are directed to 
be made, by distillation, from the drug itself. 

Among the more novel pharmaceutical preparations are granules 
of aconitine. of arsenous anhydride, of strychnine nitrate, and of 
atropine sulphate, also ophthalmic discs of atropine, of cocaine, 
and of eserine. 

Under elixirs we find but a single title " elixir acidum hallerii." 



122 New Italian Pharmacopoeia. { km id™£ 5™ 

a mixture of equal parts, by weight, of concentrated sulphuric acid 
and 90 alcohol. 

Fluidextracts are represented by four formulas — " segata cor- 
nuta " (ergot), " hamamelis," " idraste " (hydrastis), and " cascara 
sagrada." 

Decoctions and infusions are still liberally represented. Under 
the general heading " Decotti-Decocta," we find ten additional 
formulas and under the general heading " Infusi-Infusa " we find 
no less than eighteen additional formulas, two of these latter prepa- 
rations are compound preparations, one practically the equivalent 
of the aqueous tincture of rhubarb of the N. F. while the other 
is an infusion of senna with manna. 

Under " Sterilizzazione " we find a comprehensive monograph 
on sterilization, including directions for sterilizing with and with- 
out an autoclave and notes directing attention to some of the pre- 
cautions that are necessary to prevent decomposition of such sub- 
stances as cocaine, morphine, and eserine. 

Maximum single and daily doses are appended to the more 
potent articles and the preparations containing them and these 
doses are again presented in the form of a table in the Appendix 
to the pharmacopoeia. 

Among the remaining, more or less interesting, tables that are 
appended we find a list of reagents and volumetric solutions and 
a list of indispensable chemical apparatus, a list of medicaments 
that must be in stock, and also a list of the pharmaceutical apparatus 
that must be in each pharmacy, and finally the protocol of the 
Brussels Conference for the unification of the formulae of potent 
medicaments. 

The index is rather a comprehensive one and includes thirty 
double column, closely printed pages. 

In conclusion it may be said that the Italian Pharmacopoeia, in 
common with practically each one of the recently published phar- 
macopoeias of the Latin European countries, is a curious jumble of 
the old and the new. It represents a survival of antiquated and 
obsolete drugs and preparations with modern ideals for international 
standards and an unusually great number of the newer remedies. 

Tt recognizes the value of sterilization and is the only national 
pharmacopoeia to recognize and describe proprietary mixtures. 
Taken altogether, however, the book is a creditable one indeed and 
reflects erudition and ability both on the part of the medical prac- 
titioners and the pharmacists for whose use it is designed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1910. / 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



123 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING LITERA- 
TURE RELATING TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

Not for many years have the happenings in the pharmaceutical 
line attracted such wide-spread attention and discussion as at 
present, and, if interest is an indication of importance, pharmacists 
who can manage to keep abreast of the progress that is being made 
are destined to come into their own in the near future. 

The interest in the forthcoming Pharmacopceial Convention is 
growing. Both medical and pharmaceutical journals are devoting 
considerable space to the consideration of matter relating to the 
Pharmacopoeia. As the time for the convention approaches, we 
also find an ever-increasing difference of opinion on the scope and 
content of the Pharmacopoeia manifesting itself. One extreme, in 
this connection, is that embodied in the so-called Coudrey Bill. 

The U.S.P. and the Coudrey Bill. — Some of the daily papers and 
many of the medical and pharmaceutical journals have recently 
devoted considerable space to the discussion of a bill introduced 
in the House of Representatives on December 10, 1909, by Repre- 
sentative Coudrey. This bill is officially designated as H.R. 13859, 
and it provides for the amendment of the Pure Food and Drugs 
Act of 1906 so as to require " That the United States Government 
should edit and publish the United States Pharmacopoeia or the 
National Formulary, and have a complete test for purity and 
strength of all drugs and chemicals whether generally used or not." 

Dr. H. H. Rusby (A. Ph. A. Bulletin, 1910, p. 82) recently 
expressed the belief that the Pharmacopoeia being a national stand- 
ard should include all drugs that are used to any considerable 
extent. He also believes that a new class of drug standards will 
be essential. Such a class should include : ash test, limit of starch 
in non-starchy drugs, limit of woody tissue in non-woody drugs, 
extraction constants, and clearer definitions. 

The Medical Profession and the Pharmacopoeia. — An editorials 
points out that : " A thoroughly up-to-date Pharmacopoeia — one 
which will truly reflect the best medical practice of the present time 
— will contribute more to sane drug therapeutics than any other 



124 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1910. 



one thing," and quotes Sollmann who suggests that : " If the 
Pharmacopoeia is not and cannot be made practically important 
to physicians, then let us abandon it altogether." — /. Am. M. Assoc., 
1909, 53, P- 1645. 

Suggestions for the Pharmacopoeia of the United States by Dr. 
Oliver T. Osborne, of Yale Medical School, have appeared in 
serial form, in recent numbers of the Journal of the American Med- 
ical Association (1910, 54, pp. 50, 132, 208, 290, 376, 467). The 
author presents a number of really practical suggestions that are 
well worth careful consideration, but they are too numerous and too 
comprehensive to reproduce in abstract. 

The National Formulary. — This book is also attracting con- 
siderable attention, and much valuable material is being presented 
in connection with the meetings of the local branches of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association. Among the more novel sugges- 
tions offered recently is one offered at the meeting of the Pittsburg 
Branch of the A. Ph. A. by Louis Emanuel, who proposes the 
introduction of a class of preparations designated " Vehicular " to 
be used as the name indicates, as vehicles for active medicaments. — 
A. Ph. A. Bulletin, 1910, February, p. 90. 

The National Formulary Superfluous. — Donald McKesson is 
quoted as saying: "The N.F. as an official standard in prescribing 
the make-up of compounds hinders progress and improvement. It 
is only necessary that the ingredients be standard and the label 
correct and sufficiently descriptive. It is, of course, understood 
that some few of these compounds, by reason of popular and long 
usage, should be controlled and these might be properly introduced 
into the U.S. P. — Drug Topics, 1910, p. 19. 

Digest of comments on the Pharmacopoeia of the United States 
of America (eighth decennial revision) and the National Formulary 
(third edition) for the calendar year ending December 31, 1906, has 
just been published as Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 58. The 
book comprises a total of 523 pages and includes a comprehensive 
review of the literature of 1906 relating to official articles. This 
bulletin is available to all who may be interested on application to 
the Surgeon-General of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
Service. 

Reports of the Chemical Laboratory of the American Medical 
Association to January 1, 1909, and Reports of the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry for 1905, 1906, 1907, and 1908 are two 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
March, 1910. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



small 8vo volumes of 84 and 207 pages respectively that contain 
much useful and interesting information relating to the composition 
of medicinal substances and the method of exploiting them. The 
information contained in these books should be of value to the phar- 
macist and the pharmaceutical chemist, and the two volumes might 
very properly find a place on the reference book-shelf of every 
pharmacy. 

Among government publications that contain information of 
more than usual interest to the pharmacist are Bulletin No. 61 of 
the Hygienic Laboratory and Bulletin No. 126 of the Bureau of 
Chemistry. The former of these bulletins records quantitative 
pharmacological studies on the relative physiological activity of 
commercial solutions of epinephrine, by W. H. Schultz, and the 
latter (see A. J. P., 81, p. 420) contains a compilation of data on 
the " Harmful Effects of Acetanilid, Antipyrin, and Phenacetin," 
by L. F. Kebler, F. P. Morgan, and Philip Rupp. The latter bulle- 
tin has served to arouse renewed interest in the harmfulness of 
so-called " patent " medicines generally, and with other happenings 
of more recent date has served to call renewed attention to the 
responsibilities of the pharmacist in connection with the exploitation 
and sale of nostrums. 

Up until quite recently it was generally supposed that retail drug- 
gists as a class recognized the mischief that could be and was being 
done by nostrums generally and that the continued sale of these 
articles in drug stores was at least largely due to the fact that 
patrons had become accustomed to purchase them, in connection 
with postage stamps and soda water, in the modern combination 
emporium known as a drug store. The development of a number 
of co-operative patent medicine manufacturing concerns has at- 
tracted the attention of medical men and the Journal of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association has but recently (January 8 and 22, 19 10) 
called attention to the methods of one of the larger of these con- 
cerns. The several editorials have attracted considerable attention, 
and in pharmaceutical circles have tended to show the existence 
of differences of opinion even among men of whom it might have 
been expected that they would be well informed in regard to the 
limitations of ready-to-take medicines. 

That there are still many retail druggists in this country who 
are not willing to sacrifice honor for profit is evidenced by the open 
letter from Mr. Henry C. Blair, published in the Pharmaceutical 



126 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1910. 



Era (February, 19 10, p. 128) and by the reported action of the 
Philadelphia Association of Retail Druggists disavowing any inter- 
est, as an association, in the American Druggists' Syndicate. 

British Pharmaceutical Codex. — This book, which has been out 
of print for some months since, is now in press and at a recent 
meeting of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society it was an- 
nounced that proof would soon be ready to submit to the Codex 
Revision Committee. 

Pharmacopoeia Suecica IX. — A review of the recent, ninth, edi- 
tion of the Swedish Pharmacopoeia calls attention to a number of 
more or less novel features. It appears that this Pharmacopoeia 
has. taken rather an advanced stand regarding active ingredients, 
and directs that for oil of anise or oil of fennel anethol be dispensed 
and that for oil of eucalyptus or oil of cajuput, eucalyptol be fur- 
nished. — Apothek.-Ztg., Berl., 1910, 25, p. 29. 

New Hungarian Pharmacopoeia. — A review of this, the third, 
edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia points out that the decree 
of the Minister of the Interior, bearing the imposing number 
100,000, specifies that this book become the official authority on 
January 1, 1910. The book is printed in Magyar and in Latin, the 
two being bound together in a single volume. The work includes 
526 official preparations and 106 reagents. The Latin nomenclature 
resembles that of the German and Austrian Pharmacopoeias and the 
monographs generally suggest those included in the German Phar- 
macopoeia. The decisions of the Brussels Convention have been 
closely adhered to and percolation has been generally adopted for 
preparing the tinctures of potent drugs. Specific gravity and extract 
content is specified for some tinctures and the alkaloid content is 
also specified in some instances. The list of appliances and utensils 
with which every pharmacy must be supplied includes : a distilling 
plant, a steam apparatus, a tablet machine, a sterilizer, and a com- 
pound microscope, magnifying at least 300 diameters. — Chem. and 
Drug., Lond., 1910, 76, p. 18. 

New Italian Pharmacopoeia. — The " Farmacopea Ufficiale del 
Regno d'ltalia," III, is the first of the Continental pharmacopoeias 
to be re-revised since the meeting of the International Conference 
in Brussels. It will perhaps be remembered that the second edition 
of the Italian Pharmacopoeia was in press at the time and the Brussels 
Conference Protocol was therefore included as an appendix. In 
the present edition the several provisions of the protocol have been 



Am. Jour. Pharai. ( 
March, 1910. \ 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



127 



quite fully embodied in the Pharmacopoeia itself and each one of 
the included articles is specially designated (F. L). 

Centenary of the Journal de Pharmacie. — The centenary of the 
universally well known " Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, Paris," 
was recently celebrated by a dinner given at the Palais d'Orsay 
Hotel by Professor Jungfleish, president of the Editorial Committee 
of the journal, to his colleagues. The history of the journal was 
reviewed and its influence on the evolution of pharmacy in all 
portions of the world was commented on. — Chem. and Drug., Lond., 
1910, 76, p. 37. 

The Transactions of the Section on Pharmacology and Thera- 
peutics of the American Medical Association, at the sixtieth annual 
session, held at Atlantic City, N. J., June 8 to 11, 1909, have just 
been published and constitute a larg'e 8vo volume of 252 pages. 
Much of the material presented in this volume is of unusual inter- 
est to pharmacists, as it includes all of the papers and discussions 
on the Pharmacopoeia that attracted such attention at the time. The 
book is printed by the American Medical Association Press, Chicago. 

Serums and Vaccines. — A recent number of the Journal of the 
American Medical Association (Jan. 22, 1910) is devoted largely 
to a discussion of serums and vaccines, no less than eleven separate 
communications being included. For two of the preparations, 
vaccine virus and tetanus antitoxin, the plea is made that they 
should be included in the next edition of the U.S. P. 

Serotherapy and the Pharmacopoeia. — An editorial, commenting 
on the above series of papers on sera and allied products, calls 
attention to the great importance of these substances and the 
desirability of having a number of them recognized in the Phar- 
macopoeia, with proper directions for their preservation and an 
enumeration of the precautions that are necessary to guarantee 
uniform efficiency. — /. Am. M. Assoc., 19 10, 54, p. 295. 

Vaccine Virus. — Dr. M. J- Rosenau believes that vaccine virus 
is deserving of official recognition because it is the oldest and best 
known specific preventive. It is a drug in the broadest sense of 
that term, and official recognition at this time would tend to estab- 
lish for it an official and legal name and avoid future confusion with 
the bacterial vaccines and other so-called " vaccines " that are now 
being used in the prevention and cure of disease. Another advan- 
tage would be secured from the calling attention to the need for 
keeping this preparation in a uniformly cool place." — Ibid., 54, pp. 
250-251. 



J 28 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1910. 



Tetanus Antitoxin. — Dr. John F. Anderson describes the com- 
mercial preparations of tetanus antitoxin and calls attention to the 
variations in strength that were found before the general adoption 
of the American standard for determining the strength of this sub- 
stance. He believes that this antitoxin is rightfully entitled to be 
included in future editions of the U.S. P. — Ibid., 54, pp. 253-254. 

Physiological Testing of Ergot Preparations. — John C. Umney 
discusses the practicability of establishing a standard for prepara- 
tions of ergot, and reports that three physiological experts gave 
widely varying opinions on a sample of fluidextract of ergot pre- 
pared from fine bold ergot by the B.P. method. — Pharm. J. } Lond., 
1909, 73> P- 794- 

Physiological Standardization. — Alexander Goodall asserts that 
there is a growing recognition of the necessity for determining the 
activity and the probable strength of certain potent remedies whose 
active principles have hitherto successfully eluded the persevering 
researches of the chemist. Among the drugs that should be tested 
in this way he mentions squill, digitalis, strophanthus, cannabis 
indica, suprarenal substance, and ergot. — Pharm. J., Lond., 1910, 
74, pp. 112-113. 

Strophanthin. — Fleishmann ' and Wjasmenski (Dent, med. 
Wchnschr., 1909, No. 21) report observations on 31 cases of intra- 
venous injections of strophanthin gratus. While this method of 
administration is pointed out as being remarkably efficient, attention 
is also called to the fact that much care is necessary in the use of 
this remedy, as the therapeutic dose is dangerously near the toxic 
dose. The dose for an adult they give as 0.0005. — Nonv. Reined., 
1909, 26, p. 517. 

Digalen. — Worth Hale reports a comparative study of digalen 
and concludes that this article is not a uniformly stable preparation. 
Biologic tests also indicate that digalen is relatively much less potent 
than corresponding amounts of crystalline digitoxin but is of about 
the same activity as digitalein. — /. Am. M. Assoc., 1910, 54, pp. 
35-38. 

Digipuraium. — The same investigator also reports a study of 
the comparative strength of digipuratum, said to be a purified extract 
of digitalis, and concludes that this preparation is of about the 
same activitv as the strongest digitalis preparations on the market, 
but that it appears to offer no special advantages over standardize-1 
official preparations. — Ibid., 54, pp. 129-130. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1910. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



129 



Colocynth Constituents. — Power and Moore review the literature 
relating to the constituents of colocynth and report a comprehen- 
sive examination of Turkish colocynth. The seed represented 75.5 
per cent, of the weight of the peeled fruit. They further demon- 
strate that the so-called colocynthin and colocynthitin, and perhaps 
other products heretofore obtained from colocynth and to which 
specific names have been attached, are indefinite mixtures, that the 
amount of glucosidic substance present in this drug is very small, 
and that the activity of colocynth is due to at least two principles, 
one of which is alkaloidal, although a very weak base, while the 
other is non-basic. — Chem. and Drug., Lond., 1910, 76, p. 150. 

Refractive Indices of Essential Oils. — Ernest J. Parry, com- 
menting on the refractive indices of essential oils, asserts that the 
refractometer is an absolutely necessary instrument in a laboratory 
where essential oils are examined, and points out that considerable 
information regarding the identity and composition of volatile oils 
can be obtained by the systematic examination of the several frac- 
tions obtained in the fractional distillation of an oil. He also 
enumerates the refractive indices of a number of essential oils, of 
the normal constituents, of adulterants, and of other liquids. — Chem. 
and Drug., Lond., 19 10, 76, p. 178. 

Cajuput Oil. — Baker and Smith report that a sample of oil of 
cajuput distilled from Melaleuca uncinata gave: specific gravity 
0.9259, optical rotation -f- 7.2 °, refractive index 1.4788, saponifica- 
tion number 3.05, and solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol 1— 1 5. — 
Chem. and Drug., Lond., 1910, 76, p. 151. 

Medicinal Herbs. — To pharmacists and others who are inter- 
ested in the cultivation and gathering of medicinal herbs, an illus- 
trated article in the " Winter issue " of the Chemist and Druggist 
(Lond., 1910, 76, pp. 179-182), describing the cultivation and the 
gathering of herbs in Kent, will prove to be more than usually 
interesting. 

Veronal. — An abstract (from Medical Press) points out that an 
alarming number of deaths from the use of veronal, either by acci- 
dent or intention, have been reported within the past few weeks, 
and the matter is pointed out as being well deserving of the serious 
attention of the government. In a recent veronal poisoning case 
at Cardiff the coroner expressed the opinion that there should be 
some legislation which, without interfering with the legitimate 
trade of the chemist, should form a protection for the public, so 



130 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1910 



that drugs like- veronal could not be so easily obtained. — Pharm. ]., 
Lond., 1909, 83, p. 690. 

Adulterated Squill. — Karl Dieterich reports sorting over 20 kilos 
of squill and separating out upward of 1 kilo of fair-sized fragments 
of stone. This he thinks is too great a proportion to accept as being- 
accidental. — Pharm. Zentralh., 1909, 50, pp. 971-972. 

Echinacea. — A report of the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry of the American Medical Association reviews the history and 
the uses of echinaceas and points out that its use is characterized 
by an absolute lack of scientific scrutiny of the claims that have 
been made for it, and that until more reliable evidence is presented 
in its favor it is unworthy of consideration. — /. Am. M. Assoc., 
53, P- 1836. 

Sugar Production. — An abstract from the Board of Trade 
Journal gives the total sugar production of Europe during the 
season 1908-9 as being 6,487,000 metric tons as compared with 
6,562,274 metric tons in 1907-8. The production of sugar in extra 
European countries is estimated at 7,765,500 metric tons, thus 
making a total sugar production for 1908-9 about 14,252,500 metric 
tons as compared with 13,911,655 metric tons in 1907-8. — Pharm. /., 
Lond., 1909, 83, p. 690. 

Hydrogen Dioxide. — Endemann (Annates de chimie analytique) 
remarks that the acidity of this substance, when titrated with sodium 
hydrate, using phenolphthalein as an indicator, will vary with the 
age of the preparation. According to his observations the addition 
of sodium hydrate to an active solution, of hydrogen dioxide tends 
to form NaOOH which does not give an alkaline reaction with the 
phenolphthalein. To obtain exact results he proposes adding an 
excess of alkali, heating to decompose the peroxide, and, after cool- 
ing, titrating back with solution of hydrochloric acid. — /. de Pharm. 
d'Anvers., 1909, 65, p. 863. 

Gelatin, Sterilized Solutions of. — George P. Forrester points 
out that the possibility of gelatines harboring tetanus spores makes 
the preparation and use of solutions of gelatin a source of anxiety 
to the manufacturer and the physician. He outlines several methods 
for preparing solution of gelatin, including that of the Swiss Phar- 
macopoeia, which provides for controlling the sterility of solutions 
of gelatin by injecting them into guinea-pigs and white mice. — 
Pharm. J., Lond., 1909, 83, p. 794. 

Colors, Odors, and Flavors in Pharmacy. — These are discussed 



Am. Jour. Pharm.* 
March, 1910. f 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



by W. Gartside in a short paper in which he makes several practical 
suggestions. He concludes that for alkaline liquids carmine is a 
satisfactory red color, while for acids tincture of cudbear is to be 
preferred. For percolating cudbear he suggests the admixture 
of 50 per cent, of pine sawdust. For a brown color a solution of 
ordinary caramel is used, and for yellow he proposes a 4 per cent, 
tincture of saffron or a hydro-alcoholic solution of annatto. For 
blue a solution of indigo carmine is suggested, and for green a 
blending of the yellow with the blue. The suggestions for odors and 
flavors are also quite practical. — Pharm. J., Lond., 1909, 83, pp. 
757-75%- 

Syrup of Wild Cherry. — Robert R. Hallaway reviews some of 
the recent literature relating to syrup of wild cherry, outlines a 
method for determining the hydrocyanic acid content of the bark 
and the resulting syrup, and concludes that not any of the recently 
described methods for making syrup of wild cherry extracts all 
of the available hydrocyanic acid. — Ibid., 83, p. 798. 

Syrup of Wild Cherry. — J. C. Umney discusses the uses of syrup 
of wild cherry and points out that this preparation is largely em- 
ployed as a vehicle for alkaloids such as heroin and codeine, and that 
these substances are naturally precipitated by the astringent syrup. 
He suggests that this difficulty might be overcome by a proper 
selection of the bark, and proposes that the Pharmacopoeia include 
tannin limitation tests. — Ibid., 83, p. 800. 

Opium Alkaloids in Preparations of Opium. — Van de Kreke and 
Swart report a comprehensive study to determine the degree of 
completeness with which morphine, narcotine and codeine are dis- 
solved in making the several official galenical preparations. The 
opium used contained 14.7 per cent, of morphine, 3.83 per cent, of 
narcotine and 0.75 per cent, of codeine. Their results indicate that 
morphine readily goes into solution, either in an aqueous or an 
alcoholic menstruum, but that narcotine and codeine are but im- 
perfectly dissolved by the former, while they are readily dissolved by 
an alcoholic menstruum. — Pharm. Weekbl., 1909, pp. 1338-1342. 

Ointments in Collapsible Tubes. — A rather ingenious contrivance 
for dispensing ointments in collapsible tubes is described and figured 
in a recent number of the Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle (1909, 50, 
pp. 981-982). The essential feature of the scheme is to encase the 
ointment in impervious paper and to slide the ointment thus encased 
into the desired tube. 



132 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Eharm. 
\ March, 1910. 



International Standards. — A. Schamelhout reports the Second 
International Congress for the Suppression of Fraud and comments 
at some length on the agreement reached in connection with the 
proposed international standards for drugs. Among these several 
standards are: 

Aconite. — Dried aconite root should have a minimum of 0.5 per 
cent, of total alkaloids. 

Aloes. — Good quality aloes should be at least 60 per cent, sol- 
uble in water and not yield more than 1.5 per cent, of ash. 

Asafetida. — The portion of this drug insoluble in boiling alcohol, 
90 per cent., should not exceed more than 50 per cent, of the total 
weight and the drug should not yield more than 20 per cent, of 
ash. 

Balsam of tolu should not yield more than 1 per cent, of ash. 

Benzoin. — Siam benzoin should not yield more than 2 per cent, of 
ash and not more than 10 per cent, of material insoluble in ether or 
alcohol. 

Cantharides should not yield more than 9 per cent, of ash and 
should contain at least 0.5 per cent, of cantharidine. 

Coca leaves should contain at least 0.5 per cent, of alkaloids. 

Digitalis should be collected from wild growing plants. 

Ergot should not yield more than 1.5 per cent, of ash and should 
contain at least 0.1 per cent, of alkaloids. 

Adeps lance should not contain more than 0.2 per cent, of ash. 

Codliver oil should have a specific gravity of from 0.920 to 
0.930; iodine index, after four hours of contact, not below 140 and 
not above 170; and a saponification index of from 180 to 195. 

Hydrastis should contain at least 2 per cent, of alkaloid. 

Lycopodium should not yield more than 0.5 per cent, of ash. 

Opium should contain at least 10 per cent, of morphine. When 
dried to a constant weight, at 6o° C, should not lose more than 
10 per cent, of weight. It should yield at least 45 per cent, of 
extract to water, equal to 38 per cent, of dry extract, and should 
yield not more than 6 per cent, of ash. 

Rhatany should yield at least 12 per cent, of extract and yield 
not more than 5 per cent, of ash. 

Scammony, Natural and Extracted. — Because of the difficulty 
presented by the selection of a satisfactory definition for scammony 
it was decided to postpone this for a future congress. — Bull. Soc. 
Roy. de Pharm., Bruxelles, 1909, 53, pp. 321-340. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ( 
.March, 1910. J 



Book Reviews. 



133 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Food Inspection and Analysis. For the use of Public 
Analysts, Health Officers, Sanitary Chemists, and Food Economists. 
By Albert E. Leach, S.B., Chief of the Denver Food and Drug 
Inspection Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. Second edition, revised and enlarged. New York : 
John Wiley and Sons, 1909. 

It is now five years since the first edition of this valuable work 
was published. During this time considerable progress has been 
made in food-control work, both in this country and Europe. The 
second edition reflects the progress that has been made, in that the 
changes and improvements have been incorporated in this volume. 
Of the chapters which have been revised, those treating of the fol- 
lowing subjects may be mentioned: meats and meat extracts; flour 
including methods for determining the grade and for the detection 
of bleaching) ; noodles and Italian pastes ; paprika ; prepared mus- 
tard; tea; coffee; cocoa products (including milk chocolate) ; ice 
cream; maple products ; honey; oils (including the Polenske num- 
ber and Bomers phytosterol-acetate test for vegetable oils) ; distilled 
liquors and preservatives (notably benzoic acid). 

A valuable chapter on flavoring extracts has been introduced, 
including the examination of the lesser used extracts of almond, 
peppermint, wintergreen, rose, cassia, and cloves. A new chapter 
on the refractometer and its application in food analysis is also 
included. Much of the credit in bringing this new edition up to 
date is due to Dr. A. L. Winton, Chief of the U. S. Food and Drug 
Inspection Laboratory at Chicago. 

The work comprises 21 chapters, including nearly 1000 pages, 
and an indication of its completeness may be had from an enumera- 
tion of the subjects treated: Food analysis and official control; 
the laboratory and its equipment ; the functions, proximate com- 
ponents and nutritive value of foods ; general analytical methods ; 
the microscope in food analysis ; the refractometer ; milk and milk 
products ; flesh foods ; eggs ; cereals and their products, legumes, 
vegetables and fruits ; tea, coffee and cocoa ; spices ; edible oils 
and fats ; sugar and saccharine products ; alcoholic beverages : 
vinegar ; artificial food colors ; food preservatives ; artificial sweet- 
eners ; flavoring extracts and their substitutes ; and canned and 
bottled vegetables, relishes and fruit products. The work is illus- 



134 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1910. 



trated with a number of drawings and about 40 plates of photo- 
micrographs of pure and adulterated foods, and adulterants. 

This book is indispensable to food and drug analysts, and besides 
the cause of pure foods will be materially assisted and advanced 
by its revision at this time. Analysts using this book are spared 
the trouble of looking up the literature except when some special 
question arises, and can devote most of their time to the analyses 
they have in hand. The preparation of the first edition no doubt 
contributed to the undermining of the health of the author, and 
while he has the satisfaction of having produced a work that is 
much appreciated, it will be some years before authors of such works 
are adequately rewarded. 

Text-Book of Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 
By Elias H. Bartley, Professor of Chemistry, Toxicology, and 
Pediatrics in Long Island College Hospital. Seventh revised edition, 
with ninety illustrations. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 
1909. $3.00 net. 

While the general character and form of Bartley's Chemistry 
is retained in the revised edition a number of changes have been 
made in the parts devoted to organic chemistry and physiological 
chemistry. 

This is one of the best texts on medical and pharmaceutical 
chemistry published. The manner of presenting the subject is 
stimulating to the student, and the facts given are selected with a 
view of their practical application. 

The Vegetable Proteins. By Thomas B. Osborne, Ph.D., 
Research Chemist in the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station, New Haven, Connecticut. New York: Longmans, Green 
& Co., 1909. 

This is one of the most commendable of the series of mono- 
graphs on biochemistry being published by Longmans, Green & Co. 
Ten of these have already appeared, having been written by men who 
have gained an international reputation through their researches in 
their respective fields. The present monograph, dealing with vege- 
table proteins, is indeed welcome. Every student and reader on the 
subject of vegetable proteins has felt the need of the bringing to- 
gether and correlating of the results of the various researches in a 
single volume. 



Am. Jour. Pharin. ) 
. March, 1910. / 



Book Reviews. 



135 



In the present volume Dr. Osborne has devoted a limited space 
to a discussion of the general chemical and physical properties of 
the vegetable proteins. In eleven chapters covering about 100 pages, 
he gives a historical review of the proteins ; the occurrence of 
proteins in the different parts of plants and their characteristics; 
the isolation and preparation of seed proteins ; basic and acid 
properties of proteins ; the solubility, precipitation, denaturing, 
physical constants, and products of hydrolysis of vegetable proteins ; 
a classification of vegetable proteins ; and some physiological re- 
lations of vegetable proteins to the animal organism, and the biolog- 
ical relations of seed proteins to one another. The book is en- 
hanced by a very complete bibliography of over 600 references 
and has a good index. 

The Extra Pharmacopoeia of Martindale and Westcott. 
Revised by W. Harrison Martindale, Ph.D., F.C.S., and W. Wynn 
Westcott, M.B., Lond., D.P.H. Thirteenth edition. London: H. 
K. Lewis, 136 Gower Street, W. C, 1908. 

This useful volume has undergone a thorough revision, many 
portions having been entirely rewritten. Among the new features 
may be mentioned: formalyzed gelatin as a substitute for col- 
lodions ; glycetracta or glycerin extracts of drugs ; the preparation 
of yellow mercuric oxide ointment ; the organic (non-toxic) arsenic 
compounds ; trypsin preparations, etc., etc. A number of new sub- 
stances are considered. The recent literature has been carefully 
gone over and everything which is likely to prove of value to the 
pharmacist has been included. 

E. Merck's Annual Report, or Recent Advances in Phar- 
maceutical Chemistry and Therapeutics. 1908. Volume XXII. 
E. Merck, Chemical Works, Darmstadt, 1909. 

This valuable annual report contains much information that is 
not to be found readily in any other publication. The first hundred 
pages are devoted to a consideration of organotherapy and organo- 
therapeutic preparations. This presents an exceedingly interesting 
historical review of the subject, and also contains much of the newer 
matter relating to the organic preparations obtained from healthy 
animals. It is the most complete treatment of this subject that we 
have seen, giving the manner of preparation, physical and chemical 
properties, and the results of physiological and clinical tests of all 



136 



Book Reviews. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1910. 



the substances that are used either on man or for experimental 
purposes. 

Nearly 250 pages are taken up in a similar consideration of 
the results of scientific and clinical study of a large number of 
drugs and their preparations and of newer chemicals as well. 

Digest of Comments on the Pharmacopceia of the United 
States of America and the National Formulary for the calen- 
dar year ending December 31, 1906. By Murray Gait Motter and 
Martin I. Wilbert. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1909. 

This digest is issued as Bulletin No. 58 of the Hygienic Labora- 
tory of the U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, being- 
published under the direction of the Surgeon-General with the 
approval of the Secretary of-the Treasury. This bulletin embodies 
the second installment of the digest of comments on the U.S. P. VIII 
and the first digest of comments on the National Formulary (3d 
edition), this latter feature having been included at the request of 
the Council of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

The bulletin contains over 500 pages and includes about 5000 
concise abstracts of the literature relating to the official articles 
published during 1906. The matter reviewed represents about 200 
publications, including 18 foreign pharmacopoeias. It is safe to say 
that nothing has ever been published which so completely covers 
the literature relating to the U.S. P. and N.F. for any one year. 
While the year 1906 will long be memorable in the minds of phar- 
macists and others by reason of the enactment of the National Food 
and Drugs Law, it also marked an era in pharmaceutical progress 
by virtue of the signing of the " Agreement between the United 
States and Other Powers respecting the Unification of the Phar- 
macopceial Formulas " by a diplomatic representative of the United 
States Government. It is, therefore, extremely fortunate that the 
complete literature for 1906 representing the views and practical 
results of the work of men engaged in or allied with pharmacy has 
been made available in the condensed form and admirable manner 
that it has in the Digest at hand. The abstracts are not only ade- 
quate but readable, suggestive, and indeed stimulating. 

When the series of bulletins covering the literature up to the 
present year are all issued, they cannot fail to effect profoundly the 
practice of pharmacy. Investigations will be more fruitful ; writers 
more careful; practices more modern; standards in the U.S. P. and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1910. J 



Correspondence. 



137 



X.F. more exact, and drugs and their preparations more uniform 
and efficient. 

Bulletin 58 is free to those interested in its contents, and may 
be had by application to the Surg-eon-General of the Public Health 
and Marine-Hospital Sendee. 



CORRESPONDENCE 

UNITED STATES PHARM ACOPCEIAL CONVENTION. 

Washington, D. C, December 17, 1909. 
To the Organizations and Institutions Entitled to Repre- 
sentation in the United States Pharmacopceial 
Convention, 1910: 

For the first time in its history, the United States Pharmacopceial 
Convention will meet, on May 10, 1910, at Washington as a cor- 
porate body; it is therefore of the utmost importance that all the 
legal and constitutional requirements of the corporation be com- 
plied with. The response to the request for data, as to date of 
incorporation and period of continuous operation, has by no means 
been complete. Numerous requests have been received for creden- 
tial blanks and forms for the notification of the appointment of 
delegates, and many of the notifications and credentials now in 
hand fail to meet the evident requirements of the Constitution and 
By-Laws of the Convention. 

In order to secure uniformity as to these details and to provide 
that all the requirements of the Constitution be met, the Committee 
on Credentials and Arrangements has adopted the enclosed form, 
four copies of which will be sent to each organization or institution 
which, from information now at hand, is believed to be entitled 
to representation. These forms should be filled out carefully and 
completely, particularly with reference to the data as to date of 
incorporation and period of continuous operation ; for it is highly 
desirable that these data of historical interest be a matter of record 
in the archives of the corporation, especially with reference to 
those organizations and institutions which, having been represented 
in the Convention of 1900. are, by special provision of the Con- 
stitution, entitled to representation in the Convention of 19 10. One 
of these forms, after having been duly filled out, signed and sealed, 
should be sent to the Secretary of the Committee and another, like- 



'38 



Correspondence. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1910. 



wise duly signed and sealed, should be given to each delegate, inas- 
much as the By-Laws require that " Every delegate shall present 
his credentials to the Committee on Credentials and Arrangements." 
When the delegate registers at Washington on May 10, 1910, these 
latter forms will be exchanged for a registration and identification 
card. The blank, on the reverse side of the form, is left for notes 
by the Committee on Credentials and Arrangements or for a transfer 
of the credentials from the delegate to his alternate. 

The Committee on Credentials and Arrangements is confident 
that, realizing the importance of these legal details of our corporate 
existence, even those organizations or institutions which may 
already have notified the Committee of the appointment of dele- 
gates, will be ready and willing to comply with this request and 
send to the Secretary of the Committee the new blanks completely 
filled out. 

As in harmony with, and in further explanation of, Article I, 
Chapter VIII of the By-Laws, the Committee has decided that it 
cannot recognize the right of any one individual to represent more 
than one organization or institution. 

Copies of the Constitution and By-Laws may be obtained on 
application to the Secretary of the Committee. 

Murray Galt Motter, M.D., 

Secretary. 

minutes, committee on credentials and arrangements, u.s.p.c. 

Philadelphia, Pa., 
Hotel Bellevue-Stratford, 

27. XI. 09. 8.15 P.M. 

1. The Committee on Credentials and Arrangements, of the 
United States Pharmacopceial Convention of 1910, was called to 
order by the Chairman, Dr. Oliver T. Osborne, of New Haven, 
Connecticut ; there were present Messrs. Samuel L. Hilton of 
Washington, D. C, William L. Cliffe of Philadelphia, Pa., Dr. 
Horatio C. Wood, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa., and Dr. J. H. Beal 
of Scio, Ohio ; ex officio members : Dr. Henry M. Whelpley, Secre- 
tary, U.S.P.C. of St. Louis, Mo., and Dr. Murray Gait Motter, 
Assistant Secretary, U.S.P.C. of Washington, D. C. 

2. On motion of H. M. Whelpley, seconded by J. H. Beal, 
Dr. Motter was made Secretary of the committee. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1910. J 



Correspondence. 



139 



3. On motion, Messrs. Hilton and Motter were constituted a 
Sub-committee on Arrangements, with power. 

4. On motion, the Chairman and Secretary were constituted a 
committee on the preparation of blank forms for the notification 
of the appointment of delegates, credentials, and identification cards ; 
the suggestion that the form shown should contain an additional 
line in red ink giving further instructions being approved. 

5. S. L. Hilton reported on the local arrangements already 
effected: hotel headquarters at the New Willard, with provision 
for general meeting room, committee rooms, lavatories, registration, 
hotel rates at eighteen different hotels, etc. On motion this report 
was approved. 

6. The question of railroad rates and arrangements was left 
to the Sub-committee on Arrangements, with the suggestion that 
a conference be had with the proper officials of the Congress of 
American Physicians. 

7. On the question of the interpretation of the Constitution 
and By-Laws, the committee holds that the terms of Sections i 
and 2 of Article II of the Constitution are quite explicit and clear 
in their definition of eligibility to membership in the Convention. 

(a) The word " corporation " in Section 2, Article II, of the 
Constitution is interpreted to mean the Convention. 

(b) The words " examined and acted upon as provided for by 
the By-Laws," mean certification to the Convention by the Com- 
mittee on Credentials and Arrangements and the acceptance and 
approval of this committee's report by the Convention. 

(c) The last sentence of Section 2, Article II, is held to be 
in no sense retroactive and to refer to the Convention of 1910 
and Conventions thereafter. 

(d) In order further to clarify the meaning of Article I, 
Chapter VIII of the By-Laws, particularly the last sentence, on 
motion of J. H. Beal, seconded by S. L. Hilton, the committee 
decided that it could not recognize the right of any one individual 
to represent more than one organization or institution. 

8. On motion of S. L. Hilton, seconded by H. M. Whelpley, 
the list of organizations represented in the Convention of 1900, 
as printed in the U.S. P. VIII, is held to be authentic. 

9. On motion of H. M. Whelpley the Secretary was requested to 
prepare the minutes of this meeting and a statement of such data as 
it might be advisable to publish which, after approval by the Chair- 



1 40 Correspondence. \ ^J'^' 

man. are to be furnished to the medical and pharmaceutical press. 

10. On motion of H. M. Whelpley, seconded by J. H. Beal, 
it was ordered that the list of delegates to be submitted to the 
Convention be published, in so far as it may then be completed, 
on April 1, 19 10, with the explicit statement that such publication 
does not of necessity mean that such delegates will be received 
and seated by the Convention. 

11. There being no further business, the Committee, on motion 
of S. L. Hilton, seconded by J. H. Beal, adjourned. 

Attest: Murray Galt Motter, 

Secretary. 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 10, 1910. 
To the Medical and Pharmaceutical Press : 

At a regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of the United 
States Pharmacopceial Convention held at Columbus, Ohio, January 
28 and 29, 1910, it was resolved, five members of the Board of 
Trustees assenting thereto, to submit to the next meeting of the 
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention (Incorporated) the fol- 
lowing propositions to amend the Constitution of the Convention 
in the following particulars : 

I. To amend Section 2, Article II, relating to membership, by 
inserting after the title " the Surgeon-General of the United States 
Marine-Hospital Service." the following :. " the Secretary of Agri- 
culture, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists, the Association of State and National 
Food and Dairy Department, the National Wholesale Druggists' 
Association, and the National Dental Association." 

II. Also to amend said Section 2, Article II, by changing the 
words " three delegates " in line eleven (page seven of the re- 
print of the Constitution and By-Laws of 1909) to " one dele- 
gate " ; the effect of this change being to reduce the represen- 
tation of each organized body and department to one delegate 
each. 

III. Also to amend Article IV, concerning " Committees and 
Trustees," by changing 'the title " Committee of Revision," to 
that of "General Committee of Revision" (Ibid., last line). 

The Constitution does not require notice to be given of pro- 
posed changes in the By-Laws of the Convention, but to make 



Am MiXi9io arm * } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 141 

clear the purpose of the change proposed in the present title of 
the Committee of Revision it is hereby announced that the Board 
of Trustees will submit to the Convention propositions to amend 
the By-Laws as follows : to increase the number of members on 
the Committee of Revision, hereafter to be known as the " General 
Committee of Revision," from twenty-five to fifty, said General 
Committee of Revision to create from its own membership an 
Executive Committee of Revision of fifteen members, to have 
immediate charge of the work of revision, and also giving to 
said General Committee of Revision certain advisory and super- 
visory powers over the work of the Executive Committee of 
Revision. 

Murray Galt Motter, 

Secretary. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

special lectures for i9o9-i9io. 

The Typhoid Organism and Its Relation to the Public 
Health. — Dr. A. C. Abbott, Director of the Laboratory of Hy- 
giene, University of Pennsylvania, gave the fourth lecture of the 
course on Friday, November 19, at 3.30 p.m., his subject being " The 
Typhoid Organism and its Relation to the Public Health." The 
speaker was introduced by Mr. M. I. Wilbert, who remarked on the 
importance which is coming to be attached to the question of the 
economic value of health, and spoke of the fact that Dr. Abbott is 
a former student and follower of Dr. William H. Welch, one of the 
greatest minds devoted to medicine in the world. 

Dr. Abbott's address furnished an excellent resume of the 
subject. 

He stated that typhoid fever should be of peculiar interest to 
Philadelphians for two reasons especially : 

First, that it was in Philadelphia that a Philadelphia physician, 
Dr. Gerhard, demonstrated in 1836 that it was a distinct disease 
from typhus fever, with which it had heretofore been confused, 
and made it clear to the m Jcal world that typhoid fever must 
be regarded as a pathologic i entity. This demonstration was made 
in the Philadelphia Hospital. 

Second, that by the adoption of common-sense methods, thor- 



142 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am Mar°ch r ' 1910 rm ' 

oughly grounded in scientific investigation, it has been demonstrated 
in Philadelphia that typhoid fever may be practically eliminated 
as a serious disease of the people. 

During the interval between these two discoveries practically 
all of our knowledge on this interesting subject has evolved, and 
it may be stated that the most important of our knowledge con- 
cerning prevention began with the discovery of the cause of the 
disease by Eberth in the year 1880. Following Eberth's discovery 
the great difficulty that was encountered was in the identification 
of the organisms that he claimed to be specifically answerable for 
typhoid fever, and this difficulty was not by any means lessened 
through the subsequent discovery of an organism in the intestinal 
canal that is in many particulars so like the typhoid germ as to 
make their separation more or less uncertain with the methods 
available at that time. This organism, the colon bacillus, has nothing 
to do, in so far as is known, with typhoid fever. It was pointed 
out that while these two organisms are not identical, yet botanically 
they have a close relation, and more recent studies have shown 
that there are thirty or forty organisms belonging to the typhoid- 
colon group which have been modified by their environment, as 
in the body of man, in culture media, and elsewhere. Dr. Abbott 
stated that no one, however skilled he may be, can identify the 
typhoid bacillus by means of the microscope alone, it being a 
simple rod-shaped organism like others of the group. The various 
attempts made with the object of devising methods for differen- 
tiating the Bacillus typhosus were described. Of these the agglu- 
tination test, which is based upon the condition that when an 
individual suffers from an infectious disease he becomes more 
or less immune to it, is the most reliable. Thus, if a beef-tea 
culture of typhoid bacilli, in which the organisms are in a motile 
condition, be added to the blood-serum of a person who has, 
or has had, typhoid fever, the organisms become immotile and 
massed together, — agglutinated, — while with a similar culture of 
the colon organism no such effect is produced. Dr. Abbott said that 
in the treatment of typhoid fever it is not possible to employ an anti- 
toxic serum for the reason that the toxin is endotoxic, that is, closely 
bound up with the protoplasm of the cell (organism), and is only 
liberated when the latter is broken down, as in the digestion of the 
organisms by the leucocytes. 

Then coming to the more practical side of the subject, Dr. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1910. 



J Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 143 



Abbott said that in order to ward off the disease it is necessary to 
have a knowledge of the manner of entrance and exit of the germs. 
He said that they are eliminated both in the faeces and urine, and 
that in many instances the urine of convalescents will show the 
presence of the bacilli, and that in a few well-authenticated cases the 
germs continued to be eliminated by the bowels throughout the 
remainder of the life of the individual, this period extending to 
forty years in one instance. The control of such cases offers con- 
siderable difficulty, but measures are being considered for looking 
after these so-called typhoid-carriers. It was stated that in order 
to contract typhoid fever the living germs must gain access to the 
alimentary canal, and in this connection it was pointed out that per- 
sonal contact, such as handling a patient, may be sufficient to com- 
municate the disease, and that the number of so-called personal- 
contact cases is larger than is usually suspected. As is well known 
contaminated drinking water and foods are also a source of the dis- 
ease. Dr. Abbott said that when the outbreak of the disease is gen- 
eral, the water supply is usually the source of infection, and when it is 
restricted to certain areas or districts, as of a city, the milk supply 
may be suspected. Oysters were likewise mentioned as a source of 
the disease, and garden vegetables grown near cities on land fertilized 
with soil taken from the city were also considered to be a probable 
source of the disease. The house fly as one of the carriers of the 
disease received a share of attention. In all these instances infection 
is due to the direct or indirect transferral of the germs from human 
excreta, it being established that they are not propagated in the 
bodies of any of the lower animals mentioned. Thus, while the 
fly and the oyster may be carriers of the germs, they are not them- 
selves the source of infection. 

Dr. Abbott said that knowing the manner of elimination of the 
germs and the manner in which they are communicated, the methods 
of preventing infection readily suggest themselves. He said that 
those having the care of typhoid patients might look upon it as a safe 
rule that every time they place their hands upon the patient the 
hands became infected, and should be washed with soap and water. 
Another good rule is to cook all food, including milk, the statement 
being made that in many other countries milk is invariably cooked 
before being consumed. The necessity of thoroughly investigating 
the milk supply was emphasized, as milk is a good culture medium 
for the organism. Municipal cleanliness and a good water supply 



144 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A \arXi9io arm ' 

were advocated as a matter of course. Still another method was 
suggested for combating the disease, namely, vaccination, and sta- 
tistics were cited showing that where vaccination has been tried, 
as among the British soldiers in South Africa, Egypt, and India, 
the number of cases contracted was notably less, and that the 
mortality among the patients who were vaccinated was about half 
as great as among those not vaccinated. 

Speaking of local conditions, Dr. Abbott said that before the 
filtration system was introduced for purifying the water supply of 
Philadelphia the annual number of cases of typhoid fever averaged 
about 6000, and in one year ran up to about 9000. With the in- 
troduction of filtration the number has been reduced about 80 
per cent., the remaining 20 per cent, being due to infection from 
other sources, including the cases of summer vacationists who 
have contracted the disease elsewhere. During August, September, 
and October, about 50 per cent, of our cases are traced to outside 
sources of infection. 

With regard to the determination of the presence of typhoid 
organisms in water supplies, Dr. Abbott stated that the time required 
for the disease to manifest itself after infection is about three weeks, 
and that as the germ does not live long in water it is usually not pres- 
ent when examinations are made, and that it is much better to judge of 
the situation by a direct examination of the surroundings. He 
said with reference to the inferential test that when the colon organ- 
ism is found in water the presence of the typhoid organism is 
indicated, that too much reliance could not be placed upon it, as the 
colon organism is found in the intestinal tract of all domestic animals, 
and as these do not suffer from typhoid fever the colon organism 
is likely to be found in places where the typhoid germs are not 
present, and that the fact of the presence of the colon organism must 
be considered along with other available data. F. Y. 

The Manufacture and Testing of Medicinal Plasters was 
the subject of an illustrated address given on Friday, December 10, 
at 3.30 *p.m., by F. B. Kilmer, chemist for Messrs. Johnson & 
Johnson, of New Brunswick, N. J., one part of which appears in 
this issue (p. 112) and the remainder of which will be published in 
a later number of this Journal, The speaker was introduced by 
Mr. Warren H. Poley, a member of the Lecture Committee, who 
recounted some of his earlier experiences in the handling and spread- 



A ™ii°ch r 'i9io arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 145 

ing of plasters. At the close of the lecture Prof. Joseph P. Reming- 
ton thanked Mr. Kilmer on behalf of the College and the classes, 
stating that he had always found him willing to give information on 
any subject with which he was familiar. Among the visitors in 
attendance were Dr. John F. Hancock, of Baltimore, and Mr. Otto 
Raubenheimer, of Brooklyn. F. Y. 

Trypanosomes and Trypanosomiases (the Sleeping Disease 
and its Causes). — The foregoing was the subject of the sixth lecture, 
which was delivered on Friday, December 17, by Dr. Leonard G. 
Rowntree, instructor in pharmacology and experimental therapeu- 
tics at Johns Hopkins University. The lecturer was introduced by 
George M. Beringer, who said that the committee had chosen rather 
a wide range of subjects for this series of lectures, believing that 
the pharmacist should know something more than pertains directly 
to his calling. 

Dr. Rowntree stated that in both Germany and England com- 
missions had been appointed to consider the problems involved in 
the cure and control of the diseases due to trypanosomes, while in 
this country the subject has been taken up by the universities. The 
trypanosomes are microscopic parasites belonging to that branch of 
the animal kingdom known as Protozoa, and the diseases set up by 
the pathogenic forms of this group are known as trypanosomiases. 
A number of species of this protozoon has been described, the 
organisms varying from 24 to 75 microns in length. They are 
characterized by the presence of a nucleus, a centrosome, chromatic 
granules, and a flagellum. They are very active, having several move- 
ments, and reproduce by division, starting at the centrosome. They 
derive their nutrition by osmosis, and multiply very rapidly, an 
infected animal showing the presence of millions of the organisms in 
a few hours, as in the case of the 'rat. In 1841 the first trypanosome 
was described, and in 190 1 Dutton found a patient in Gambia whose 
blood showed the presence of a trypanosome, which was later proven 
by Castellani, Bruce, Nabarro, and Low to be the cause of the sleep- 
ing sickness. Dr. Rowntree described some six diseases which 
affect the lower animals due to different species of trypanosomes : 
(1) one, Try p. Lewisi, affecting rats in all countries, including 
America; (2) a disease in Africa, nagana, in the communication of 
which the tsetse-fly plays a part and which affects cattle, horses, and 
dogs, but not man, and is supposed to have come originally from 
wild animals as alligators and rhinoceri ; (3) a disease in India, 



146 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am j£chim m ' 

known as surra, affecting horses and camels, the latter being more 
resistant to the disease and carrying it over from one season to 
another; (4) a disease affecting horses in South America due to 
an organism communicated by flies and supposed to have been 
brought originally from an island at the mouth of the Amazon, a 
large rodent or rat probably having been the original host; (5) 
another disease, Do urine, affecting horses in Africa and first found 
in Europe along the Mediterranean coast, and which at one time 
reached this country, it being found among the horses in Wyoming 
and one of the Dakotas ; (6) still another disease affecting cattle in 
South Africa, one peculiarity of which is that the native-born cattle 
are immune to a certain extent. 

Then, referring more especially to sleeping sickness, Dr. Rown- 
tree stated that in 18S03, just 100 years before the finding of the 
organism causing the disease, Winterbottom described it as it 
occurs among the colored people in Africa. He said that the centre 
of infection extends from Lake Nyanza up to the Nile and over to 
the Congo, where 73 per cent, of the population has been wiped out. 
In Uganda some 500,000 of the inhabitants died from the disease 
in the past five or six years. In describing the course of the dis- 
ease, Dr. Rowntree stated that it is at first exceedingly insidious, 
and that one fly (Glossina palpalis) constitutes the intermediate host. 
The disease seems to have a predilection for the nervous and lym- 
phatic systems, and the organisms have been found in the fluid of 
the lymph-glands and in the cerebrospinal fluid. 

Up to the present time arsenic has played the most important 
part in the treatment of all of these diseases. Both its inorganic 
compounds and organic derivatives are used, as arsenic trioxide, 
arsenites, Donovan's solution, atoxyl (sodium p-aminophenyl arso- 
nate). The idea in the treatment of trypanosomiasis is to admin- 
ister a remedy which is taken up more readily by the parasite than 
by the host, as suggested by Thomas, and Ehrlich has found that 
arsacetin (an acetyl derivative of atoxyl) is 1500 times less toxic 
to the affected organism than arsenic itself. Another compound 
recently tried by Ehrlich wdiich promises well is phenyl-arsene- 
glycine, though, as stated by Dr. Rowntree, it is yet far from 
ideal. Among the other remedies which have been tried are trypan 
red and other dyes, such as malachite green, and preparations of 
mercury and antimony. To Koch also belongs much credit for the 



Am iiS;i9fo. rm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 147 

knowledge gained in the treatment of this disease, he having gone 
to Africa to study it at first hand. 

The European has been found to be susceptible to the disease as 
well as the negro, and along the shores of Lake Victoria-Nyanza 
the governments are co-operating with a view of stamping it out, 
having already adopted certain restrictive or quarantine-like meas- 
ures. The disease furnishes three points of attack, namely, the 
patient, the fly and the organism ( try pano some). F. Y. 

Plants Injurious to Animals formed the title of the seventh 
lecture of the series, which was delivered on Friday, January 7, at 
3.30 p.m., by Dr. C. Dwight Marsh, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, who spoke in 
place of Dr. Rodney H. True, who was prevented from being 
present. Dr. C. A. Weidemann presided, and at the close of the 
address, said, after thanking Dr. Marsh for the information given, 
that he had gotten a broader view of what the government is doing 
for the people of this country. 

Dr. Marsh said that the government had been engaged in an 
investigation of the loco-disease, which causes such heavy losses to 
stockmen on the grazing lands of the Great Plains east of the 
Rocky Mountains, for some years past. Of the plants causing the 
disease he mentioned the following: Zygadenus elegans, injurious 
to sheep ; the larkspurs or Delphiniums causing losses among cattle ; 
and lupines causing losses among sheep and also horses. The atten- 
tion of the government workers was, however, confined mostly to 
the two plants, Aragallus lamberti and Astragalus mollissimus, these 
causing greater loss than all other poisonous plants combined, and 
having come to be regarded as the loco-plants par excellence. Both 
plants belong to the Leguminosce. Aragallus lamberti, also com- 
monly known as " rattleweed " or " white loco," has a wide range, 
extending from Alaska on the north down through the whole graz- 
ing region of the Great Plains where it is very abundant. Astragalus 
mollissimus ("purple loco," "woolly loco," or "Texas loco") is 
more limited in its range. 

The word " loco," meaning crazy, is of Spanish origin, and is 
applied in reference to the peculiar nervous symptoms manifested 
by the affected animals. Dr. Marsh stated that at the time the 
government experiments were begun, it had not been definitely deter- 
mined that the loco-disease was due to the loco-plants, a number 



148 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^M^reh'wio™ 1 ' 

of theories having been advanced as to the cause of the disease, 
although the evidence, including the results of pharmacological 
experiments by Dr. Mary G. Day, pointed strongly in this direction. 
The feeding experiments carried on by the government both under 
corral conditions and in the open, in which the loco- weeds consti- 
tuted a part of the food on the one hand and were rigidly excluded 
on the other, have proved conclusively that the disease is due to 
loco-plants. The course of the disease, which is characterized b} 
marked nervous symptoms, anaemia, and general debility,, was 
described, as were also experiments in the treatment of the disease. 
As a result of these experiments it was found that Fowler's solu- 
tion in daily doses of 15 c.c. continued for about one month is the 
best remedy for locoed horses, and that for cattle daily doses of 
0.009 to 0.012 Gm. of strychnine, or daily doses* of 0.4 Gm. of 
sodium cacodylate, given hypodermically, and continued for a period 
of one or two months constitute the most reliable remedy. It was 
noted that the locoed animals are especially susceptible to the usual 
veterinary doses of the medicines named, and hence it was found 
necessary to administer them in the small doses given. Laxative 
agents were also found to be an essential feature of the treatment, 
laxative foods and magnesium sulphate being recommended in this 
connection. 

Dr. Marsh stated that the loco-plants can be destroyed by digging 
them up, and that this is a feasible practice in some localities. 

F. Y. 

Physiological Assay : its Value and Limitations. — This 
was the subject of the eighth lecture, which was delivered on Friday 
afternoon, January 21, by Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr., associate 
professor of pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania. The 
speaker was introduced by Prof. Henry Kraemer who said that 
there is no subject which should be of more concern to the phar- 
macist than the efficiency of the preparations which he dispenses, 
and that therefore every method which promises to be of value, 
either in the testing of medicines or which will aid in establishing 
their value, must necessarily be of special interest to him. (See 
page 101.) F. Y. 



Am Ma?ch,'i P 9io rm '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 149 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The officers of the Section on Scientific Papers would again 
remind you that the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association to be held in Richmond, Va., the week following- 
May 2, 19 10, offers the last and in many respects the most favorable 
opportunity to discuss matters of scientific interest in connection 
with the Pharmacopoeia of the United States previous to the meeting 
of the Pharmacopceial Convention to be held in Washington, May 
10, 1910. 

To insure profitable and comprehensive discussions, it will be 
necessary to limit the number of communications presented at each 
session, and, as the sessions themselves are in turn limited, the 
committee would request that all members of the association who 
are interested in the work of the Section on Scientific Papers will 
promptly announce their willingness to contribute to the programme 
and indicate, approximately, the time that they will require to present 
their communications. 

Communications to be printed in advance of the meeting should 
be in the hands of the printer at least six weeks in advance of the 
date of the annual meeting, and titles with the accompanying 
abstracts to be included on the programme should be in the hands of 
the Chairman of the Section at least one month in advance of the 
meeting. M. I. Wilbert, 

Chairman. 



The meeting of the City of Washington Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, February 2, 19 10, was devoted to a 
discussion of the report of a special Committee on National Formu- 
lary. On motion, the following principles were endorsed : 

Object. — The National Formulary should be a book of remedies 
which not only conserve and protect the welfare of the people, but 
also represent the best that the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion stands for. 

Nomenclature. — No name should be used which misleads in any 
particular. 

Standards. — It is believed that it would be preferable to have a 
definite standard prescribed, when practicable, for each product 
recognized. 

Division of Book. — It is unwise to divide the book into two parts. 



15° American Pharmaceutical Association. Mm Jour. Pharm. 

( 31areh, 1910. 

Introductory Notes. — The National Formulary should include 
useful introductory notes, comments, etc. 

Metric System. — The metric system alone should be employed 
in giving the quantity or proportion to be used in preparing the 
various products. 

Medicinal Tipples. — All products which bear any form of stigma 
characterizing tipples should be eliminated. 

Saccharin. — The use of saccharin as a sweetening agent for 
National Formulary products should be discouraged. 

Pills. — The general direction for making and coating pills should 
be continued if it is found practicable to present the matter in an 
intelligible form. 

Artificial Coloring. — The artificial coloring of official prepara- 
tions should be discouraged; it is desirable, however, to introduce 
one or more formulas for preparing coloring solutions to be used 
when called for by prescriptions. 

Preservatives. — Preservatives, other than such articles as alcohol 
and glycerin, should not be used in pharmaceutical preparations. 

Basic Elixirs. — The introduction of several select basic elixirs 
is recommended. 

Proprietary Medicines. — Formulas intended to produce an imita- 
tion of some proprietary product should not be included in the 
National Formulary. 

Supplements. — Supplements, corrections, and additions should 
be issued as the progress of pharmacy and medicine may demand. 

On motion, it was agreed that the paragraphs endorsed by the 
members present be submitted to the Committee on National 
Formulary. 

Saccharin. — Saccharin was discussed at some length, and it was 
suggested that because of the wide-spread use of this article and 
the apparent difference of opinion regarding the possibility of harm 
resulting from its use, additional information be sought regarding 
it, and on motion of Mr. Flemer, seconded by Air. Hynson, the 
following resolution was adopted. 

Resolved, by the City of Washington Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, that, in view of the extensive use of 
saccharin and the possibility of harm arising from such use, the 
matter is referred to the Surgeon-General of the Public Health and 
Marine-Hospital Service with the request that it be made the subject 
of pharmacologic investigation. M. I. Wilbert, 

Secretary. 



THE AMEKICAST 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



IS THERE CARAMELIZATION IN RIVAS'S TEST?* 



The object of this paper is to show that several phenomena 
accounted for by an assumption of caramelization may be accounted 
for by facts known to many chemists. The paper includes an experi- 
mental examination of one case where caramelization had been 
assumed by way of explanation. 

In a paper read some years ago before the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association, W. F. Horn called attention to the fact 
that when syrup of ferrous iodide has turned brown from age " we 
can readily restore its original color by boiling it in a flask for a few 
minutes." 1 J. P. Remington in discussing this point stated that one 
cannot "decolorize such syrup without the use of animal charcoal, 
because of the caramelization." 2 In a recent paper, West accounted 
for the appearance of yellow to brown colors on heating glucose 
broths with sodium hydroxide in Rivas's Test for B. Qoli by stating 
that " The sugar is probably caramelized by the NaOH." " Lactose 
solution also becomes yellow to brown, depending on the amount of 
sugar." 3 More recently, in the discussion of the brownish color 

* Presented at the meeting of the Phila. Section of the Amer. Chem. 
Soc., Jan. 20, 1910. Reread (by request) at the fifth Pharmaceutical Meet- 
ing for 1909-1910 at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Feb. 15, igro. 

1 Proceedings Penna. Pharm. Assoc.. 1903, p. T12. 

2 Ibid., p. 113. 

3 Amer. Jour. Public Hygiene, 19, p. 228, 1909. Mr. West's statement 
was evidently not intended as more than a suggestion, for in a private 
communication, Feb. 15, 1910, he frankly states that he "has no sure ground 
to base his assertion on." 




APRIL, icjio 



By David Wilbur Horn, Ph.D. 



(151) 



152 Caramelization in Rivas's Test. {^Aprif i9io arm ' 

of a new. prepared milk, " Monia Milk," at a meeting of the Phila- 
delphia Section of the American Chemical Society, caramelization 
was again resorted to as an explanation. 4 

Caramel is a dark brown substance formed when sugar is 
strongly heated. The action of heat on cane-sugar may be sum- 
marized as follows: When heated, cane-sugar melts at 160 C, 
approximately. Above its melting point, the sugar becomes colored, 
and finally changes into a brown mass called caramel. 3 The action 
of heat produces serious disturbances in the sugar molecule. This 
has been established since Lipmann observed, in the manufacture 
of candy, the formation of small quantities of dimethyl furfurol, 
pyrocatechinol, trioxybutyric acid, and trioxyglutaric acid. 6 Stone 
later proved that acetone is formed simultaneously with caramel. 7 

On glucose, the action of heat is as follows : The ordinary 
monohydrated glucose, C 6 H 12 O e + H 2 0, loses its water gradually 
and without fusion at temperatures between 50 and 60 C. This 
dehydration is completed at 8o° C. with partial fusion. Anhydrous 
glucose melts at 144 to 146 C. At 170 C. glucose is transformed 
into glucosan, C 6 H 10 O 5 , with the loss of one molecule of water. At 
about 200 C. it darkens and forms a caramel similar to that obtained 
from cane-sugar. 8 

Caramel then is distinctly a product formed from sugars at 
elevated temperatures. If it is caramel that is formed at tempera- 
tures below the boiling point of water, for example when syrup of 
ferrous iodide ages at ordinary temperatures or when glucose or 
milk-sugar is warmed with alkalies as in Rivas's test for B. Coli. 
it would present a case of exceptional interest. I should regard it 
as hazardous to assert, without experimental proof, that because 
caramel is a brown decomposition-product of sugar, therefore every 
brown decomposition-product of sugar is caramel, and every process 
producing brown colors from sugar is a process of caramelization. 
By such argument, errors enter the literature of science masquerad- 
ing as facts, and in direct opposition to the aim of science to eradi- 
cate the errors from the data accumulated. 

The first experiments to test his assumption of caramelization, 

4 Meeting, Nov. 18, 19x19. 

5 Les Sucres et Principatix derives, L. Maquenne, Paris, 1900, p. 656. 

6 Ber. Chan. Gesell,, Berlin, 26, p. 3057. 
1 Chetn. News, 70, p. 117. 

s L. Maquenne, he. cit., p. 486. 



Am. jour, pharm. ) Caramelization in Rk'Cis's Test. 

April, 1910. J 



153 



I made some years ago upon learning of the explanation of the 
browning of syrup of ferrous iodide. The results simply confirmed 
the statements of W. F. Horn. The color of the browned syrup 
vanished quite suddenly when the syrup was heated to boiling. 
Such evanescence is not a quality associated with the fairly per- 
manent color, caramel. 

When I met with the same assumption again recently in connec- 
tion with Rivas's test, I undertook further experiments that I shall 
describe. 

The first experiment 9 was intended to determine whether or not 
the formation of a brown color when the glucose broth is heated 
with sodium hydroxide is dependent on the presence of the peptone, 
or beef extract with the glucose at the time the alkali acts on it. 
Accordingly 5 c.c. 10 per cent. NaOH was heated with 0.25 c.c. 
portions of (a) a 1 per cent, glucose nutrient broth, (b) a similar 
nutrient broth to which the glucose had not yet been added, and 
(c) a 1 per cent, solution of glucose in distilled water. The color 
developed in both tubes containing glucose, but not in the tube of 
plain nutrient broth. Therefore the other constituents of the broth 
are not concerned with the formation of the yellow and brown 
colors. 

In order to determine to how great an extent the glucose is 
involved in the action of the alkali, 45 c.c. of a 1 per cent, solution 
of glucose heated with 5 c.c. of water, and 45 c.c. of a 1 per cent, 
solution of glucose heated with 5 c.c. 10 per cent. NaOH, were 
examined successively in the polariscope. The effect of the alkali, 
it was found, was to destroy completely the optical activity of the 
glucose. Evidently, then, all of the glucose is affected by the alkali. 

Upon adding sufficient acid to the browned solutions obtained 
by heating glucose with alkalies, the color immediately disappears. 10 
This evanescence resembles that of the brown color in the syrup of 
ferrous iodide. Is the glucose restored to its original condition 
when the brown color is destroyed by acids? To answer this ques- 
tion, 49 c.c. of the browned solution described above was treated 
with 1 c.c. of water, and another 49 c.c. of the same browned solu- 
tion was treated with 1 c.c. strong sulphuric acid, and the resulting 
solutions examined in the polariscope. Neither tube showed the 

9 The glucose used in these experiments was crystallized, CP., monohy- 
drated glucose. 

10 Cf. West, 16c. ext., p. 228. 



154 Caramelization in Rii'as's Test. {^'a^iIw™' 

slightest dextrorotation. The conclusions are that the glucose is 
seriously involved in the action of the alkali, and that the brown 
color is the color of a secondary product. 

To insure the dissimilarity of the brown color in the glucose 
solutions to the brown color of caramel, solutions of caramel made 
by heating glucose at 200 C. for 70 minutes and by adding " cara- 
mel brown " used for coloring whiskies to water, were used in 
the next experiment. Each solution was divided into two parts, 
one of which was acidified. The color of the acidified solution was 
then compared with that of the original solution corresponding to 
it. The acid produced a reduction in the intensity of the colors 
that was noticeable when a careful comparison was made, but the 
change was negligible when compared with the entire destruction 
by acids of the equally intense color of the browned glucose solution. 

One of the well known tests for caramel was then selected and 
applied to the brown solution obtained when glucose is warmed with 
alkali. I selected Marsh's test as recommended by Crampton and 
Tolman 11 and used in their extensive researches on the aging of 
whiskies. The reagent is an emulsion made by adding 3 c.c. of 
water and 3 c.c. syrupy phosphoric acid to 100 c.c. amyl alcohol. 
When a whiskey colored with caramel is shaken with twice its 
volume of this reagent and time is allowed for two distinct layers 
to form in the liquid, it is found that the lower (aqueous) layer is 
always colored brown, whereas in the absence of caramel the lower 
layer is colorless. When, for the purpose of testing my preparation 
of this reagent, some of it was applied to a " straight whiskey " that 
I happened to have in my laboratory, the lower layer was colorless. 
When the browned glucose solution was tested in the same way, the 
lower layer was brown. Therefore, the test for caramel was posi- 
tive. It is evident, however, that the results on the browned glucose 
solution are not comparable with those on the whiskey, for the 
glucose was alkaline and the whiskey, of course, acid. Accordingly 
the browned glucose solution was acidified and then tested as before, 
with the result that the lower layer was now colorless and the same 
solution that before gave a positive test now gave a negative test, 
for caramel. Similarly, some of the whiskey was rendered alkaline 
and then tested. The whiskey that had before given a negative test 
now gave a strong- positive test, showing a brown color in the 



11 Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 30, p. 100, 1908. 



Am \ J pTii r 'i9i h o arm ' } Cafamelization in Rivass Test. 155 

lower aqueous layer. A fairly large amount of the original whiskey 
was now treated with the proper amount of Marsh's reagent, and 
the colorless aqueous layer drawn off by the aid of a separator)' 
funnel. This lower layer immediately became brown when made 
alkaline, showing that the brown color was due to some substance 
extracted from the whiskey in the test. These results show the 
inadequacy of Marsh's test for caramel in alkaline liquids, and they 
also indicate the direction in which one may look for an explanation 
of the brown color formed when glucose is heated with alkalies. 
Before going further in this direction, however, some other experi- 
ments should be described. 

I tried to obtain spectroscopic evidence of the similarity or dis- 
similarity of the browned glucose solutions and the solutions of the 
caramel made by heating glucose at 200° C, and the solution of 
" caramel brown." But none of them showed absorption bands in 
the visible spectrum, under the conditions of the experiment. 

Oxygen gas (from an S. S. White cylinder of compressed 
oxygen) was then bubbled through the same three solutions. The 
color of the browned glucose solution began to fade very soon, 
whereas that of the other two solutions was unchanged. The gas 
was passed through the solution of the caramel made by heating 
glucose at 200 C. for 15 minutes without effect. 

The last experiment performed was intended to test the validity 
of perhaps the strongest argument for the assumed formation of 
caramel when glucose solutions are heated with alkalies. These 
solutions are described in some works on urinalysis as smelling of 
caramel, especially after they have been acidified. 12 Now it is true 
that an odor of burnt sugar is frequently associated with caramel, 
but I failed to find this odor described as one of the properties of 
purified caramel. 1 " Because I noticed that the solutions when hot 
and acid smelled more strongly than when cold, I subjected such a 
solution to distillation in a current of steam. The colorless dis- 
tillate contained the odoriferous substance. I presume one must 
now abandon as misleading any argument based upon the so-called 
smell of caramel. It is evident from this one experiment that the 

12 Hammersten, Physiological Chem., Mandel's Translation, N. Y., 1900, 
p. 80. See " Moore's Test." 

13 Sabanajeff and Antuschewitsch, /. russ. Chem. Soc, 1893, p. 23; L. 
Maquenne, loc. cit., p. 660. 



156 Caramclization in Rivas's Test. { Am ;^S£m 1 £ rm - 



odor and the color are not inseparably connected, and it is likely 
that the odor is due to another and colorless substance that may 
form at the same time caramel is formed, but may also form at 
other times as well. 

The explanation suggested by some of these experiments is that 
in the browning of the glucose solutions w T e have to deal with the 
condensation of glucose molecules. Such condensation is to be 
expected because glucose is an aldehyde. In the pale yellow color 
that appears before the brown shades, and that may be preserved 
for some time by cooling the solution quickly, we may have to deal 
with an alcoholate or with mixtures of several alcoholates, formed 
by the action of the alkali on the alcohol groups of the glucose. 
The experiments with the polariscope suggest that racemization of 
the glucose molecule may also occur at the time the alkali acts. 

Accordingly I examined the literature to see if I could find any 
ground against these suggestions or any evidence in favor of cara- 
melization. I shall give data from several sources. 

When a solution of glucose in absolute alcohol is treated with 
sodium ethylate, a compound is precipitated which when properly 
dried is a white to yellow-white powder of the composition 
CeH^OgNa. When heated to a little over 70 C, this substance 
begins to brown and to decompose, even in an atmosphere of hydro- 
gen, with the final formation of a brown, flaky, amorphous mass. 14 

" If an alcoholic caustic-alkali solution is added to an alcoholic 
solution of glucose, an amorphous precipitate of insoluble alkali 
compound is formed. On warming this compound it decomposes 
easily with the formation of a yellowish or brownish color, which 
is the basis of Moore's Test." 15 

When glucose is heated with water and potassium hydroxide in 
a loosely stoppered flask on a water-bath at temperatures from 
35 to 40 C, the solution broAvns after a short time. This color 
increases in intensity for the first few days, but after some time the 
liquid becomes colorless. Lactic acid may be isolated from this 
colorless liquid with a yield of about 41 per cent. Although the 
rate of this reaction varies greatly with the dilution and the relative 
concentration of the alkali, lactic acid is always formed and may be 
separated from the colorless solutions that finally result. Sodium 

14 Honig and Rosenfeld, Ber. CJiein. Gesell., Berlin, 10, p. 871, 1877. 

15 Hammersten-Mandel, p. 80. 



Am. Jour Pharm. ) CciVamclizatioil ill Rkws's Test. 

April, 1910. J 



157 



hydroxide lias exactly the, same action as potassium hydroxide. 
Milk-sugar is also strongly browned by the alkalies, and decomposed 
with the formation of lactic acid. 10 

The exact mechanism of these changes has not been worked 
out. but Gaud 17 has thrown light on parts of the process. He was 
able to establish the formation of lactic acid, oxybenzoic acid, oxalic 
acid, and two isomeric dioxyphenylpropionic acids, also " melas- 
sique " acid and " glucique " acid constituting the greater part of 
the "resin" formed when copper oxide is also present with the 
alkali. These two complex acids had previously been described by 
Mulder in a paper entitled " Researches on Bodies of a Humus 
Nature. " ]S According to Gaud, some of the glucose undergoes a 
dehydration and condensation under the action of the alkali with 
the formation of the complex " glucique " acid. 



2C 6 H 12 O b = 3H 2 0-C 12 H 18 9 

This acid is unstable and breaks down into pyrocatechinol and 
Sfluconic acid : 



CioH ls O,j 



HC 
HC 



CH 



CH 



COH 
COH 



CH 2 OH 

CHOH 

CHOH 
I 

CHOH 



CHOH 
COOH 



The gluconic acid separates into glyceric acid and lactic acid : 



CHX>H 



CHoOH 



CHOH 
I 

CHOH 

I 

CHOH 
I 

CHOH 
I 

COOH 



> 



CHOH 
COOH 



CH, 
I 

CHOH 

I 

COOH 



3 Nencki and Sieber, Journ. fur prak. Chem. (2), 24, 498, 1881. 
r .Gaud, Compt. rend., 119, p. 604, 1894. 
s Liebig's Annalen, 36, p. 243, 1840. 



I 



Cardmelization in Rivas's Test. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1910. 



In the presence of the alkali, the glyceric acid thus formed is 
transformed into lactic acid and oxalic acid : 



CH..OH 

1 

CHOH 

I 

COOH 
COOH 

I 

CHOH 

I 

CH 2 OH 



> 



CH 3 

I 

CHOH 

| 

COOH 



COOH 

I 

COOH 



Esterification then takes place between the lactic acid and the 
pyrocatechinol, formed earlier in the process, with the formation 
of two isomeric esters of hydrocaffeic acid, one of which has acid 
properties and the other alcoholic properties : 



CH 3 
I 

CHOH 
I 

COOH 



CH 

HOC | j CH 

HOC \/ CH 
CH 



CH 3 
HC OC 
HOOCHOC 



CH 



CH 



CH 

CH 



CH 3 

CHOH 
I 

COOH 



HOC 
HOC 



CH 



j CH = H 2 
CH 



CH 



CH 3 
I 

CHOH CH 

I /\ 

cooc i 

HOC \ ) 
CH 



CH 
CH 



These citations serve to show the complexity of the changes 
when glucose is heated with alkali, and to suggest the desirability 
uf further work. But they lend no color to the assumption of the 
formation of caramel, and they do not conflict with the explanation 
already suggested. 

It seems likely that the yellow color developing at first when 
glucose is heated with an alkali, as in Rivas's Test, is due to some 
sodium glucose compound of the nature of an alcoholate. On 
further heating, the major part of the glucose is transformed into 
lactic acid and other of the organic acids mentioned by Gaud, and 
part of it is resinified as a result of its aldehyde group. Aldehydes 
as a class exhibit this latter behavior with alkalies. Thus, if acet- 



Am aJXiwo*™" } Caramclization in Rivas's Test. 159 

aldehyde in aqueous solutipn is warmed with potassium hydroxide, 
the liquid becomes yellow and after a time reddish-brown amor- 
phous masses are precipitated, " with the simultaneous production 
of a peculiar odor." The brown substance formed is called " alde- 
hyde-resin." 

This method of explanation involves no new or improbable ideas. 
In fact, this behavior of aldehydes is given as characteristic of 
them, in the usual text-books of organic chemistry. 19 Further, 
this explanation is consistent with the facts in the case, even sup- 
plying some explanation for the bleaching action of molecular 
oxygen. For aldehyde-compounds would be expected to oxidize. 
It is also in accordance with the experience of every chemist who 
has added alkalies to alcohol, before distilling it to free it from 
aldehydes. The yellow to brown colors produced in alcohol under 
these conditions are also discharged by acids. And lastly, it 
explains the formation of a brown color in the almost colorless 
aqueous layer obtained in Marsh's Test applied to a straight 
whiskey, when this layer had been separated from the whiskey and 
then treated with alkali as described in the early part of this paper. 
For this aqueous layer contains aldehydes. 

Milk-sugar gives similar results. An explanation may be found 
in this case, too, without recourse to the assumption of carameliza- 
tion. Milk-sugar is well known to be readily hydrolyzed with the 
destruction of the monocarbonyl bond, 

C 6 H u 5 < OC 6 H n 5 < + H 2 = C 6 H 12 6 + C 6 H 12 O e , 

yielding- d-glucose and d-galactose. It is also well known that 
alkalies, or rather hydroxyl ions, catalyze hydrolysis. It may well 
be, then, that in Rivas's Test the milk-sugar is first partly hydrolyzed 
into glucose which then reacts with the alkali as suggested above, 
with the production of the dark colored condensation products. 

I do not wish to be understood as omitting the formation of 
aldols as a part of these condensations. Just as acetaldehyde forms 
aldol, so other aldehydes may be expected to : 

CH 3 .C<f H + H.CH 2 C< /H =CH 3 C( / — CH 2 C/ H aldol. 



19 Holleman's Organic Chemistry, Tr. by Walker, N.Y., 1006, p. 135 ; 
Bernsthen's Organic Chemistry, p. 144. 



i6o 



Caramelization in Riuas's Test. 



Jour. Pharm. 
pril, 1910. 



This in no way invalidates the explanation by resinification. For 
it is probable that aldehyde-resin is a product resulting from the 
continued condensation of aldol molecules with the elimination of 
water, just as aldol itself easily loses one molecule of water when 
heated, with the formation of crotonaldehyde : 



In closing, it seems permissible to return to the case of syrup 
of ferrous iodide. Although we deal here at first with a neutral 
syrup, it is possible to draw an explanation, from the accepted facts 
of chemistry without recourse to the assumption of caramelization. 
Ferrous iodide is the salt of a weak base and a strong acid and 
therefore undergoes hydrolysis with the formation of hydriodic 
acid and ferrous hydroxide, or basic salts of ferrous iron, 
FeI 2 + 2H 2 = 2HI + Fe(OH) 2 , or basic salts. The fact that 
this syrup becomes acid as it ages was pointed out by W. F. Horn 
in the paper already cited. 20 The cane-sugar then would be expected 
to undergo, at least in part, an inversion, or hydrolysis, such as it 
is well known to undergo in the presence of strong acids such as 
hydrochloric acid. As to strength, hydriodic acid is to be classed 
with hydrochloric acid, and it would catalyze this hydrolysis in much 
the same way as hydrochloric acid. This inversion would likely 
produce the two hexoses, d-glucose and d-fructose, well known to 
be produced in the presence of other strong acids : 



These two hexoses may then undergo the change which is known 
as a general reaction for hexoses in the presence of hydrochloric 
acid, namely, the conversion into levulinic acid, CH 3 .CO.CH 2 .CH 2 .- 
COOH, with the simultaneous production of the brown substances 
known to be produced always in this transformation and called 
" Humus Substances." 21 Other reactions may occur at the same 
time, 22 and the browned syrup of ferrous iodide offers an open 
field for extensive investigation. 




H 2 = CH 3 .CH:CH.Q 




C 12 H 22 O n -\- H 2 — C 6 H 12 O e -f- C 6 H 12 O e 



20 Proceedings Penna. Pharm. Assoc., 1903, p. 112. 

Holleman- Walker, p. 269. 
2 ~Cf. W. F. Horn, loc. cit. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. ) 
April, 1910. J 



Chlorinated Soda Solution. 



161 



In fact, the last word, probably cannot be said in any of these 
cases except after elaborate research, but I believe there is ample 
evidence that the assumption of caramelization has no adequate 
experimental basis in the cases discussed, and that it does not even 
savor of probability, while the alcoholic and aldehydic characters 
of glucose may well account for the phenomena in so far as they are 
known at present. 

Private Laboratory, Bryn Mavvr, Pa. 
February, 1910. 

A NOTE ON THE PREPARATION OF CHLORINATED 
SODA SOLUTION. 

By Elias Elvove. 

The well known method of the L T . S. Pharmacopoeia (1905) 
for preparing chlorinated soda solution from chlorinated lime is 
certainly not a very simple method to say the least. We need 
only recall the fact that not only is it required to filter the aqueous 
mixture so as to free it from the insoluble portion remaining in 
suspension which is frequently a tedious and slow process, but that 
it is also required to afterwards remove the calcium from the 
solution by adding a solution of sodium carbonate and filtering off 
the resulting precipitate, thus involving a second tedious filtration. 
Again the fact that these precipitates are very bulky and difficult to 
wash thoroughly renders this process considerably wasteful as 
well as highly inconvenient when a comparatively large amount of 
this solution is to be prepared in the ordinary chemical or pharma- 
ceutical laboratory. Also the fact that such preparations, even when 
kept under the most favorable conditions, are comparatively unstable 
and hence must frequently be prepared just when wanted, renders 
the disadvantages mentioned of even greater magnitude than would 
be the case if this preparation were of a stable character so as not 
to lose strength on long keeping. Finally, the fact that the chlori- 
nated lime itself is a comparatively unstable substance renders it 
practically impossible to prepare a chlorinated soda solution of any 
desired strength, or even with any close 'degree of approximation, 
without having to carry out one or more actual determinations of 
the available chlorine in the resulting solutions. 



Chlorinated Soda Solution. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1910. 



Recently, a chlorinated soda solution containing about 6 per 
cent, available chlorine was required in the course of some experi- 
ments in the Division of Pathology and Bacteriology of the 
Hygienic Laboratory and the writer was requested to prepare such 
a solution. A trial of the present U.S. P. method, using of course 
proportionately larger quantities of the required substances, showed 
that this method is inadequate to yield a chlorinated soda solution 
of such high available chlorine content. The preparation of such 
a solution by direct passage of chlorine gas into' a solution of sodium 
hydroxide suggested itself, and in looking up the chemical literature 
on the subject it was found that such a method has actually been em- 
ployed by Graebe 1 and with very good results. Thus Graebe found 
that by employing a slight excess of the alkaline solution the stability 
of .the resulting' hypochlorite is much increased; for example, if 
instead of using just sufficient sodium hydroxide to combine with the 
chlorine, i.e., in the theoretical proportion of Cl 2 to 2 NaOH, we use 
these constituents in the proportion of Cl 2 to 2^4 NaOH, he found 
that instead of a solution of over 5 per cent, available chlorine losing 
practically its entire available chlorine at the end of 3 days, it will 
still show the presence of 5.03 per cent, available chlorine even at the 
end of 6 days and although the temperature had risen from 18 C. to 
25 C., if prepared so as to conform to the latter proportion ; while by 
employing the chlorine and the sodium hydroxide in the proportion of 
Clo to 3 NaOH, the resulting hypochlorite solution which imme- 
diately after preparation contained 5.7 per cent, available chlorine 
still showed the presence of 5.37 per cent, available chlorine even 
after having stood 23 days, during which time the temperature rose 
from 18 C. to 25 C. The effect of light, however, he found unfav- 
orable to its stability and he therefore recommends that such solu- 
tions be kept in the dark. Graebe further points out the advantages 
of the method 2 for preparing chlorine that is based on the reaction 
between hydrochloric acid and potassium permanganate. Thus owing 
to the fact that this reaction is practically quantitative it is possible 
to prepare hypochlorite solutions of definite strengths by using the 
calculated amounts of the respective substances required. The 
chlorine thus obtained is also free from chlorine dioxide ; and it 
is possible to carry out the whole process of generating the 



1 Ber., 35, 2753-2756 (1902). 
2 Bcr., 35, 43-45 (1902). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1910. J 



Chlorinated Soda Solution. 



chlorine and forming the hypochlorite solution without noticing the 
slightest odor of chlorine in the room in which the operation is 
carried out. About 65 c.c. of hydrochloric acid of sp. gr. 1.17 is 
required for each portion of 10 Gm. of potassium permanganate used, 
the evolution of chlorine commencing even without extraneous 
heating. m 

A chlorinated soda solution was therefore prepared by Graebe's 
method as follows : From the proportion 

70.92 : 120 : : 6 : x = 10.15 

we see that in order to have the proportion of Cl 2 to 3 NaOH, the 
amount of sodium hydroxide should be 10.15 per cent, in the case 
of a solution that is to contain 6 per cent, available chlorine. For 
making 500 Gm. of such a solution we will therefore need 50.75 Gm. 
of NaOH and 30 Gm. Cl 2 to 419.25 Gm. of water; while on the 
basis of 10 Gm. KMnD 4 equals 11 Gm. chlorine, to obtain 30 
Gm. of the latter approximately 27.3 Gm. of the former will be 
required. These respective quantities of the several substances were 
therefore used in making this solution. The potassium perman- 
ganate was placed in a distilling flask of about 300 c.c. capacity, 
the mouth of which was fitted with a doubly perforated stopper ; 
one of these perforations being used for connecting with the sepa- 
ratory funnel, into which 175 c.c. of strong hydrochloric acid (33 
per cent.) was placed; while the other perforation in the stopper 
was used for uniting by means of suitable tubing the inner atmos- 
phere of the flask with that of the separatory funnel; the latter 
being an arrangement used by Manchot and Herzog, 3 an illustra- 
tion of which may also be seen in Loevenhart and Kastle's 4 paper 
on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The delivery 
tube of the flask was connected with a small gas washing bottle 
(Drexel's), into which was placed about 50 c.c. of water for wash- 
ing the gas before it passed into the sodium hydroxide solution. 
The latter was placed in a narrow-mouthed measuring cylinder, 
which it almost filled, and the gas delivery tube was made long 
enough to almost reach the bottom of the cylinder. When all 
the connections had been made, the stop-cock of the separatory 
funnel was turned so as to let the hydrochloric acid fall slowly 
in drops on the solid potassium permanganate in the flask. The 

3 Ann. Chem. (Liebig), 316, 321 (1901). 

4 Amer. Chem. J., 29, 397-437 (1903). 



164 



Chlorinated Soda Solution. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

X April, 1910. 



evolution of chlorine commences immediately after the acid and 
permanganate come in contact, and the rate of chlorine generated 
is easily regulated by the rate of flow of the hydrochloric acid. 
When the current of chlorine was observed to slow down, gentle 
heating was applied, and the operation continued until the cur- 
rent of chlorine passing the Drexel, washing bottle was observed 
to have been reduced to just a very slow bubbling. The cylinder 
and contents were weighed before and after the passage of the 
current of chlorine and the increase in weight was found to be 
29 Gm. This would make the added chlorine represent 5.81 per 
cent, of the final weight of the solution. An actual determination 
of the available chlorine in this solution, carried out by the U. 
S. P. method, showed the presence of 5.80 per cent, available 
chlorine. This shows therefore that the chlorine value of such 
a solution may be found by simply determining the increase in 
weight due to its passage into the solution ; and it also shows 
that perhaps a better plan to follow when a solution of a given 
chlorine strength is required is to use a little more of the potassium 
permanganate than would correspond to the formula 10 Gm. 
KMn0 4 == 1 1 Gm. chlorine and determine the increase in the weight 
of the solution due to the passage of the chlorine into it; when, if 
the solution is found a little stronger than what is required, it could 
be diluted to the desired strength by the addition of the calculated 
amount of the sodium hydroxide solution. It would seem advisable 
therefore that Graebe's method for the preparation of chlorinated 
soda solution be adopted in the next revision of the U.S. P. ; and 
perhaps also that the permanganate method for chlorine generation 
be used in all other pharmacopceial preparations where free chlorine 
is required, as, for example, in the preparation of chlorine water. 
This would not only avoid the use of different methods, as the 
chlorinated lime method for the preparation of chlorinated soda 
solution and the chlorate method for the preparation of chlorine 
water, but would also yield other advantages. Thus the latter would 
then be pure chlorine water instead of as at present containing also 
the foreign substances, potassium chloride and oxides of chlorine ; 
while " the possible danger arising in the preparation of chlorine 
from either sodium or potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid," 
pointed out by Merk 5 as being due to the decomposition with 



5 Proc. A. Ph. A., 52, 775 (1904). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
April, 1910. j 



Chlorinated Soda Solution. 



explosive violence of the oxides of chlorine which are generated in 
the chlorate process, would be avoided; also the difficulties pointed 
out by Shearer, 6 as the impossibility " even under the most favor- 
able conditions, to obtain compound solution of chlorine containing 
0.4 per cent. CI as prepared by the U.S. P. formula," would be 
overcome ; especially, when we remember that in passing the chlorine 
through distilled water preliminary to its entering the sodium 
hvdroxide solution, we actually obtain in the one operation both 
chlorine water and chlorinated soda solution. Finally, the fact that 
the apparatus required is very simple and that it need not occupy 
much space, as well as the fact that the chlorine is readily generated 
by simply turning the stop-cock of the separator}- funnel so as to 
allow the strong hydrochloric acid to come in contact with the potas- 
sium permanganate, and that the operation can be carried out so as 
not to notice the slightest odor of chlorine in the room in which this 
operation is carried out, would seem to offer the additional advan- 
tage of permitting the apparatus to be permanently set up and thus 
kept readv for use whenever free chlorine is wanted; while by also 
keeping ready for use a supply of the sodium hydroxide solution, the 
chlorinated soda solution could be prepared in a very short time 
and with very little attention. 

It might be objected, however, that the permanganate method 
would increase the cost of the chlorine very much. But when we 
remember that a given weight of potassium permanganate can be 
used in making more than five times as much chlorinated soda solu- 
tion as an equal weight of even the best commercially obtainable 
chlorinated lime, this objection loses much of the force whicn it 
might appear at first glance to have. Thus according to an experi- 
ment of Amy and Dawson, 7 in which 100 Gm. of chlorinated lime 
of an available chlorine strength which represented, according to 
these authors, about the best that is ordinarily obtainable commer- 
cially, was used in making 1000 Gm. of chlorinated soda solution 
by the U.S. P. method, the resulting solution contained only 1.65 
per cent, available chlorine ; or a total available chlorine of 16.5 Gm., 
the cost of the chlorinated lime for which would ordinarily be about 
2 cents; while on the basis of 27.3 Gm. KMn0 4 + T 75 c - c - hydro- 
chloric acid yielding 29 Gm. available chlorine in the chlorinated 



e Proc. A. Ph. A., 55,-669 (1907). 
T Proc. A. Ph. A., 56, 842 (1908). 



166 Color Requirements of US.P. { Am Xp?u'i9iu am ' 

soda solution, and taking the average of the quoted wholesale prices 
for these substances, the cost of even 20 Gm. of such available 
chlorine need not exceed this amount, thus actually making the 
permanganate method even slightly cheaper than the present U.S. P. 
method, even if we do not consider its other advantages. It appears 
therefore that from whatever standpoint we may view the case the 
present U.S. P. method for the preparation of chlorinated soda 
solution is certainly not as advantageous as the method proposed 
as a substitute. 

Hygienic Laboratory, P.H. and M.H.S., 
Washington, D. C. 



A ^JOTE ON CERTAIN COLOR REQUIREMENTS OF THE 
U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA. 

By Norman Roberts, M.D., 

Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, 

Washington, D. C. 

Horace North, in Lehn and Fink's " Notes- on New Remedies " 
for January, 1910, objects to the U.S. P. requirement as to the 
color of turpentine, in that there is no such thing as an absolutely 
colorless liquid, not even distilled water. This objection is valid, 
and to meet it definite color-limits should be officially set. The 
mdst practicable color standards would probably be dilute solutions 
of stable and easily obtainable substances, the comparisons being- 
made in large colorless glass bottles or in Nessler tubes — not in 
test-tubes, since in a tube a flat bottom is necessary to avoid irregular 
dispersion and consequent inequality of the light. 

Thus, in the case of Oleum Terebinthinse, the first requirement 
should read somewhat as follows : 

"A thin liquid, having a characteristic odor; color not more 
intense than that of a 1 : (x) solution of (potassium dichromate) in 
distilled water, when viewed by diffused daylight transmitted from 
below, the bodies of liquid compared being one decimetre in depth 
and contained in similar Nessler cylinders 30 mm. or more in 
diameter." 

Other liquids in the U. S. Pharmocopceia having the same vague 



Am \pi?i r " i9i(? rm ' } Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. 167 

color requirement are as follows : Acetone, the various " colorless " 
liquid acids, ether, acetic ether, ethyl chloride, alcohol, water and a 
number of the medicated waters, benzaldehyde, benzin, bromoform, 
carbon disulphide, cinnamic aldehyde, eucalyptol, glycerin, guaiacol, 
a number of the liquors, methyl salicylate, oil of peppermint, oil of 
thyme, spirit of ammonia, spirit of nitroglycerin, terebene. 

As no one color standard will do for all these liquids, a number 
of standards should be provided, and the liquid should be required 
to be not more highly colored than the designated standard, or if a 
given liquid is found at different times to assume two or more 
different colors in consequence of various impurities or deteriora- 
tions, a corresponding number of color comparisons may be pre- 
scribed. For certain of the " colorless " liquids, distilled water 
itself may serve as the color standard ; for others, very dilute solu- 
tions of the decomposition products {e.g., for hydriodic acid, iodine), 
but for most it will be necessary to experiment and find suitable 
non-related soluble substances by the use of which the usually 
occurring colors may be matched for practical purposes. 

In many, perhaps most cases, a faint color may be present in 
officially " colorless " liquids, and still the liquid be for practical 
purposes as good as though it were water-colorless. The Pharma- 
copoeia designedly permits such deviations from absolute perfection 
as will not result directly or indirectly in injury to the consumer, 
and will reduce what would otherwise be, in many cases, the prohibi- 
tive cost of production. But now that the U. S. Pharmacopoeia is 
a pivotal legal reference work, vagueness of any sort must be 
eliminated, and all requirements stated in language which shall be, 
humanly speaking, unmistakable. 



A NOTE ON CARDAMOM AND OIL OF CARDAMOM. 
By George M. Beringer. 

At the last annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical 
Association the writer contributed formulas for some new basic 
elixirs that were proposed for introduction in the revision of the 
National Formulary. Among these was a compound elixir of car- 
damom in which the oil of cardamom is an essential ingredient. In 
the discussion following the reading of this paper, some doubt was 



168 Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. { ^ApST'iSif™' 

expressed as to authentic and pure oil of cardamom being available 
as an article of commerce and likewise as to its keeping. 

These criticisms were not in accord with my own practical experi- 
ence, as for nearly twenty years I had been using this oil continu- 
ously as a flavoring in certain special formulas and had found it 
very satisfactory, and during all this time I had experienced no diffi- 
culty in obtaining a good product nor had I any trouble in keeping 
it in my oil closet. The change noted in the latter respect was very 
slight indeed and not at all comparable with changes in such com- 
monly used oils as lemon and orange. 

The history of distilled oil of cardamom may be traced back to 
Valerius' Cordus, who first distilled it somewhere about 1540. An 
oil prepared " by extraction from the seed " as suggested by the 
critic would be far from satisfactory, and his sample made as de- 
scribed, " by taking the cardamom seeds, grinding them and ex- 
tracting with a solvent and evaporating the solvent," was prob- 
ably not more than one-half to one-third pure essential oil, because 
the fixed oil in this seed is more abundant than the volatile and the 
ordinary solvents would extract this and leave it in the residue on 
evaporation. 

The writer has always understood the commercial situation to 
be that a very large portion of the cardamoms harvested are not 
presentable and will not permit of bleaching either by natural or 
artificial means. Again part of the fruits become broken or dehisce 
from over-ripeness. Thus there is always available a relatively 
large amount of " decorticated " cardamom seeds freed from the 
almost inert pericarps and very suitable for grinding for manufactur- 
ing purposes and for distilling. 

However, that there might be no question as to the abundance 
of a supply of pure oil of cardamom in commerce and that its keep- 
ing quality as well as purity might be established before receiving 
official recognition, further investigation was deemed advisable. The 
writer addressed a circular letter to a number of the large dealers 
and manufacturers of essential oils, propounding queries, answers to 
which would elicit the information desired. Their replies were uni- 
formly prompt and courteous, and they willingly placed at the dis- 
posal of the committee data and information concerning the product. 
I acknowledge my obligation and appreciation of their kindness and 
am also indebted to Messrs. Dodge & Olcott Co., and the American 
Branch of Antoine Chiris for gratuitous samples. The object of 



Am AS'i9 P io arm } Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. 169 

the present communication is to submit to the Committee on N.F. 
an abstract of the information thus obtained and the conclusions 
which I believe are warranted from these and my own observations. 

" The official Malabar and Madras cardamoms are, on account of 
their high price, hardly ever used for the distillation of the commer- 
cial oil which is generally made from Ceylon cardamoms. Also this 
oil is rather high in price and would, therefore, never be used in 
larger quantities, so that the demand could probably be filled without 
difficulty. The keeping qualities of the oil are comparable to those 
of oil of lemon, orange, etc. 

" The available data for testing the purity of the oil are somewhat 
meagre, and from what I suppose to be its chemical composition 
it would seem to be not very difficult to adulterate it without altering 
its various characteristics. Altogether, I would consider it as an 
article which does not lend itself well to official recognition." — 
Fritzsche Brothers. 

" I am extremely friendly to the article — oil cardamom — knowing 
its value and worth as a flavoring ingredient. 

" Purity. — This oil is one that is susceptible to adulteration, and 
an oil that has suffered tremendously in the past. We believe, how- 
ever, that, along with other oils of this character, the standard has 
been raised considerably of late ; and at the present time there is 
no difficulty in securing an oil as an article of commerce that can 
be officially recognized. 

" Distillation. — There are several qualities of cardamom seed dis- 
tilled, but the oils that are in most general use are drawn from the 
Ceylon and Malabar seed, both yielding a slightly different quality 
of oil ; and in recognizing oil of cardamom, these conditions should 
be considered. We refer you to Parry and Gildemeister and Hoff- 
mann, who have both analyzed these oils on a number of occasions, 
and our own laboratory has looked into same frequently. 

"Keeping Qualities. — In our opinion, from the experience we 
have had with this article, the keeping qualities are much greater 
than that of the oil you mention. It is not prone to become tere- 
binthinate and if kept under the ideal conditions that essential oils 
should be stored we believe it will retain its qualities for an indefinite 
period. 

" Physical Character. — This is easily established and any prac- 



170 Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. { A %f r ™^ 9 i5 arm ' 

tical chemist can differentiate between a pure product and an adul- 
terated one ; also between the several varieties. 

" I would also add that the cultivation of cardamom seed has 
increased enormously of late, especially in Ceylon, and there will 
be no trouble in supplying any reasonable quantity that the trade 
demands." — P. C. Magnus. 

" Oil Cardamom. — This oil has been sold more or less for 
medicinal and flavoring purposes, and while we do not know its 
consumption, we think that it is becoming an article of better demand 
and should be recognized officially, as it is prepared in sufficient 
quantities that it can always be obtained. We have not noticed 
any difference in the keeping quality of this oil and we do not see 
any reason of any change in the character of this oil or a good many 
other oils, provided they are absolutely pure. 

" The following report of analysis of sample of oil of cardamom 
of our own distillation is submitted : 

" Specific gravity at 15 C 9378 

Specific gravity at 25 C 9320 

Soluble in 4 vol. of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Optical rotation at 25 C + 2 9° 3°' 

Saponification number 126.5" 

— American Branch of Antoine Chiris. 

" We have manufactured the article regularly for many years 
and in relatively a large way, the principal outlet for it being among 
manufacturers of high grade pharmaceutical preparations who 
presumably employ it as a flavoring agent in some of their com- 
pounded specialties. We do not class it among the especially sensi- 
tive oils and are quite certain that we have never had any spoil on 
our hands, notwithstanding the fact that under favorable conditions 
in respect of the raw material we sometimes manufacture ahead 
enough stock to last several years. Your first specific question as 
to whether the oil is prepared in sufficient quantity to be obtainable 
at all times we answer positively in the affirmative. We are always 
in position to supply the article of the very finest quality and in 
perfect condition. 

" Your second question we have already answered substantially 
and we will add only that oil cardamom cannot be considered in 



Am 4?T'i9i h o arm *} Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. 171 

any sense as being in the same class with oils of lemon and orange 
in respect of keeping quality. The latter begin to deteriorate almost 
immediately on exposure, and unless light and air are carefully ex- 
cluded from them they will become entirely spoiled and worthless 
in a comparatively short time. Of the cardamom, on the other hand, 
we have had an open bottle in use for a year or more without any 
noticeable sign of deterioration. 

" Your third question we submitted to Dr. F. D. Dodge, chief 
chemist at our laboratory and factory, whose reply is as follows : 

" * I have no data as to the keeping quality of the oil. but from 
the fact that the terpene content is low, would assume that the 
product was relatively stable. 

" ' As to tests : the oils manufactured here have generally agreed 
with the published descriptions of the Malabar oil. I have found 
as the result of 14 determinations (1907-1909) 

" ' S.G. .933 — .943 at 15 C. 
O.R. + 26° to + 40 at 15 C. 

" ' According to some of the German investigators the oil should 
contain about 45 per cent, of ester, calculated as terpinyl acetate. I 
have not had occasion to determine this so far, but it could readily 
be done and, with the other constants, would be of assistance in 
valuing a sample. But I doubt if chemical tests alone would be 
sufficient to establish the purity or authenticity of the oil.' " — Dodge 
& Olcott Co. 



" We have manufactured this oil for many years, and our prod- 
uct is used by some of the largest perfumers in France and America. 
We certainly think it is of sufficient importance to be officially recog- 
nized. It is an expensive oil, and therefore" the actual weight dis- 
tilled is not of course very great. We certainly think it is an oil 
that should be recognized, so as to keep out adulterated oil. 

" We have found no trouble with its keeping properties, provided 
usual and reasonable care is taken not to expose the oil unduly to 
light and air. 

"We think the physical characters and tests for purity can be 
readily established. In our own case, the raw material (cardamom 
fruit) we use for distillation is specially selected, not solely on the 
oil content, but with due regard to the odor value, which, as you 



172 Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. • {^JS^uS™' 

will readily understand, is a very important item in an oil which is 
used so largely in perfumery. It may interest you if we give you 
a few particulars of the tests of batches we have done during the 
last few years. Some of the tests were repeated more than twelve 
months after the oil was distilled, and the results did not vary 
appreciably : 

TESTS FROM I9OI TO I908. 



Optical Rotation. Specific Gravity. 

+ 3°-5° • :• 0.9474 

-(-12.25° 0.9102 Qualities not 

+ 12.30° 0.9283 used by us. 1 

+ 36.88° 0.9315 

0.9291 

0.9330 

0.9293 

: . . . O.9322 

0.9300 Sol. in 70% ale. 

3 1. 6° 0.9349 1 in 4 vol. 

+ 32.16° 0.9408 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 30.6 0.9309 

+ 2975° 0.9302 

0.9305 

+ 39- I 4° 0.9352 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 28.00° 0.9322 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 30.85° 0.9347 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 31-2° 0.9357 1 in 4^ vol. 

+ 30.75 0.9349 1 in 4/ / 2 vol. 

+ 28.25° 0-9365 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 22.2° O.9314 

+ 22.8° 0.933 1 1 m 3 v °l- 

+ 24.35° 0.9329 1 in 3 vol. 

+ 27.9° 0.9335 1 in 3 vol." 



—Stafford Allen & Sons, Ltd. 



1 " All our regular oil is distilled from Ceylon fruit. 

" In 1901 we distilled a sample of wild cardamoms. These gave us an 
optical rotation of -|- 12.25 and a specific gravity of 0.9102. 

" The same year we tried a sample of Mangalore cardamoms, which 
gave us a result of optical rotation -\- 12.30 and specific gravity 0.9283." 



Am Airi^9io arm '} Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. 173 

The latter firm print on* their stationery as one of their impor- 
tant specialities " Cardamom Oil," indicating that it assumes a fairly 
important place in their commercial transactions. 

I have recently examined three samples of this oil of different 
makes, the results being as follows : 



Specific Optical Solubility in Solubility in 

Gravity. Rotation. 75% Alcohol. 70% Alcohol. 

1 0.9322 + 3 2 -6° 2 volumes 3 volumes 

2 0.9324 -\- 29.4 2 volumes 3 volumes 

3 0-9323 + 29.4 2 volumes 3 volumes 



The data before us warrant the following conclusions : that 
ample supplies of pure oil are available ; that it keeps as well as most 
essential oils and much better than many ; that the commercial oil 
is largely distilled from cultivated Ceylon cardamom as well as from 
the Malabar ; that the specific gravity varies from 0.929 to 0.947 ; 
that the oil is markedly dextrogyrous with quite a range running 
from ' + 22.2 to + 40 ; that oils of lower specific gravity and 
optical rotation or deficient in flavor are obtained from wild or other 
cardamoms and must be rejected; that the pure oil is soluble when 
fresh in three volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, and after aging 
somewhat is still soluble in 4 volumes. 

The following is submitted as a proposed N.F. standard if the 
oil be admitted in the revision and follows the style of the U.S. P. 
VIII. : 

Oleum Cardamom i — Oil of Cardamom. 

A volatile oil distilled from the seeds of Eletteria Cardamomum 
White et Maton (Fam. Zingiberacese) . It should be kept in well- 
stoppered amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

A colorless or very pale yellow liquid having the characteristic 
aromatic, penetrating, and somewhat camphoraceous odor of car- 
damom and a warm, persistently pungent, and strongly aromatic 
taste. 

Specific gravity 0.924 to 0.947. 

Very soluble in alcohol and dissolves readily and clearly in 
4 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

It is dextrogyrate, the angle of rotation varying from + 22 ° t° 
-f 40 in a 100 mm. tube, at a temperature of 25 C. 

Cardamom and its volatile oil again illustrate the changes that 



174 Cardamom and Oil of Cardamom. { A ^°n^9io arm ' 

are continuously taking place in commerce and the need, therefore, 
of frequent revision of the statements in text-books and accepted 
authorities regarding the sources of drug products. Only a portion 
of the cardamom of commerce is now " obtained from the wild 
plants growing in the Malabar or west coast of India." 

Since 1881, the cultivation of Elettaria Cardamomum in Ceylon 
has been very successfully carried on and the quantity of the fruit 
exported from there has been continually increasing, and (the 
appearance and quality more and more closely simulating the best of 
the true Malabar product. " Ceylon-Malabar Cardamom " is now 
an established commercial variety 2 and the " Mysore " variety is 
likewise imitated and produced on that island. Hence the names 
heretofore used to designate commercial varieties of cardamoms 
now become meaningless as designating the countries of growth and 
export. Parry sums up this situation as follows : 

" The majority of the cardamoms of commerce are imported from 
Ceylon and may be described as ' Ceylon Malabars or Ceylon My- 
sores,' according as they fit in with descriptions." 3 

Gildemeister and Hoffmann make the unqualified statement that, 
" The cardamom oil of commerce is not distilled from the official 
Malabar cardamom from Elettaria Cardamomum White et Maton, 
but from the long Ceylon, the wild growing cardamom of that island, 
the fruit of E. major of Smith, the E. Cardamomum var. of 
Fliickiger. They describe this oil as light yellow, somewhat viscid 
and having a specific gravity 0.895 to 0.905 and an optical rotation 
of +i2°to-(-i5 and yielding a turbid solution in 70 per cent, 
alcohol." 4 

They further state " that on account of their high price, the 
official Malabar and Madras cardamoms from Ele>ttaria Cardamo- 
mum are seldom used in the manufacture of the volatile oil." They 
give the characters of the Malabar seed oil. specific gravity 0.933 
to 0.943 and optical rotation + to + 34 52' and soluble in four 
and more parts of 70 per cent, alcohol. 5 

E. Parry c has examined samples of oils distilled from both 



2 Arzneidrogen, Dr. Heinrich Zornig, Leipzig, 1909, fol. 196. 

3 Parry, Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes, 1908, fol. 

197. 

1 The Volatile Oils, Gildemeister & Hoffmann, translation of E. Kremers, 

SIS- 

5 Ibid., 316. 

6 Loc. cit, 198. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1910. / 



Alkaloids of Cinchona Bark. 



175 



Malabar and Mysore (Ceylon) seeds and reports that there was 
practically no difference, the result being: 



The wild Ceylon cardamom is not an article of importance nor 
does it enter commerce in any large amount. In the communication 
above Messrs. Stafford Allen & Sons state that their experiment with 
distilling the oil from wild seed was unsatisfactory and they use only 
the cultivated Ceylon seed for their product, and this is also undoubt- 
edly the practice of the other manufacturers. None of the oils 
examined showed results comparable with the data reported for wild 
Ceylon cardamom oil. On the other hand, the reports of Parry, 
Allen, Dodge, and Chiris as well as my own limited examinations 
all confirm the statement that the oil now on the market is distilled 
from the fruit of Elettaria Cardamomum and that the statement of 
Gildemeister and Hoffmann in this respect needs correction. 



SOLUBILITY OF ALKALOIDS OF CINCHONA BARK AND 
THEIR SALTS IN WATER AT A TEMPERATURE 
OF 25 C. 



At the request of the editor of the Journal I submit a list of 
cinchona alkaloids and salts of which the solubility in water at a 
temperature of 25 C. has been determined. 

I desire to- call attention to the fact, that some of these salts 
are partly decomposed by water into a more soluble and a less soluble 
compound, which property, no doubt, has caused many of the dis- 
crepancies in previous determinations, carried out in different ways. 
For instance, 1 part of a pure basic salt of quinine glycerophosphate 
of the formula (C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) 2 PO 4 H 2 .C s H 7 O 2 + 5H 2 requires for 
complete solution about 850 parts of water of 25 C. If, however, 
a large excess of this salt is treated with water of 25 C. for several 
hours and frequently shaken, the solution filtered off from the undis- 



Oil of Malabar cardamoms 
Oil of Mysore cardamoms . 



Sp. gr. at 
1S.S C. 

O.9418 
O.9418 



Opcical Rotation at 
6° C. (100 mm. tube). 



+ 40° 41' 
+ 46° 39' 



By George L. Schaefer. 



176 



Alkaloids of Cinchona Bark. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ April, 1910. 



solved part and tested, the salt will be found of a much greater 
solubility, requiring even less than 200 parts of water for solution, 
according to time and quantity used. The remaining undissolved 
part, when dried and treated again with water in the same propor- 
tion and under the same conditions as before, shows further 
decomposition, but in a lesser degree, and the solution will be 
found to contain considerably less of the salt than the first solution, 
and so- on. Some others of the salts of cinchona alkaloids act more 
or less in the same way. Therefore the figures in the appended list 
show in each case that proportion of water which is required to 
make a solution with one part of the pure and finely powdered salt, 
when kept at 25 C. for several days, the mixture being frequently 
shaken. The results from tests obtained from saturated solutions 
made with a large excess of the salts or taking the difference between 
the quantity of the substance used and the weight of the undissolved 
and dried salt, in many instances, when testing salts of the cinchona 
group, show too great a solubility of the substances, the solutions 
containing a more soluble compound than the original salt, leaving 
undissolved a less soluble residue. The same salts also show a 
greater solubility when treated with hot water, the mixture allowed 
to cool off to 25 C, and kept at that temperature for hours to 
crystallize. 

For the determination of the solubility of the pure alkaloids — 
quinine, cinchonidine, cinchonine and quinidine — I used saturated 
solutions, which were shaken out with chloroform or ether, as the 
nature of the alkaloid required, and determined by weight after 
evaporation of the solvent. The solubility of these alkaloids in water 
differs greatly, according to age and method of manufacturing. 
The figures in the appended list are obtained from products made a 
short time ago, but cannot be used as fixed standards. Other 
specimens of these alkaloids may be found to be more or less soluble, 
though chemically perfectly pure, the physical condition and amount 
of water of crystallization being responsible for the discrepancies. 
The same can be said of the tannates. Other salts of these alkaloids 
formed with volatile organic acids also become less soluble by age. 

I trust that this paper will be of some use and regret very much 
not to have the time at present to give more complete figures, in- 
cluding the solubility of chinehona salts and alkaloids in alcohol, 
ether, etc., the published figures being in many cases incorrect. 

The following table gives the amount of water required to dis- 



Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
April, 1910. 



Alkaloids of Cinchona Bark. 



177 



solve one part of the alkaloids of cinchona bark and their salts at a 
temperature of 25 C. : 

Parts of water 
required to dissolve 
1 pt. of the substance 



Quinine alkaloid 3000 

Quinine acetate 50 

Quinine anisol 2400 

Quinine arsenate 650 

Quinine benzoate 360 

Quinine bihydrobromide 5 

Quinine bihydrochloride 0.7 

Quinine bihydrochloride with urea 1 

Quinine bisulphate 8.5 

Quinine chlorhydrosulphate 1.3 

Quinine chromate 3150 

Quinine citrate 825 

Quinine glycerophosphate, basic 850 

Quinine hydrobromide 43 

Quinine hydrochloride 21 

Quinine hydroferrocyanide 2000 

Quinine hydroiodide 205 

Quinine hydrophosphite 35 

Quinine lactate, basic 6 

Quinine nitrate 70 

Quinine oxalate 1400 

Quinine phosphate 800 

Quinine picrate 3400 

Quinine quinate 3.5 

Quinine salicylate 2100 

Quinine sulphate 700 

Quinine bi-sulpho-guaiacolate (guaiaquin) 0.5 

Quinine sulpho-phenate 250 

Quinine urate 550 

Quinine phenol sulphate . 680 

Quinine tartrate 950 

Quinine tannate 2000 

Quinine valerate 80 

Cinchonidine alkaloid 4800 

Cinchonidine bisulphate 1 

Cinchonidine tetrasulphate 3 



178 The U.S. P. Melting Points. { Am kp?i U Ci9io arm ' 

Cinchonidine bihydrobromide 7 

Cinchonidine hydrobromide 60 

Cinchonidine hydrochloride 21 

Cinchonidine bihydrochloride 1.6 

Cinchonidine salicylate 1320 

Cinchonidine sulphate 92 

Cinchonidine tannate 1800 

Cinchonine alkaloid 8800 

Cinchonine bi sulphate 1.5 

Cinchonine hydrochloride 22 

Cinchonine hydrobromide 59 

Cinchonine bihydrobromide 1.8 

Cinchonine salicylate (cryst.) 590 

Cinchonine sulphate 85 

Cinchonine tannate 1100 

Cinchonine tartrate 32 

Quinidine alkaloid 6900 

Ouinidine hydrobromide 190 

Quinidine hydrochloride 86 

Ouinidine hydroiodide 1220 

Ouinidine salicylate 1650 

Quinidine sulphate 95 

Ouinidine tannate 2100 

Quinidine tartrate 35 

Ouinidine bitartrate 310 



THE U.S. P. MELTING POINTS.* 

By G. A. Menge, Ph.D., 
Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health and 
Marine-Hospital Service. 

Any one who has had occasion to apply, to any great extent, the 
various tests prescribed by the U.S. P. will, I believe, agree with 
me in the assertion that some of them are sorely in need of investi- 
gation and standardization. Perhaps to no class of tests does this 
statement apply more forcibly than to melting points. The chemist 



* Read before the City of Washington Br. of the A. Ph. A., Mar. 2, 1910. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1910. j 



The US.P. Melting Points. 



179 



or pharmacist, although of excellent and broad training, who has 
not given the subject of melting points some special consideration 
and study might very reasonably ask, " What are the facts which 
call for and justify such an investigation?" In answer I would 
point to the discrepancies, sometimes very marked, that exist between 
the values published for the melting point of the same compound, as 
found in various sources of the chemical and pharmaceutical litera- 
ture. In striking illustration of this fact I would submit data, col- 
lected from six different pharmacopoeias and the important sources 
in the literature, upon the two compounds acetanilide and resor- 
cinol : For acetanilide the six pharmacopoeias agree within a range 
of i° (113-114 ), but four different sources in the literature give 
four different values ranging from 112-116 . In the case of resor- 
cinol the values vary from 109-119 . 

The wide variation in the published melting point values of these 
two compounds is certainly too great to conveniently hide behind the 
shield of legitimate " experimental error," yet they are only two of 
many, more or less similar, examples that might be cited. 

In the case of acetanilide the fact that all of the pharmacopoeias 
included in the comparison quote practically the same values for 
the melting point, also for the boiling point, is very striking but 
might be misleading. The remarkable concordance often found in 
the data of different pharmacopoeias with reference to a given 
compound might suggest reliable values, but further study and 
comparison is apt to lead, first to the suspicion and then to the con- 
viction that it more probably indicates the respect and confidence 
that the builders or compilers of one pharmacopoeia feel toward 
those of another. 

Another striking fact, in answer to the same question, is the 
protest of pharmaceutical chemists and manufacturers against the 
melting point standard required by the U.S. P., and the plea for 
the allowance of a varying margin of several degrees at moderately 
high temperature above and below that standard ; all of which indi- 
cates a chaotic condition with regard to melting points that cer- 
tainly calls for a thorough investigation. And in view of the 
fact that the U.S. P., through the operation of the Pure Food and 
Drugs Law, has become a legal standard, and because of the very 
general use of the melting point as one of its most important tests, 
it would seem of especial interest and importance to the Pharma- 
copoeia and to all who are in any way connected with it that the 



i8o 



The US.P. Melting Points. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1910. 



cause or causes of such conflicting values, or of reasonable protests, 
should be determined and, if possible, eliminated — if not completely, 
at least to as great a degree as is practicable. 

The question naturally arises — " What are the causes of this 
divergence and what is the remedy? " I would summarize the main 
causes, though perhaps imperfectly and incompletely, as follows : 

1. The great variety of methods used in melting point deter- 
minations. 

2. Varied individual manipulation, including the so-called " per- 
sonal factor," and especially the rate of heating. 

3. Differences in the physical condition of the compounds. 

4. The use of thermometers differing widely in their construc- 
tion or range, or both. 

5. The application or omission of emergent-stem correction and 
the manner of making it. 

6. Widely varying interpretations of just what the melting- 
point is (which might be considered to include the apparent use of 
decomposition point as equivalent to melting point). 

The remedy may be indicated, to a greater or less degree, by a 
brief discussion under each of these different headings. 

A description and detailed discussion of all the methods for 
melting point determinations that I have so far found described in 
the literature would doubtless be interesting and instructive but 
would, I fear, unduly tax not only your patience but also your 
endurance, and mine. Some of them — designed to eliminate certain 
specific difficulties in obtaining accurate results — are ingenious, more 
or less complicated, devices which impress me as being rather fan- 
tastic, and impossible of general application. 

The methods prescribed by some of the pharmacopoeias are, in 
the main, simple and practical but have not been sufficiently devel- 
oped, it seems to me, to insure the degree of uniformity in results 
of which they may be capable. 

That the use of different methods constitutes a real cause of 
divergence in results is, I believe, pretty generally recognized but 
may perhaps be more emphatically indicated here by citing some 
very good work in demonstration of this fact. 

In 1889 Landolt published the results of a very careful investi- 
gation to test the comparative accuracy of several methods, includ- 
ing the determination of the melting points and of the freezing 
points of compounds with thermometers dipping into the substance ; 



Am \Jdi r 'i9i h o arm '} Thc US.P. Melting Points. 



also various modifications "of methods involving the use of capillary 
tubes (including Piccard's) — using both liquid and air baths; and 
certain electrolytic methods. These were applied in determining the 
melting points of three substances (naphthalene, mannite, and 
anthracene), melting at about 8o° C, 165 ° C, and 200 C. respec- 
tively. The results obtained for eaeh of these compounds under the 
same conditions by different methods were variable. 

In 1890 Reissert followed with the publication of somewhat 
similar work. He used only three methods, all of which were 
included in Landolt's investigation, but extended his experiments 
to a much larger number of compounds (24). Here again we find 
differences in the values obtained for the same compound by differ- 
ent methods — the divergence ranging from a few tenths of a 
degree at low temperatures to several degrees at high temperatures. 

Perhaps the most comprehensive comparative study of different 
methods that can be found in the literature is that of Tyrer and 
Levy, published in the Year Book of Pharmacy, 1899 and 1900. In 
the course of their investigation nine different methods were used, 
including that described by the British Pharmacopoeia, Graebe's, 
Landolt's, Piccard's, Loewe's, Mill's, Kuhara and Chikashige's, 
and Levy's acoustical method. Twelve compounds were treated, 
ranging in melting point from about 40 C. to about 200 C. 

Besides the divergence due to the use of different methods they 
studied the effect upon the melting point due to varying physical 
conditions of the compound, to the extent that they determined 
the melting point of the commercial product, the same dried, and 
the same purified until there was no further rise in melting point. 

The amount of divergence resulting from the use of different 
methods varied not only with rising temperature but also between 
different compounds melting at about the same temperature, and 
ranged from about 0.5 at low temperature to about 3 or 4 at 
high. With only three compounds, however, was the comparison 
extended to all nine methods. These compounds were spermaceti, 
melting at about 43 °, betanaphthol, at about 122 , and picrotoxin, 
at about 200 . The range of divergence in this case extended from 
about 2° for the first two compounds to over 6° for picrotoxin. The 
increase in range of divergence with increase in the number of 
methods tested upon the same compound under the same conditions 
is very striking and convincing. 

Lndoubtedlv then the use of different methods is a real and 



1 82 



The US.P. Melting Points. 



j Am. Jour. Eharm. 
\ April, 1910. 



serious cause of discordant results in melting point determinations. 
In so far as this cause accounts for divergence in U. S. pharma- 
ceutical practice, the remedy is obviously the adoption by the U.S. P. 
Committee on Revision of a carefully defined official method. 

In an attempt recently made in the Hygienic Laboratory to 
select or devise a method which could be recommended for such a 
purpose it was not considered feasible to experimentally test a 
great variety of methods, nor indeed was such a time consuming 
procedure necessary, for the specifications laid before us by the 
Committee on Revision, calling for the utmost simplicity, avail- 
ability, and economy consistent with reasonable efficiency, made pos- 
sible the elimination by inspection of practically all methods except 
one or two which we considered to offer promise. Comparative 
experimental tests were made upon two methods but the conclusion 
was soon reached that the simpler — applied with carefully defined 
procedure — would probably easily meet all practical requirement^ 
of pharmaceutical practice and, at the same time, very greatly 
improve the present standard. This method consists of one of the 
capillary-tube variety, more or less modified to meet specific con- 
ditions as they developed. It involves the use of a simple round- 
bottom straight glass tube of about 30 mm. internal diameter and 
about 100 mm. long, flaring slightly at the top like an ordinary test- 
tube. This tube or container is fitted with a stirring device, which 
any one can make in a few minutes from a piece of small sized, 
thick-walled capillary glass tubing of such length that a double 
bend above the top of the container brings the outer end of the 
stirrer within easy reaching distance of the hand for convenience 
in manipulation. When in use the container is filled with a suitable 
bath to a depth which will permit of such an immersion of the bulb 
of the thermometer that the upper end of the bulb will be 2 to 3 cm. 
below the surface of the bath and the lower end of the bulb about 
equally distant from the bottom of the container. 

For melting points up to 150 C. — or even to 180 C. — pure 
concentrated sulphuric acid was considered the most suitable and 
satisfactory bath. When fresh it can be used at much higher tem- 
perature but then its very irritating fumes make it decidedly objec- 
tionable. After much experimentation no bath could be found suit- 
able for work at temperatures much above 200 C. which was not 
more or less objectionable because of fuming. This difficulty, how- 
ever, was found to be effectively overcome by a slight modification 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1910. J 



The US.P. Melting Points. 



183 



of the apparatus, which* consisted in fitting the container with a 
cork, perforated for the thermometer and for the stirrer and with 
two or three small vents at the edge to avoid excessive pressure. 
With this modification, a very pure grade of cotton-seed oil, freshly 
distilled paraffin, certain mineral oils, and a few other substances 
could be conveniently used up to 300 C. or over ; but they soon 
become colored and have to be frequently renewed. A bath was 
finally adopted consisting of a mixture of pure concentrated sul- 
phuric acid and potassium sulphate in definite proportions as 
recommended by Mulliken. 1 In my experience this bath, contrary 
to the claims made for it, fumes at high temperature almost as badly 
as the pure sulphuric acid. With the simple cork modification the 
fumes would char the cork and quickly spoil the bath, but by 
attaching a disk of thin asbestos to the bottom of the cork and 
including a glass tube in the perforation for the stirrer both the 
fuming and the charring were effectively overcome and the bath 
could be used as high as 350° C, or even to 370 C, with perfect 
convenience and safety. In all cases - where the cork modification 
was applied the stirrer, in order to avoid inconvenience in attaching 
the capillary tube to the thermometer, was made in two parts, the 
first part extending through and about one-half inch above the cork ; 
the second part being the remainder of the stirrer as first described. 
The two parts are easily joined, with ample security, by means of 
a small piece of small bore rubber tubing. The advantage of such 
an arrangement in connection with the cork hardly needs further 
discussion. 

The dark color gradually acquired by the bath from contamina- 
tion with organic compounds can be readily cleared from time to 
time by adding a pinch of potassium nitrate and in this way con- 
tinuous use for a large number of determinations is possible. I 
have myself made considerably more than 100 determinations with- 
out renewing the bath. 

This method has been applied to the suggested standardization 
of the melting points of about 37 of the more important pharma- 
copceial compounds, involving from 4 to 8 or more determinations 
on each of 5 to 8 samples of the individual compounds (with a few 
exceptions). In making these determinations the bath was heated 



1 S. P. Mulliken : " Identification of Pure Organic Compounds," vol. i, 
p. 219. 



1 84 The U.S. P. Melting Points. { Am ApS" r i9io arm " 

by direct application of a small Bnnsen flame to the walls of the 
container, special care being taken in all cases to insure a definite 
uniform rise in temperature within a certain range of the melting 
point. Further details of manipulation will be briefly indicated in 
my discussion of the remaining causes of divergence. 

The 37 compounds mentioned above are, with some exceptions, 
included only in that class of pharmacopceial compounds whose 
melting point determination by a capillary tube method offers no 
complication. I believe, however, that the application of this 
method to all other classes (such as fats, waxes, etc.) involves only 
modification in details and procedure and not any material change 
of apparatus. Furthermore, I can see no objection to applying it 
as a modification of Landolt's method in those cases where it would 
seem feasible and desirable to determine the melting point or freez- 
ing point of a compound by using a comparatively large amount, 
with the thermometer dipping directly into the substance. 

As an official method doubtless some will criticize the one sug- 
gested as being too crude to insure the degree of accuracy and 
refinement that is desired in a standard value. But it seems to 
me that the principal object in the standardization of melting points 
— at least from the present view of the Pharmacopoeia — is, not so 
much to adopt a method which will insure the utmost degree of 
accuracy and refinement attainable, however desirable that might 
be, as it is to adopt a method which shall 'be readily available to, 
and easily applied by, all concerned with the melting points of 
pharmacopceial compounds, and which shall be capable of reasonably 
concordant results as obtained by different manipulators, which 
after all is a very fair test of accuracy. 

Though intending to be brief I have doubtless devoted more 
time to my discussion of methods than would perhaps seem desir- 
able in the scope of a short paper involving other phases, but in 
any standardization the question of methods is the fundamental 
and probably the most important consideration — which fact may 
offer some justification for my slight elaboration upon this point. 
My indulgence, however, will necessitate a very brief discussion of 
the remaining causes if this paper is not to unreasonably encroach 
upon the other features of your programme. 

That varying manipulation in melting point work may result in 
different values for the same compound has been experimentally 
demonstrated, and is further indicated by the recommendations of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
April, 1910. j" 



The U.S.P. Melting Points. 



the manufacturers' committee to the Committee on Revision of 
the U.S.P. 

The so-called " personal factor " or " personal equation " (or 
other synonymous phrase) is doubtless a material and legitimate 
cause of divergence to some slight extent in any equally conscien- 
tious work ; but it is also readily adapted to the service of a screen or 
shield covering careless, indifferent, and hurried manipulation. The 
amount of divergence honestly due to the "personal factor," I am 
strongly inclined to believe, would, in this instance, at least come 
well within the limits of a reasonably rigid standard, and for prac- 
tical purposes may therefore be disregarded. 

In so far as divergence is due to manipulation of the apparatus 
we believe it to be due largely, if not entirely, to differences in rate 
of heating and the variable application of stirring — entirely omitted 
in most cases ; very irregular in others. 

In describing the official method I would recommend, as a 
remedy for such defects, that the rate of heating for different stages 
of the determination be definitely prescribed and that constant 
stirring be required throughout the experiment. 

Under differences in physical condition, as a cause of divergent 
values, there are three main considerations : ( i ) the size of the 
individual particles of the compound; (2) the moisture content; 
and (3) the presence of impurity. 

Pawloff 2 has shown experimentally, working mainly with salol, 
that the more finely divided a solid is the lower is the melting point — 
the magnitude of difference depending in some measure upon the 
purity. He finds that a powder composed of particles less than 2 jx 
(in diameter) melts, in the case of salol, 7 , in the case of antipyrine, 
5-7 , and in the case of phenacetin, 4 , lower than particles of 
0.5-2 mm. diameter. 

Considering the wide range in size of the particles of the same 
product, as found in the market under different labels, the experi- 
mental results of Pawloff make it obvious that in order to eliminate 
this cause of divergence it is necessary to officially prescribe that 
all substances shall be finely powdered before being subjected to 
the melting point test. 

The work of Tyrer and Levy, previously referred to in this 
paper, offers conclusive evidence, if any were needed, 01 the marked 



2 Zeit. Physikal. Chan., 65, 1-35 (1908). 



i86 



The US. P. Melting Points. 



Am. Jour. Pharii 
April. 1910. 



effect that the presence of moisture — also, of course, impurity — 
may produce upon the melting point of a compound. For example, 
in this connection, their results with acetanilide, phenacetin, and 
antipyrine show a variation in melting point of about i° between 
the commercial and commercial-dried forms and a variation of from 
0.6°, in the case of phenacetin, to nearly 3 , in the case of anti- 
pyrine, between the dried and the purified forms. The question of 
moisture as a cause of variation in the melting points of pharma- 
ceutical compounds would seem to be easily disposed of by requir- 
ing a definite period of adequate desiccation for the finely powdered 
substances before the melting point determination is made. 

The question of impurity, however, it seems to me, is a much 
more difficult one. To attempt an exact standardization of melting 
points for a class of compounds in which a certain percentage of 
impurity is permissible opens a wide field of investigation, that so 
far as I can find, has barely been touched upon, and constitutes, at 
least in theory, a very complicated problem, the discussion of which 
is far beyond the scope of this paper. Any possible difficulty in 
dealing with this factor, however, does not, in my opinion, justify 
neglect and tolerance of other causes of divergence which can be 
readily eliminated. 

Passing rapidly over the topics remaining for discussion : 

The fact that the use of thermometers of different construction 
induces more or less variation in results suggests the desirability of 
adopting an official thermometer — or set of thermometers — as a 
part of the official method, and requiring that they be standardized. 
True, such a step introduces the objectionable element of expense, 
but surely not in a prohibitive degree, even for a very modestly 
equipped laboratory. 

That the application or omission of emergent-stem correction is 
a real and serious cause of divergence is strikingly illustrated by the 
fact that if a thermometer of average construction — used in connec- 
tion with the apparatus we have recommended — registers 200 as 
the melting point of a compound, the correction, in most cases, will 
amount to 3 or 4 . Obviously uniformity of practice in this respect 
should be required, and in the cause of accuracy the correction 
should be applied. The manner of making the correction may also 
cause variation and should therefore be clearly defined — or better 
still, if official thermometers were adopted, official corrections could 
be made, plotted in a curve on co-ordinate paper and published, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1910. 



Correspondence. 



187 



and from this official curve the correction, for any temperature, 
could be determined by inspection, thereby conducing to absolute 
uniformity in this particular. 

Finally, what is the melting point ? Some authorities say it is 
that temperature at which the substance first begins to melt ; others, 
that temperature at which it is just completely melted; others, the 
mean of these values ; and still others say that it is not a point at all 
(except in theory) but a range, with which I emphatically agree. 

At any rate it should need no argument to convince that here 
is broad opportunity for wide divergence ; nor to induce the con- 
clusion that if standardization of this constant is to be effective a 
clear, unmistakable definition of the melting point is essential. 

With regard to the decomposing point I am personally con- 
vinced that it should never be used as a test of purity, and this 
conviction is based upon experimental evidence with several 
compounds. 

Anything like a complete treatment of the melting point prob- 
lem, in its present application to the U.S. P., is impossible within the 
limits of a half-hour discussion. For the purpose of this meeting 
it seemed more desirable to briefly outline all the more important 
phases of the problem than to attempt a very detailed discussion of 
any one or two. 

Note: The subject of this paper, and the work that has recently 
been done in the Hygienic Laboratory on U.S. P. melting points 
will be given more complete and detailed treatment in a Hygienic 
Laboratory Bulletin to be published in the near future. 



CORRESPONDENCE ON THE RELATIVE VALUE OF 
MACERATION AND PERCOLATION. 

In view of the statements contained in the Presidential address 
presented by Professor Oldberg to the members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at the Los Angeles meeting, on the 
subject of maceration, letters were sent to various persons, includ- 
ing both retail and manufacturing pharmacists, asking for their 
opinion on the relative merits of maceration and percolation. Ab- 
stracts of the replies received follow. — Editor. 

Prof. H. V. Arny, Cleveland, writes : I beg to make the fol- 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1910. 



lowing suggestions which have come from my personal experience. 

I. Too little attention is paid in the average percolation to 
loss of menstruum, both by evaporation and through absorption of 
the marc. 

II. Loss by evaporation can be prevented by suitable apparatus 
similar to that used ordinarily in percolation of volatile liquids 
(see "Economic Percolation." Proc. A. Ph. A.. 1892, p. 169). 

III. To make percolation profitable, the alcohol in the moist 
marc should be recovered. As to the two methods, that of per- 
colating the marc with water and collecting the percolate ap- 
proximating the amount of menstruum with which the marc was 
wet has never appealed to me. Far better is distilling the mar: 
with steam, nor is this process one which should frighten the 
retailer. In my own retail experience I used a steam distilling 
apparatus consisting of a boiler made from a one-gallon tin can, 
provided with a cork with two holes, through one of which passed 
a straight safety tube, through the other a bent tube to convey 
the steam, which passed into the distilling jar which consisted of 
a wide-mouthed half gallon candy jar. I kept a half dozen such 
candy jars on hand for this purpose and the moist marc from 
every percolation (even though only an ounce) was transferred to 
the jar. which of course was kept tightly corked. The jars were 
only half filled with marc and when the six jars were thus half 
filled, the distilling apparatus was rigged up and the alcohol from 
the 10-12 pounds of marc was easilv condensed, the jar being 
removed from the current of steam when the distillate was no 
longer alcoholic and replaced by another one containing undistilled 
marc. Since teaching, I have found it difficult to secure corks 
suitable for the candy jars, and have had made at the local can 
factory 1 -gallon tin cans with larger mouths than ordinary — a> 
large as will fit the largest corks now obtainable. These are in 
some respects not as satisfactory as the jars which in our drug 
business were so abundant that the occasional breaking of one 
meant no real loss. Of course the steam distilling apparatus must 
include a condenser, a fact so self-evident that I mention it merely 
for the sake of completeness. 

IV. There is a lack of appreciation of the very great import- 
ance of careful percolation. Given the same drug and the same 
menstruum despite careful warnings as to speed of percolation, 
twenty operators will obtain as " first percolates " fluids of almost 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1910. / 



Correspondence. 



twenty different strengths. I am now compiling figures showing 
amount of extraction in fluidextract of gentian made by reper- 
colation from the same drug and the discrepancy in results obtained 
so far is extremely disappointing to one who has always been a 
staunch advocate of repercolation. Perhaps, however, my later 
figures will prove more satisfactory, but at present I can only 
advise utmost care in packing of drug and speed of percolation, 
and further recommend to all making their rluidextracts by re- 
percolation, to compare the amount of extract in, say, 10 c.c. of 
the finished product with the amount of extract obtained with same 
menstruum on completely exhausting 10 grammes of the same 
batch of drug. 

C. F. Nixon, Ph.G., Leominster, Mass., writes: I am afraid 
that I am strongly biased in this matter, so much so that I can con- 
ceive of no argument in favor of maceration where percolation is 
possible. The objections to maceration as they occur to me are as 
follows : 

1. The drug cannot be properly exhausted unless several frac- 
tional macerations are employed and this requires much time. 

2. Drugs prepared for maceration cannot be so finely ground 
as for percolation, as it would be impossible to express the saturated 
liquid. For example, tincture of belladonna, No. 60 powder, could 
not possibly be made by maceration. 

3. Maceration must be accompanied by expression, and the 
amount of pressure used has a direct influence on the finished 
product. It would be impossible, however, to direct the amount 
of pressure used for each drug, and the results could not be 
uniform. 

4. Unless much pressure is used there is a greater loss of men- 
struum. 

5. It appears to me an uncleanly and unscientific process. 

6. The product must be filtered. In many instances this would 
be a slow and difficult proceeding, as fine particles pass through 
in the process of expression that would clog the filter. 

I believe that the adoption of maceration would be a long step 
backward. 

May I add that the last official process for making tincture of 
arnica is most unsatisfactory, so much so that I think it is seldom 
employed. It seems to me that arnica is the very last drug that 
should be manipulated by maceration. 



190 Correspondence. ] Am \p?S r 'i9io arm " 

Prof. E. A. Ruddiman, Nashville, Tenn., writes as follows : 
My experience on " The Relative Value of Percolation and Macera- 
tion " has been limited, so far as comparing these two processes 
on individual drugs is concerned. I have found the pharmacopceial 
directions, as when to percolate and when to macerate, generally 
satisfactory. I cannot agree with Professor Oldberg in the state- 
ment made at the Los Angeles meeting of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association " that any plant tincture of 10 per cent, 
strength can be far more conveniently prepared by maceration 
than by percolation, and just as effectively." That has not been 
my experience either in the manufacturing laboratory or in the 
college laboratory. 

Two preparations made by percolation that have given me 
trouble are fluidextract of squill and tincture of opium. In the 
case of the former I have had frequently to resort to maceration 
and straining, and clearing by standing. In the case of laudanum 
I am fully convinced from experiments which I have made in 
preparing this tincture and assaying the product, and in assaying 
the tinctures made by a large number of druggists, that the official 
process does not exhaust the drug. The opium should be exhausted 
as directed under the tincture of deodorized opium and the per- 
colate evaporated if necessary. 

In some cases I have found it desirable to use a coarser 
powder for percolation than directed by the Pharmacopoeia. 

E. L. Patch, Stoneham. Mass., says : While maceration may be 
advisable for gum-resinous drugs, or drugs largely soluble, as 
guaiac, myrrh, aloes, etc., for the larger number of ordinary drugs 
percolation is to be preferred. 

If maceration is resorted to in such cases (ordinary drugs) 
and stirring of the drug and menstruum is followed, quite a portion 
of soluble matter is retained by the drug and can only be removed 
by strong pressure, which is usually inconvenient and annoying. 
If, on the other hand, the vessel has an outlet permitting the 
saturated or supersaturated liquid to flow off at intervals, as in 
percolation, more thorough extraction should result. We should 
remember that percolation is a process of solution and subject to 
the same rules as ordinary solution, and is affected by extent of 
surface exposed to action of solvent, to character of solvent, tem- 
perature, etc. The solvent may extract certain principles from the 
upper layers of drug in a percolator and become a compound 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1910. J 



Correspondence. 



191 



solvent, exerting a greater range of solvent action on subsequent 
portions. It is not necessary for percolation to be continuous. 
After two or three days' maceration, percolation can proceed until 
the percolate shows evidence of less saturation and then be stopped 
for another short period of maceration. We have noticed that a 
percolation conducted at a temperature of 50 compared with the 
same drug and menstruum at 70 requires more maceration and 
much slower percolation to obtain the same degree of extraction. 
While the fact is well known, the principle is often lost sight of. 
We recall being shown over the laboratory of a retail pharmacy 
where the percolations were being conducted near a large window 
in the coldest portion of the room because so much less time was 
required of the workers at the inconveniently low temperature than 
was required at other processes. At the time of our visit the 
temperature was about 45 F. and the operator was not properly 
extracting his drugs. For general use the instructions of the 
Pharmacopoeia, as to method of conducting percolation, are suffi- 
ciently explicit. 

Wilbur L. Scoville, Detroit, comments as follows on this sub- 
ject: I have never done any direct work on the comparative results 
of preparations made by maceration with those made by percolation. 
I am aware that the maceration process produces a tincture that 
is less prone to precipitate but under the best of conditions it is 
more wasteful, and the precipitation in the percolation process can 
be reduced to a minimum by mixing all the menstruum necessary 
before beginning, and so avoiding slight changes in the menstruum 
during the process. Furthermore, except in the cases of a very 
few oleoresinous, resinous, and astringent drugs, the active prin- 
ciples of which are easily accessible and quickly soluble, macera- 
tion is the more important part of percolation. Pressure percolators 
have been proved inadequate many times, and long macerations, 
seven to ten days, are frequently an advantage, particularly in 
making concentrated preparations. 

While a trained worker, taking special pains in a series of 
comparative experiments, may show some superior results for the 
maceration process, I believe that the average worker, on whom the 
necessity for full maceration and slow percolation has been im- 
pressed, will get more uniform, and on the average better, results 
by the process of percolation. This is, however, a tribute to 
maceration quite as much as to percolation. 



192 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1910. 



Prof. Philip Asher, New Orleans, contributes the following: 
An experience of twenty-two years in pharmaceutical laboratories 
with both methods is decidedly in favor of percolation. 

In the case of the exudates, as asafetida, myrrh, etc., it has 
proven more satisfactory than maceration and obviates the un- 
necessary cleansing of the utensils, so common with the latter 
process. 

The following has been the modus operandi employed: The 
receptacle is graduated. The neck of the percolator is plugged 
with cotton moistened with alcohol. Over this a layer of well- 
packed excelsior is placed, acting as a porous diaphragm. The 
asafetida is placed in the percolator and some alcohol added, but 
not sufficient to cover the asafetida. This is allowed to macerate 
a short time, after which the asafetida is disintegrated by poking it 
with a sharp stick. After standing a short while to allow settling, 
percolation is started, and the disintegration repeated if necessary. 
Instead of adding the required menstruum at once, it is preferable 
to add only sufficient to leave a small layer above the drug. 

The above process followed as outlined exhausts the asafetida 
completely, long before all the menstruum has been used, as evi- 
denced by lack of precipitation when a few drops of the percolate 
are permitted to fall into water. 

By this method, the so-called fluid asafetida, as offered by the 
pharmaceutical houses, can be made, heat being absolutely unneces- 
sary in any of the stages, which represents 50 per cent, of the 
soluble principles. 

Dr. J. M. Francis, Detroit, discusses the subject as follows: 
Without entering into any prolonged discussion of the matter, we 
beg to say that our experience would seem to indicate that macera- 
tion in the original sense is not at all necessary and is not nearly 
so satisfactory, all things considered, as percolation when properly 
conducted. Consequently we believe we are correct in saying that 
the old form of maceration is hardly ever employed in our laboratory 
at the present time. 

It might be well for the sake of clearness to state that by 
" maceration " we refer to the old procedure whereby an excess 
amount of liquid is placed in contact with the drug and allowed 
to stand or macerate for several days, the liquid then being 
decanted or drawn off: a fresh portion of liquid in excess being 
added to the drug, maceration continued, and the process repeated. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
April, 1910. J 



Correspondence. 



193 



Of course the ordinary process of percolation always involves 
a certain amount of maceration. The Pharmacopoeia directs that a 
drug shall be moistened, allowed to swell through the absorption 
of the liquid, then be transferred and properly packed in a per- 
colator, be covered with menstruum and allowed to macerate or 
" soak " for a certain length of time ; and the percolation is then 
carried out in the usual way. Such maceration as this, where only 
a relatively small amount of liquid is employed, is very necessary. 
Even where the menstruum is allowed to slowly flow upon the 
drug in process of percolation, maceration is taking place unless 
the passage of the liquid through the drug is carried on with undue 
rapidity. Maceration, however, involving the use of an excess of 
liquid and long standing, we consider wholly unnecessary and we do 
not find it desirable even in the manufacture of tinctures. 

The above statement is the outgrowth of long and continued 
experience. You may perhaps remember that in the beginning all 
of our fluids were prepared by this process of maceration. The 
drugs were allowed to stand in contact with the liquid for days, 
sometimes for weeks, the liquid was drained oft, and the marc 
was then placed in a hydraulic press and the remaining portion 
of the liquid contents were pressed out. This old process, while yield- 
ing very good results, was found to be very expensive in time through 
the loss of menstruum, and moreover yielded fluids which showed 
a marked tendency to precipitation on standing. 

Prof. Leo Eliel, South Bend, writes : There has been so much 
said and written on the relative value of percolation and macera- 
tion in pharmaceutical operations, that it would seem as though 
the last word had been said. This subject has been under discussion 
for fifty years to my knowledge. But the fact that you are taking 
up this subject for discussion at your pharmaceutical meeting would 
seem to show that there is still something to differ on. 

As you are asking for my personal experience, I would say that 
it is decidedly in favor of the process by percolation ; my reason 
for this being that by this process it is possible to have a definite 
quantity of the soluble drug constituents in a definite quantity of 
fluid. This is not the case in maceration, as there will always be 
an indefinite amount of soluble constituents left in the marc. How- 
ever, I might say that the official directions, in many cases at 
least, do not allow a sufficient length of time for maceration before 
percolation. My practice is to macerate for a period of from three 



i 9 4 



Correspondence. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 April, 1910. 



to five days before packing and percolating. Of course with such 
drugs as zingiberis this would not be required, neither would this 
apply to mucilaginous drugs, where it might release substances 
that retard percolation. 

H. A. B. Dunning, Baltimore, presents the following view 
of the subject : In most processes used for the extraction of vegetable 
drugs by means of solvents, maceration forms a necessary part, 
but whether the complete extraction of the drug should be accom- 
plished through continued maceration is a doubtful question. 

While it must be admitted that the active constituents of vege- 
table drugs may be entirely extracted by maceration, there are, I 
believe, very decided objections to this method, in practice. The 
modus operandi in my opinion is cumbersome, requiring, frequently, 
the introduction of comparatively large quantities of powdered ma- 
terial into narrow necked bottles, which material subsequent to 
exhaustion with the menstruum must be removed. Besides the 
stock bottle, a stock container and also a maceration vessel is 
required. 

It is a tedious method, requiring seven days and ofttimes more 
for completion, depending largely on the attention given it. 

It is apt to be uncleanly because, due to the frequent agitation 
necessary, some of the liquid may be allowed to escape from the 
container and run over it ; of course the use of a little water would 
obviate this objection. Besides, when mixtures are poured from one 
vessel to another spilling is likely to result, not mentioning loss. 

The process is also likely to be inaccurate, depending greatly 
upon the personality of the operator, for if the mixture is not fre- 
quently agitated, extraction will be very imperfect in the time 
usually designated ; particularly is this statement true in regard 
to drugs which have a tendency to form " gummy " masses when 
moistened. In this case the final resort is "poking" with a stick; 
sometimes the stick is poked on through the bottle or other container. 
Further. I am told by some of the older pharmacists, who have had 
a more extensive experience with this process than I, that it is 
all too frequently the practice of some persons to use a portion 
of the macerating preparation before the time allowance is complied 
with and that in many instances no adjustment is subsequently 
made. 

The maceration processes of the German, French, and English 
Pharmacopoeias direct that the required amount of drug be macer- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1910. f 



Correspondence. 



195 



ated with a definite volume — weight in case of German and French 
Pharmacopoeias — of menstruum, the mixture strained, and marc 
expressed, the liquids then mixed and filtered. There is no allow- 
ance made for increase in volume through the dissolved extractive 
matter. The finished preparations are therefore neither of known 
percentage or part solutions. The U. S. Pharmacopceial method 
avoids this, perhaps slight, inaccuracy. 

There are a few points in the various pharmacopoeias, regarding 
maceration and percolation which seem inconsistent to me, although, 
I grant, that there may be good reasons, which do not appear 
on the surface. I do not understand why the British authority 
directs compound tincture of cinchona to be prepared by percolation 
and compound tincture of gentian by maceration ; nor do I com- 
prehend why the British Pharmacopoeia as well as the German auth- 
ority directs fluidextracts, which represent a much larger proportion 
of drug than do the tinctures, to be prepared by percolation, while 
some of the British and all of the German tinctures are prepared 
by maceration. 

There are several tinctures directed to be prepared by macera- 
tion by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, which, although I have heard 
reasons given for so doing, in accordance with my experience would 
be better prepared by percolation. 

I find the process of maceration entirely unsatisfactory for the 
preparation of tincture of arnica, inasmuch as the drug acts much 
like a sponge, absorbing by far the greater portion of the menstruum 
with which it is macerated, and it is a very difficult proposition 
to express much of the adhering liquid, even by means of a " press." 
Besides the filtered tincture is not so clear and rich in color as 
that prepared by percolation. I might mention that I have fre- 
quently observed that in passing menstruum through a drug 
the latter while being extracted acts as a clarifying agent. In 
regard to the best method for the preparation of this tincture and 
other tinctures presenting similar difficulties, I recommend for 
consideration the English method of collecting a large portion of 
the required volume as a reserve percolate and then expressing the 
marc. I make this suggestion only in case a dreg still is not at 
hand or the fluid cannot be forced from the marc by water (I have 
rarely found this latter suggestion expedient). 

I have recently had under observation a series of experiments 
with different processes for the preparation of compound tincture 



196 



Correspondence. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1910. 



of cardamom. The conclusions drawn from these experiments are 
as follows : The present U.S. P. method is entirely unsatisfactory. 
Besides having the shortcomings of all maceration processes the 
product was filtered with great difficulty ; and the nitrate was by 
no means as bright and clear as that made by percolation. I did 
not observe much difference in the quantity of deposit, on standing. 
The addition of glycerin to the menstruum previous to extraction 
only serves to increase the proportion of inert extractive. It should, 
I believe, be added after percolation. 

In the preparation of tincture of opium the drug could be ex- 
tracted more readily if it were mixed with some inert non-adhesive 
material, like purified sawdust or powdered paper. In this con- 
nection it might be well to mention that, in my experience, it is 
difficult to completely exhaust opium by the prescribed amount of 
menstruum and I would suggest that it might be well to percolate 
the drug to exhaustion with a suitable menstruum after having 
set aside a reserve portion ; the weak percolate being evaporated 
to a soft extract and dissolved in the reserve percolate, etc. 

Tincture of aloes and compound tincture of lavender now pre- 
pared by maceration are both suitable for the process of percolation. 

Referring to percolation, I may state without hesitation that 
this method of extracting drugs appeals to me very forcibly. It 
should be preceded, as is invariably directed by the leading author- 
ities, by sufficient maceration to soften and disintegrate the cellular 
tissue, within which the extractive matter is enclosed. Indeed 
maceration to this extent is a part of the process of percolation. 
This process, in my opinion, avoids almost entirely the objections 
offered to the modus operandi of maceration. Even the temptation 
to abstract portions of the unfinished product is obviated because of 
the comparatively less length of time required for completion of the 
process when once in active operation. Yet it is true that the time 
of maceration, before percolation, may be cut. 

The entire theory of percolation is convincing and I believe the 
theory is well borne out in practice. I know of no serious ob- 
jection to this process unless, as I have sometimes heard stated, 
the final product after standing show r s a greater proportion of inert 
sediment than does a like preparation made by maceration. This 
may be true, due to the action of solutions of extractive matter 
of different degrees of saturation upon different portions of the 
drug and the subsequent mixing of same. However, I have ob- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i 
April, 1910. / 



Correspondence. 



197 



served no very great difference in this respect between the products 
of the two processes under consideration. 

I hold very strongly the opinion that all drugs that are suitable 
to be extracted by maceration or percolation should be treated by 
the process of percolation, provided that the material is not of 
such character that the particles, when moistened with the proper 
menstruum, will adhere so closely that the menstruum does not 
properly permeate the mass, or when the characteristics are such 
that it would be harmful to the substance to reduce it to a state 
of division suitable for percolation. The degree of fineness should 
be sufficient to avoid permitting the menstruum to pass freely 
through the spaces between the particles of the drug. Finally, it 
is my belief, that those pharmacists who have become familiar with 
the process of percolation will endeavor to avoid maceration 
processes. 

Irwin A. Becker, Ph.G., Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, writes 
that the only U.S. P. process for tinctures which he has modified 
is that for tincture of capsicum, his process being as follows : The 
drug is macerated for from three to five days, followed by filtration, 
the marc being transferred to the filter as early in the process as 
practicable. Sufficient menstruum is added through the filter to 
give the required measure. The resulting tincture usually has a 
deeper color and appears more brilliant than that made by percola- 
tion. Tinctures were made from four different purchases of drug, 
three being those from local jobbers and the other being Gilpin, 
Langdon & Company's " powdered capsicum for percolation." One 
of the observations in this series of experiments was that while 
G. & L.'s powder was lighter in color than the others, the tincture 
is as deep colored as those made from the other powders. 

Air. Becker incidentally mentions that he has trouble in re- 
moving the last traces of petroleum benzin in the process for 
tincture of deodorized opium. 



198 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am xJ?n r 'ifio arm ' 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

SECTION ON PRACTICAL PHARMACY. 

Our annual meeting will soon be here and the Committee on 
Practical Pharmacy and Dispensing, the section for the practical 
retail pharmacist, is soliciting papers. 

Being a Pharmacopoeial Convention year, constructive papers 
on U.S. P. subjects will be greatly appreciated and will also be 
helpful to the U.S. P. Revision Committee as well as to the members 
in general. 

Select your subject as soon as possible, and in order to avoid 
duplication send in the title of your paper now. 

Give this matter your immediate attention and let us make 
the Richmond meeting the most important, the most interesting, 
the most instructive, and the most enthusiastic in the history of 
the A. Ph. A. Otto Raubenheimer, 

Chairman. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

FEBRUARY PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, February 15, at 3 o'clock, with 
E. M. Boring in the chair. 

Dr. D. W. Horn read a paper entitled " Is there Caramelization 
in Rivas's Test?" (See p. 151.) 

The paper was a suggestive one, and those taking part in its 
discussion were Dr. C. S. Brinton, Professors Remington and 
La Wall, and Messrs. R. W. Hilts, W. L. Cliffe, and the chairman. 
Professor Remington said there were some who claimed that the 
color of straight whisky stored for four years in charred barrels 
is due to caramel produced by the action of heat on the wood in 
the charring process, and asked in what respect the color of straight 
whisky differs from that of true caramel, at the same time stating 
that there are those who claim that the caramel-colored whisky is 
just as good as straight whisky. He then remarked that a reliable 
test would have to be found for whisky. 

As instances of the darkening of sugary preparations, Mr. Boring 
cited that of commercial syrup of hydriodic acid when partly used, 



Am \S r 'i9i h u arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 199 

and Professor LaWall that of Eastman's syrup, which contains 
strong phosphoric acid. 

Dr. Brinton called attention to the fact that glucose is not a 
chemical compound, but is a mixture including dextrin and other 
foreign substances. He also spoke favorably of Marsh's test for 
caramel. 

Prof. LaWall asked if Dr. Horn had performed any experiments 
to determine the specific action of different strong acids on sugar 
solution since he had assumed that in the syrup of ferrous iodide 
the sugar was hydrolyzed or " inverted " by the free hydriodic acid. 
Prof. LaWall also asked if Dr. Horn had tried to extract the " alde- 
hyde resins " with immiscible solvents. 

In answering the several speakers, Dr. Horn said : In his ex- 
periments he had used the well-defined chemical compound, the 
crystallized mono-hydrated d-glucose, and not the commercial 
syrupy mixture that Dr. Brinton evidently had in mind. Marsh's 
test, although it might well be satisfactory in testing acid liquids 
like whisky, was unreliable in testing alkaline liquids. With re- 
gard to a statement of Dr. Brinton's that alcohol after treatment 
with alkali may acquire a yellow color and yet not answer the test 
for aldehydes, Dr. Horn said that small quantities of aldehydes 
might readily be formed by the action of atmospheric oxygen on 
the — CHoOH group of the alcohol. Replying to Prof. LaWall, Dr. 
Horn said that he had not been interested in the specific action of 
different acids, and that this had no bearing upon his paper, for 
he had referred to the action of hydriodic acid at such dilutions 
that the action was to be ascribed to the hydrogen ion, and that at 
such dilutions all acids of the same class as to strength would yield 
hydrogen ions at approximately the same concentration. The 
anion produced no appreciable effect at these dilutions. He said 
that he had not tried the action of immiscible solvents, and that 
he was not convinced that the so-called " aldehyde resins " of the 
organic chemist were the same in character as the resins Prof. 
LaWall had in mind. Referring to the brown color of whisky 
mentioned by Professor Remington, Dr. Horn said that in the 
recent literature there was a paper showing that the brown sedi- 
ments sometimes appearing in whiskies were aldehyde-compounds. 
Regarding the odorous principle that he separated from the brown 
solution, he stated that he had not yet had time to study it further, 
but that the solutions containing it sustained the life of some molds 
and that in so doing they lost their odor. In this connection, he 



200 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am \^n r "i9i h o arm ' 

pointed out that caramel purified by dialysis is not described as 
having an odor. 

Dr. Brinton called attention to an observation that in separating 
aldehydes from alcohol by treating with alkalies the color disap- 
pears even on standing, and that aldehydes do not appear to be 
present except in alcohol from colored barrels. Dr. Horn remarked 
that sufficient of the oxygen of the air would gain access under 
the conditions to produce aldehyde, and stated that sealing in glass 
was necessary to prevent the access of air. 

Professor LaWall referred to the popular notion that the burning 
of sugar has a disinfecting action and to the claim that formaldehyde 
is one of the resulting products. Air. R. W. Hilts stated that a 
French chemist had found that smoked meats and sausages will 
give the reaction for formaldehyde, and that in the burning of a 
number of carbonaceous (carbohydrate) substances, formaldehyde 
is produced. 

George M. Beringer, Ph.M., presented some notes on the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia, stating that he desired to direct attention to one 
specific subject — namely, the relation of the practical pharmacist 
to the work of revision. He called attention to the minutes and 
reports of various committees on the U.S. P. of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy going back to the earlier revisions, and in 
commenting on the amount and importance of their work said 
that he made the exhibit to show that retail pharmacists always 
took part in the work. The speaker contended that if retail phar- 
macists do not take up the various practical problems, then it is 
their fault if the Pharmacopoeia is found better adapted to the needs 
of manufacturers and others. He said that every pharmaceutical 
society and every college of pharmacy should take part in the work 
with a view of making the Pharmacopoeia the legal standard for 
those who follow it and who must stand by it. 

Mr. Beringer said that no matter what physicians say in regard 
to admissions and deletions, the pharmacist must stand his own. 
the trouble with many physicians being that they are working on 
questions that especially interest them. As an illustration of this 
tendency he said that recently one of them had suggested the 
omission of krameria and its preparations, while according to his 
own experience they should be retained. 

With regard to the dosage forms of medicines, he said it was 
clearly within the province of pharmacists to work out the formulae 
for them, as for example in the case of phenolphthalein. As 



Am \pi°n r 'i9io arm " } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 201 

examples of official preparations requiring an improvement in the 
formulae and directions, compound tincture of gentian and fluid- 
extract of squill were mentioned. Continuing, Mr. Beringer said 
that Dr. Rusby's paper on " Crude and Powdered Drugs at the 
Port of New York during the Year 1907-08 " (Am. Jour. Ph., 
81, p. 231 ; Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1908, p. 783) shows the extent 
to which certain foreign drugs are being imported and used in this 
country, and of these he mentioned mylabris (Chinese beetle), 
stating that according to his experiments this drug is not adapted 
for the liquid preparations owing to the excessive amount of fat 
present, but that it is suitable for the plaster, and that if admitted 
to the Pharmacopoeia retail druggists should have the say as to 
which preparations it should enter. Saw palmetto was mentioned 
as an example of an official drug for which no formula was given, 
and the claim made that pharmacists should work out formulae for 
preparations of it. 

Professor Remington said with reference to Mr. Beringer's 
remarks that the physician could not be blamed for looking at these 
questions from his point of view, nor druggists from theirs, nor even 
chemists from theirs, one of them, B. L. Murray, having recently 
proposed the omission of iron and mercury from the Pharmacopoeia. 
With regard to mylabris and many other imported drugs, he stated 
that the desire to make them official was based on the need of 
standards for them. 

John K. Thum, Ph.G., presented some notes on the Pharma- 
copoeia, and offered the following practical suggestions based in 
part on his own experience : ( 1 ) That benzoinated lard be pre- 
pared by dissolving 1 per cent, of benzoic acid in lard melted at a 
low heat; (2) that in view of the statements that the stronger the 
alcoholic menstruum the more stable the preparations of digitalis 
coupled with the opinion that deterioration of these preparations is 
due to a ferment, experiments should be carried out along the line 
of extraction with a stronger menstruum and in the making of 
quantities, as of the tincture, which would be used in a short time; 
(3) that antiseptic solution should not be retained in the Pharma- 
copoeia and that the addition of glycerin would make it more 
palatable, while maceration with 0.40 Gm. of finely ground golden 
seal for 24 hours followed by filtration without the use of talcum 
would improve its appearance ; ( 4 ) that the addition of 10 per cent, 
of glycerin to the formula for compound syrup of hypophosphites 
enhances both the appearance and keeping quality, and that an 



202 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^'^1;$$™- 

increase of the sugar from 775 Gm. to 825 Gm. per liter causes 
neither precipitation nor fermentation ; ( 5 ) that in the definition 
of ether the words " not less than 96 per cent., by weight of abso- 
lute ether or ethyl oxide " should be substituted for the words 
" about 96 per cent., etc.," and that the time limit of the test for 
aldehyde should be extended; (6) that the description of each crude 
drug should be followed by a list of all the official preparations into 
which it enters; (7) that whenever an official compound is made 
and sold by different manufacturers under different names, as 
hexamethylenamine, the Pharmacopoeia should state that these apply 
to compounds similar to the official one; (8) that the ten official 
syrups now directed to be made by the use of fluidextracts should 
be made direct from the drug, for the reason that when made from 
fluidextracts from which the precipitates formed by aging have 
been removed, they do not represent the full medicinal value of the 
drug. 

Dr. C. S. Brinton, chemist of the U. S. Food and Drug Inspection 
Laboratory, Philadelphia, read a paper on " The Pharmacopoeia in 
Food and Drug Inspection Work," which may appear in a later 
number of this Journal, and in connection with the presentation of 
which a number of interesting specimens were exhibited. 

Referring to the subject of powdered asafetida, Mr. Boring said 
that physicians have very little idea of the physical character of the 
drug and that when it is ordered on a -prescription he selects the 
tears, which are free from impurities, and powders them, and that 
furthermore the gum having the character of an emulsion, it is not 
difficult to effect its solution when ordered in this form. 

Dr. Horn, in alluding to the subject of revision, said that there 
is one good book on organic chemistry — namely, Beilstein's Organic 
Chemistry ; that it had been gotten out well once, and that it is 
being revised all the time, small volumes being added from time to 
time. Professor Kraemer called attention to the manner of revision 
of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, stating that while the new Phar- 
macopoeia was being considered, certain subjects were published as 
addenda to the previous edition, thus permitting opportunity for 
criticism and revision. 

On motion of Professor Kraemer a unanimous vote of thanks 
was tendered the speakers of the afternoon for their interesting 
and valuable papers. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tern. 



THE AMERICAN" 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MAY, igio 



A NOTE ON A SUITABLE ULTIMATE STANDARD FOR 
THE VOLUMETRIC SOLUTIONS OF THE 
U. S. PHARMACQPCEIA.' 



The very prominent position given to volumetric analysis In the 
U, S. Pharmacopoeia, and its almost exclusive use, wherever pos- 
sible, in determining whether a given substance comes up to the 
required standard of purity, render it imperative that the most suit- 
able ultimate standard be adopted for the necessary volumetric solu- 
tions. It is also obvious that in considering what substance might 
form a suitable ultimate standard for these solutions, we must place 
as of primary importance the readiness with which such substance is 
obtainable in a pure state, its stability under ordinary conditions, its 
possessing the necessary properties for admitting of its use in a 
volumetric process of proven accuracy, and, finally, what likelihood 
there is of different operators obtaining such substance in different 
degrees of purity although working by the same method. 

The substance chiefly relied on as standard in the present 
U.S. P., namely, potassium bitartrate, although meeting these re- 
quirements quite satisfactorily in many ways, nevertheless appears 
to present the disadvantage of introducing a personal error in the 
procedure for its purification. Thus Parsons, 1 who investigated 
the suitability of this substance as a means for the standardization 
of acid and alkaline solutions, states that he " made up some accord- 
ing to the directions given . . . but found it necessary, in order 
to get the pure salt, to crystallize three times in addition." He also 



By Eli as Elvove. 




1 Jour. Anal. Chew,., 6, 380-381 (1892). 

(203) 



204 



V olumetric Solutions of US.P. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1910. 



states that this salt has a " tendency to retain an excess of acid, 
probably tartaric, set free in small quantity by the hot hydrochloric 
acid." 

The more or less undecided state of this question of the most 
suitable substance for use in standardizing volumetric solutions 
may also be seen from the very large number of substances which 
have been proposed for such use by different authors. 2 Thus for 
standardizing acids and alkalies, Reinitzer (Zeit. anal. Che in., 34, 
575) uses sodium carbonate; Grandeau (Ibid., 2, 426) and also 
Pincus (Ibid., 2, 426) use Iceland spar; Sorensen (Ibid., 40, 115) 
uses sodium oxalate; Rimbach (Ibid., 32, 449) uses borax; Hartley 
(Ibid., 12, 89) uses metallic sodium; Seyda (Ibid., 39, 458) and 
also Weinig (Ibid., 32, 450) use ammonium chloride ; Knublauch 
(Ibid., 21, 165) uses ammonium sulphate; Fessel (Ibid., 38, 449) 
uses potassium iodate; Reichardt (Ibid., 13, 49) uses oxalic acid; 
Ulbricht and Meissl (Ibid., 26, 350) use potassium tetroxalate; 
Borntrager (Ibid., 25, 333) uses potassium bitartrate; Richter 
(Ibid., 21, 205) uses potassium dichromate; Meineke (Ibid., 35, 338) 
uses potassium biniodate; Guyard (Ibid., 24, 585) uses boric acid; 
Petersen (Ibid., 41, 165) uses succinic acid; Riegler (Ibid., 35, 308; 
38, 250) uses iodic acid; while Hart and Croasdale (Ibid., 31, 
I 9°l 33> 455) obtain a standard sulphuric acid solution by electro- 
lyzing pure copper sulphate. 

Similarly, for standardizing potassium permanganate, Riegler 
(Ibid., 35, 522) uses oxalic acid; Ulbricht and Meissl (Ibid., 26, 
350) use potassium tetroxalate; Sorensen (Ibid., 41, 169) uses 
sodium oxalate; Grager (Ibid., 6, 209) uses ferrous oxalate; Stolba 
(Ibid., 18, 600) uses lead oxalate; Schone (Ibid., 18, 137) uses 
piano (iron) wire ; Pawolleck (Ibid., 41, 172) uses ferrous ammonium 
sulphate; Biltz (Ibid., 41, 173) uses ferrous sodium sulphate; Gintl 
(Ibid., 6, 447) uses potassium ferrocyanide ; Wdowiszewski (Ibid., 
41, 174) uses iron oxide; while Erlenmeyer (Ibid., 18, 291) 
uses lead sulphocyanate. For standardizing iodine solutions, Kal- 
mann (Ibid., 26, 728) uses sodium sulphite; Bobierre (Ibid., 8, 505) 
uses sodium arsenate; Zulkowsky (Ibid., 41, 184) uses potassium 
dichromate; Crismer (Ibid., 25, 553) uses normal potassium chro- 



2 A very useful contribution to the literature on this subject, which 
has been freely made use of in this connection, is a paper by Vanino 
and Seitter in Zeit. anal. C 'hem., 41, 141-218 (1902). 



Am Ma? r i^o arm '} Volumetric Solutions of U.S.P. 205 

mate; Riegler (Ibid., 35, 305) uses iodic acid; Fessel (Ibid., 41, 
187) uses potassium iodate ; Aleineke (Ibid., 35, 338) uses potas- 
sium biniodate; Kratschmer (Ibid., 24, 546) uses sodium bromate ; 
while Metzl (lour. Chem. Soc, 90, ii, 194) uses potassium antimonyl 
tartrate. 

We may, perhaps, also gain an idea as to some of the reasons 
why apparently not a single one of the substances above mentioned 
has met with entire satisfaction generally, if we recall some of the 
remarks made by various authors concerning some of the substances 
in the above list which appear to have been used most. Thus, ac- 
cording to Morse, 3 the substance which has been longest and prob- 
ably most frequently employed for the standardization of acids is 
the neutral anhydrous carbonate of sodium. The latter is also 
recommended by Sutton. 4 As is well known, however, this salt 
is hygroscopic and hence great care must be taken in handling it. 
Thus, according to Morse, the portion of the material which is to 
be used in any experiment should be reheated in a small platinum 
crucible or boat, cooled in a desiccator, and protected from the 
moisture of the air while weighing by inclosing it in a weighing 
glass. It has also the disadvantage that it is liable to appreciable 
decomposition if the temperature is not strictly regulated while it 
is being heated in order to convert all the bicarbonate into the normal 
salt. Thus, according to Seyda, 3 sodium carbonate is likely to 
retain excess of C0 2 , or if overheated it may contain sodium 
hydroxide. Similarly, in the case of potassium tetroxalate, which 
is recommended for standardizing purposes by Kuhling 6 and also 
by Morse, 7 Lunge 8 states that he has never been able to' prepare 
a potassium tetroxalate in which the water of crystallization corre- 
sponds accurately with the formula C 2 4 HK.C 2 4 H 2 .2H 2 0. In the 
case of oxalic acid, the disadvantages which may be mentioned, on 
the authority of Morse, 9 are that the commercial article contains 
acid oxalates from which it cannot be readily freed by the ordinary 
process of recrystallization from water and that it cannot be dried 

3 Morse : Exercises in Quantitative Chemistry (1905), p. 127. 

4 Sutton : Volumetric Analysis, 9th ed., p. 42. 

5 lour. Chem. Soc, 78, ii, 44 (1900). 

6 Ibid., 86, ii, 80 (1904) 

7 Morse : Exercises in Quantitative Chemistry (1905), p. 126. 

8 Jour. Chem. Soc, 86, ii, 771 (1904). 

9 Morse : Exercises in Quantitative Chemistry (1905), pp. 116-117. 



206 



Volumetric Solutions of US. P. 



f Am. Jour. Pkarm. 
( May, 1910. 



in a desiccator, since in an atmosphere devoid of moisture it loses 
water of crystallization. Finally, Iceland spar, which has recently 
been advocated by Rose, 1 " has the disadvantage that much of the 
material now sold under that name contains magnesium carbonate. 1 ' 
On the other hand, of all the volumetric processes at present 
known, there is probably not one that excels in elegance 12 or 
accuracy the well-known Volhard method for titrating silver by 
means of a thiocyanate solution. In fact, its advantages are so 
pronounced that Shutt and Charlton 13 have even recommended 
its use in estimating the very small amounts of chlorine in potable 
waters, in preference to the standard chromate method ; while the 
maximum error of Rosanoff and Hill, 14 when applying this method 
to the estimation of chlorides by precipitating with a known excess 
of silver and determining the remaining silver in the filtrate, was 
only 0.17 per cent. Finally, we need only mention the fact that 
Stas, 1 "' in his classical atomic weight work, did not estimate silver 
or chlorine gravimetrically but by titration by the method of Gay- 
Lussac. Likewise. Richards, 16 in his revision of Stas" work, esti- 
mated silver and chlorine by titration with the aid of his nephelom- 
eter. It is thus seen that the experience of chemists has been 
that, in the case of silver, the available volumetric methods may 
even exceed in accuracy the gravimetric process ; while the high 
value of the latter, as a means for standardizing volumetric solutions, 
has been expressed by more than one author. 17 If. therefore, we 
should base the standardization of all. or at least most, of our 

10 C hem. Eng., 10, 204-206 (1909)- 

11 Morse : Exercises in' Quantitative Chemistry (1905), p. 125. 

12 Vanino and Seitter express themselves in snch connection as follows : 
" Hierher zahlen bekanntlich die elegantesten und genauesten Methoden 
der Maassanalyse. wie wir solche in denjenigen von Gay-Lussac, Mohr, 
Volhard, und Liebig besitzen und welchen sammtlich eine — Silbernitratlosung 
— zu Grunde liegt." — Zcit. anal. Chem., 41, 194, (1902). 

13 Jour. Chem. Soc. 90, ii, 894 (1906). 
"Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 29, 273 (1907). 
15 Richards: Ibid,, 27, 461 (1905). 

10 Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 27, 502-510 (1905). 

17 Parsons : " I have no hesitancy, when convenience is also taken into 
consideration, in placing the determination as silver chloride at the head 
of gravimetric methods," for standardization purposes. — Jour. Anal. Chem.. 
6, 373S74 (1892). Phelps and Hubbard: "The previously most valued 
standard — hydrochloric acid standardized gravimetrically as silver chloride." 
— Amer. Jour. Sci., 23, iv, 213 (1907). 



Am 'MiTi9 P i5 arm '} Volumetric Solutions of US.P. 207 

volumetric solutions on this method, we would obtain not only con- 
venience and general ease of manipulation but also a very high 
degree of accuracy. 

As to the comparatively great ease of obtaining pure metallic 
silver we need only mention the following facts. In his revision of 
Stas' atomic weight for chlorine, one of the samples of silver which 
Richards 18 used was sent to him from the Colorado Smelting 
Works at Argo. Colorado. This specimen was stated to be the 
product of the treatment of ores in which it occurs associated with 
quartz, barite, calcite, pyrite, sphalerite, with more or less copper 
in the form of chalcopyrite, together with small amounts of arsenic, 
antimony, lead, bismuth, and tellurium. To recover the silver, the ore 
is roasted, mixed with other ores which are chiefly siliceous, and the 
mixture is so arranged that when smelted it yields a slag, containing 
about 40 per cent, of silica, and a first matte of fusible sulphide, 
which assays about 40 per cent, of copper, 10 per cent, of lead, and 
400 ounces of silver and 6 ounces of gold per ton. The next stage 
in the process includes the roasting and concentration of the ore- 
metal, or first matte, to " white metal " containing about 60 per 
cent, of copper. The silver is then extracted from this white metal 
by the following operations : Rough roasting, fine grinding, fine 
roasting for sulphate of silver by Ziervogel's process, leaching and 
the precipitation of the silver on plates of copper. In the precipi- 
tation of the silver a certain amount of copper is found mixed with 
the silver in the form of cuprous oxide and of small scales and 
scraps of metallic copper. This copper is removed by prolonged 
boiling with water containing a small quantity of sulphuric acid, 
into which air is injected by means of a small jet of steam. Sulphate 
of copper is thus formed, which is carefully washed out of the silver. 
The silver is then dried and melted into bars of an average fineness 
of 99.9 per cent. The specimen of silver actually obtained by 
Richards, however, the latter found to be even purer than is 
indicated by the above figures. We thus see that although starting 
with a very complex natural mixture, containing many different 
elements, only a very small fraction of which is the desired silver, 
this metal is actually obtained on a large commercial scale of a 
degree of purity almost approaching absolute purity. Can this be 
said of any of the other numerous substances which have been 
proposed as standards in volumetric analysis? 



lour. Amer. Chain. Soc, 27, pp. 474-475 (1905). 



208 Volumetric Solutions of US.P. { Am 'May r i9io arm ' 

But even if it should be desired to obtain the metallic silver in 
a condition which may be regarded as absolutely pure for all analyt- 
ical purposes, it can readily be obtained by electrolyzing a solution 
of silver nitrate, as shown by the work of Gooch and Perkins ; 19 
while if it also be desired to use precautions taken by Richards in 
his atomic weight determinations, we need only fuse the silver in 
a boat of pure lime placed in an atmosphere of hydrogen. In other 
words, if we adopt pure metallic silver as the standard for our 
volumetric solutions, we enable chemists and pharmacists to obtain 
such standard, even commercially, 20 in a condition not requiring 
further purification, or to prepare same in the laboratory with 
comparatively very little work. It would probably also avoid such 
dissimilarity of results as that seen in the case of potassium bitar- 
trate, for example, which, as already mentioned, Parsons states that 
although following Borntrager's directions, he had to recrystallize 
three times in addition in order to prepare the pure salt ; or the 
different results obtained by Lunge when studying Kiihling's potas- 
sium tetroxalate, to which reference has already been made. 

And we can also readily see why there should be such a striking 
difference between metallic silver as the standard and most of the 
other substances which have been proposed for this same purpose. 
For in the case of metallic silver we are dealing with an element — a 
substance which is undecomposable by any means at present known 
— whereas in the case of most of the other substances proposed as 
standards, we are dealing with compounds, many of which are more 
or less easily hydrated, some of which are hygroscopic, and nearly 
all of which are more or less soluble in water and hence readily 
affected by moisture. 

The advantages of metallic silver as the ultimate standard in 
volumetric analysis are, however, not entirely due to its elementary 
nature but largely to its own peculiar properties. Thus, when com- 

19 Zeit. anorg. Chem., 63, pp. 322-323 (1909). 

20 It is interesting to note in this connection the various descriptions 
given to Merck's " Tested Reagents." Thus we note : Potassium tetroxalate, 
for use in " preparation of volumetric solutions." Sodium carbonate, an- 
hydrous — for use as " starting material for preparation of volumetric solu- 
tions." Oxalic acid — for use in " preparation of volumetric solutions." 
Potassium bitartrate— for use as " starting material for preparation of 
volumetric solutions." Silver sheets, for use in "standardizing volumetric 
solutions." (Prices and Uses of Tested Reagents, Merck & Co., New York, 
1909). 



Ara M°ay"mo arm '} Volumetric Solutions of US. P. 209 

pared with such an element as iron for example (which is quite 
often used in standardizing KMn0 4 solutions), silver offers the 
additional advantages of being much more readily prepared in per- 
fectly pure state, in being suitable for a volumetric process in which 
atmospheric oxidation can have no influence, and in being suitable 
for long keeping unaltered. To illustrate the last mentioned prop- 
erty of silver we need only recall that when at the request of Dumas, 
Stas 21 repeated (1890) his work on silver, he found that the silver 
which he used in his atomic weight determinations (probably about 
i860) contained an altogether insignificant amount of gases, in 
no case greater than the unavoidable experimental error. In other 
words, although many years had elapsed between the two investiga- 
tions, yet Stas apparently felt confident, and his results prove, that 
his silver had remained unaltered. In fact, it is quite within the 
limits of probability that with only ordinary precautions, metallic 
silver may be kept unaltered not only for decades but even for 
centuries. Finally, pure metallic silver as the ultimate standard 
in volumetric analysis would offer the additional advantages that 
when used in the form of bright sheets, its undiminished brightness 
could always be taken as a good indication, at least, of its having 
retained its original purity ; while by using comparatively large 
pieces of it, 22 any possible loss of the standard substance in trans- 
ferring from the container in which it is weighed to the vessel in 
which the analysis is carried out, would be entirely avoided. 

Urged by such reasoning as the above, the writer has used pure 
metallic silver as the standard in volumetric analysis for some time 
past with very satisfactory results. The plan in general is as fol- 
lows : About 0.5 Gm. of the silver, accurately weighed, is placed in 
an Erlenmeyer flask of about 200 ex. capacity, about 10 c.c. of mod- 
erately strong (about 32 per cent.) nitric acid are added, and a small 
funnel is placed in the mouth of the flask to insure against loss of 
liquid by spirting. Gentle heat is applied, and when the silver has 
dissolved, the solution is diluted with about 25 c.c. of pure distilled 
water and the nitrous acid expelled by heating the solution to boiling. 

21 lour. Chem. Soc, 58, 561 (1890). 

23 If metallic silver were generally adopted as the ultimate standard 
in volumetric analysis, it would be feasible to place the silver on the market 
as coin-like disks of uniform, accurate, and convenient weight, suitable for 
direct use in standardization ; thus saving considerable time in the execution 
of the latter and further eliminating personal error. 



2IO 



Volumetric Solutions of U.S. P. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm 
May, 1910. 



The funnel is then washed and the washings added to the main solu- 
tion. This solution is then titrated with a thiocyanate solution of 
about j-q strength, using ferric alum as indicator, thus determining 
the exact value of the thiocyanate solution. By means of this thio- 
cyanate solution, a tenth-normal silver nitrate solution is prepared ; 
and the latter is then used in preparing -f^ HC1. By means of this 
HCl.y-o alkali is prepared ; and by means of the latter, an oxalic acid 
solution is standardized. The latter is then used in standardizing the 
permanganate solution ; and by means of the permanganate solution, 
Yo sodium thiosulphate is prepared, the process being essentially 
the same as that given in the U.S. P., only substituting the per- 
manganate in place of the dichromate ; the reason for choosing the 
KMn0 4 for this purpose, instead of the dichromate, being that a 
sharper end reaction may be obtained and, as pointed out by 
Bruhns, 23 the former has also the advantage in that the reaction 
is practically instantaneous. This, therefore, would give us all 
the necessary solutions on which is based the entire system of 
volumetric analysis as usually carried out. 

In this connection it is also interesting to note that Rothmund 
and Burgstaller 24 have recently shown that in shaking the AgCl 
suspension with ether, in determining chlorides by means of the Yol- 
hard thiocyanate method, nitration of the AgCl is rendered unneces- 
sary, and accurate results are obtained by direct titration of the 
unfiltered mixture even when the amounts of chlorine are small. 
And as further showing the advantages of metallic silver as the 
standard in volumetric analysis, we may mention the recent work 
of Gooch and Perkins, 25 who showed that free iodine in solution 
may be accurately determined through its reaction with metallic 
silver. Likewise, Hopfgartner 20 has shown that potassium perman- 
ganate may be standardized directly by means of metallic silver by 
dissolving the latter in ferric ammonium sulphate which has been 
acidified with sulphuric acid and titrating the ferrous salt thus 
formed with the permanganate solution. Finally, when we recall 
the present commendable tendency to refer all important work to 
exact standards, as may be illustrated by the work of the Hygienic 
Laboratory in furnishing the standard for the preparation of the 

23 Jour. Chew. Soc, go, ii, 577 (1906). 

24 Zcit. anorg. Chem., 63, 330-6 (1909). 

25 Ibid., 318-324. 

26 Jour. Chem. Soc, 88, ii, 484 (1905). 



Am. Jour. Pharai. ) 
May, 1910. J 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. 



211 



antidiphtheric serum of the U.S. P., it would seem that by adopting 
pure metallic silver as the ultimate standard in volumetric analysis 
we would pave the way for finally having such standard supplied 
from one source, thus making the uniformity absolutely complete. 
It would seem advisable, therefore, that in the next revision of the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia pure metallic silver be adopted as the ultimate 
standard for the required volumetric solutions. 
Public Health and 'Marine-Hospital Service, 
Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, D. C. 



A NOTE ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF ANHYDROUS 
SODIUM SULPHITE FOR THE HYDRATED 
VARIETY GIVEN IN THE U. S. 
PHARMACOPOEIA. 

By Elias Elvove. 

According to the present U. S. Pharmacopoeia sodium sulphite 
(Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) should contain not less than 94 per cent, of this 
salt. The experience in this laboratory, however, has been that 
when this salt is obtained commercially it frequently contains sul- 
phate as an impurity which is about as large in amount as the 
remaining sulphite. An idea as to the amount of sulphate which 
may be present in such samples of sulphite may be obtained from 
the results of an analysis 1 carried out in this laboratory on a 
sample of this salt which was obtained from one of the most careful 
and reliable firms in the country. This analysis resulted as follows : 

Found 
(Per cent.) 

Sodium sulphite 22.05 

Sodium sulphate 25.00 

Water (loss on drying in vacuo at ioo° C.) 5 2 -5o 



99-55 

That this sample of. sodium sulphite probably was up to the 
required standard when first prepared, but had been thus reduced 
in its sulphite content as the result of the lapse of time between its 
preparation and analysis, is indicated by the fact that a sample of this 
salt (Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) which was prepared in this laboratory and 



1 Kastle and Elvove: Jour. Infectious Diseases, 6, 619—629 (1909). 



212 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1910. 



which on analysis immediately after preparation showed a percen- 
tage purity of 99.69, was found to have lost approximately one-fifth 
of its total available sulphite after standing for six months in a 
glass-stoppered bottle, under ordinary conditions, the bottle having 
been opened only a few times during this interval in order to re- 
move small amounts of the salt. It appears also that others have 
met with similar experience in the examination of this salt. Thus 



table 1 

Showing the Degree of Purity of Samples of Anhydrous Sodium 
Sulphite Obtained from Vario us Sources. 



Number of sample 


Amount taken for 


Xo Iodine 


Percentage 




analysis (gramme) 


required (c.c.) 


purity 


t (Commercial) . 


.... O.I260 


18.25 


91.25 


2 


. . . . 0.1260 


18.75 


93-75 


3 


.... O.I260 


I9.20 


96.00 


4 


.... O.I260 


I9.3O 


96.50 


5 


.... O.I26o 


I9.3O 


96.50 


6 


0.1260 


1945 


97-25 


7 (Prepared as 


de- 






scribed by Kastle 






and Elvove) 


.... 0.1260 


I9.80 


99.00 


8 (Prepared and 


ana- 






lyzed by Hartley 






and Barrett, 


using 






an indirect m 


ethod 


f 




of analysis) . 


.... 0.1260 




99.87 



Smith, Kline and French Co. 2 report on the examination of 12 
samples of sodium sulphite (Na.SO3.7PLO) several of which con- 
tained only 90 per cent, of this salt. Likewise, Patch 3 has found all 
of the four samples which he examined to contain an excess of sul- 
phate ; his results showing that 100 parts of the dried sodium sulphite 
represented from 137 to 167 of the crystallized salt, whereas, if the 
latter had been of U.S. P. purity, 100 parts of the dried sulphite 
should have contained enough Na 2 SO., to represent about 188 parts 
of the crystallized salt. 

2 Lab. Rep., S. K. and F., 1906, p. 20 ; from Bull. No. 58, Hyg. Lab.. 
U. S. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Ser, Wash., p. 481. 

3 Proc. A. Ph. A., 54, 346 (1906). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1910. / 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. 



213 



On the other hand, anhydrous sodium sulphite was found, by 
Hartley and Barrett, 4 to he stable so long- as it is kept dry, while 
Kastle and Elvove 5 also found the anhydrous salt to show practically 
no change even when kept under ordinary conditions in glass-stop- 
pered bottles for about a month. The latter authors have also 
pointed out the advantage that is gained by the use of anhydrous 
sodium sulphite in place of the hydrated salt in the preparation of 
Endo's 7 medium, and in this connection have also described a modi- 
fication of Hartley and Barrett's method for the preparation of 
anhydrous sodium sulphite which increases the yield and makes it 
of greater general convenience to carry out. Likewise, the marked 
difference in the stability of anhydrous sodium sulphite, as compared 
with the hydrated salt (Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) , may be seen from the 
results obtained in the examination of commercial samples of these 
salts. Thus, a sample of the anhydrous sodium sulphite, obtained 
from the same firm that supplied the hydrated sodium sulphite 
which, according to the analysis above mentioned, contained only 
22.05 P er cent, of Na 2 S0 3 , was found to be 96.5 per cent, pure 
Na 2 S0 3 . In fact, even the poorest of the samples of anhydrous 
sodium sulphite examined was found to contain over 91 per cent, 
of available Na 2 SO, 3 , as may be seen from the results given in 
Table I. 

That the anhydrous sodium sulphite remains practically unal- 
tered, even when kept for a comparatively long time, under ordinary 
conditions, in glass-stoppered bottles, may be seen from the results 
given in Table II. 

These results show, therefore, that even after having stood for 
over seven months, under ordinary conditions, in glass-stoppered 
bottles, none of the samples of anhydrous sodium sulphite examined, 
altered in its available sulphite to an extent which might be con- 
sidered practically significant when compared with what takes 
place, under similar conditions, in the case of the hydrated salt. 
It would seem advisable, therefore, that in the next revision of the 
U.S. P., anhydrous sodium sulphite be substituted for the hydrated 
variety given in the present U.S. P. ; and as the results given 
in Table I show that several firms now supply anhydrous sodium 

4 Jour. Chem. Soc, Trans., 95, 1178-85 (1909). 

5 hoc. cit. 

6 Loc. cit. 

7 Centralbl. f. Bakt., Orig., 1903-4, 35, p. 109. 



214 Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. { Am *M™ r i9io arm ' 

sulphite in a condition of purity representing over 96 per cent, of 
the theory, it would seem that a minimum purity requirement of 
about 95 per cent, of the theory would certainly not be unreasonable. 

In this connection it may also be noted that while the primary 
reason for the desirability of substituting the anhydrous sodium 
sulphite for the hydrated variety given in the U.S. P. is the great 
difference in their stability under ordinary conditions, there is also 

TABLE 11 





Stability < 


of Anhydrous 


Sodium Sulphite. 






(Kept under ordinary conditions, 


in glass-stoppered bottles.) 






Length of 


Amount taken 


y 0" Iodine 




mber of 


time kept 


for analysis 


required 


Percentage 


imple 


(days) 


(gramme) 


(cc.) 


purity 


I 


I 


O.I260 


18.25 


9I-25 


I 


221 


0.I260 


18.OO 


90.00 


2 


I 


0.1260 


18.75 


93-75 


2 


221 


O.I26o 


18.60 


93.00 


3 


I 


0.I260 


19.20 


96.00 


3 


221 


0.1260 


18.85 


94-25 


4 


I 


O.I260 


I9.3O 


96.50 


4 


221 


O.I26o 


18.95 


94-75 


5 


I 


0.1260 


I9.3O 


96.50 


5 


221 


O.I260 


I9.O5 


95-25 


6 


I 


0.I260 


1945 


97-25 


6 


221 


O.I260 


I9.3O 


96.50 


7 


I 


O.I260 


I9.80 


99.00 


7 


221 


0.1260 


I9.60 


98.00 



an economic reason favorable to such change. For, inasmuch as 
the activity or value of the sodium sulphite depends entirely on the 
amount of available S0 2 which it contains, and as we can readily 
see that the latter would constitute a proportionately larger amount 
in the anhydrous salt than in the hydrated, the proposed change 
would, therefore, result in considerable saving in the cost of trans- 
portation. Thus a pound of the sodium sulphite of the U.S. P. 
(Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) , even when absolutely pure, has only about half 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1910. 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. 



215 



the amount of available S0 2 which is available in an equal weight of 
the anhydrous salt, Na 2 S0 3 ; or perhaps we may better illustrate this 
point by taking the actual case of the firm referred to above, from 
whom samples of each of these salts were obtained. The transpor- 
tation charges for equal weights of these salts would ordinarily be 
equal ; although the amount of available sulphite, Na 2 S0 3 , in the 
hydrated salt was only 22.05 P er cent, of its weight whereas in the 
anhydrous salt it was 96.5 per cent, of its weight, thus making the 
cost of transporting the sulphite of the former over four times 
its corresponding cost in the latter case. Besides, the cost of 
the anhydrous salt was less than twice the cost of an equal weight 
of the hydrated salt, although on the basis of the available S0 2 
the former is worth double the price of the latter, even if both were 
of an equal degree of purity ; thus actually making the anhydrous 
salt a cheaper source for S0 2 than the corresponding hydrated salt, 
even if we do not consider the difference in the cost of transpor- 
tation ; while if the manufacture of the anhydrous salt were based on 
the principle on which rests the method of Hartley and Barrett,^ 
namely, that crystallization of the anhydrous sulphite is obtainable 
by boiling its aqueous solution, the cost of the anhydrous salt 
could probably become reduced to even less than the present cost 
of the sodium sulphite of the U.S. P. Finally, the anhydrous sodium 
sulphite has also' the advantage over the corresponding hydrated salt 
in that it is more suitable for the exact weighing of prescribed 
amounts, such as are required in the making of certain preparations, 
or for yielding previously calculated amounts of S0 2 . 

Inasmuch, however, as the disadvantage of instability applies also 
to the acid sodium sulphite or bisulphite, NaHS0 3 , which is included 
in the present U.S. P. ; and perhaps with even greater force, on 
account of its apparently higher degree of instability, as was indi- 
cated by an experiment tried in this laboratory, and as is also 
indicated by the fact that the U.S. P. purity requirement for this 
salt is only 90 per cent, against 94 per cent, in the case of the 
corresponding normal salt, Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 ; it appears desirable, 
therefore, to avoid, if possible, the inclusion of the acid salt in the 
U.S. P. as a substance having a fixed standard of purity. In fact, 
there appears no sufficient reason why the acid sodium sulphite might 
not be omitted entirely from the list of official substances, since the 



8 Loc. cit. 



2l6 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite. 



J Am. Jour. Phariu. 
\ May, 1910. 



normal salt probably could replace it in most cases ; and where 
it could not replace it directly it might replace it indirectly by using 
it in conjunction with an equivalent amount of a suitable acid, as 
hydrochloric, sulphuric, or sulphurous acid. Of course when we 
compare the concentration of the available S0 2 (25.4 per cent.) 
in the sulphite (Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) with that in the bisulphite (61.5 
per cent.), the difference in favor of the latter is quite large, thus 
rendering it of especial value in all cases where a high concentration 
of available S0 2 is required ; but when we remember that by sub- 
stituting the anhydrous sodium sulphite for the hydrated sulphite 
of the U.S. P. we also double the concentration of available S0 2 , 
the difference in favor of the bisulphite becomes practically negli- 
gible. Thus the bisulphite of the U.S. P. (90 per cent, purity) would 
have a concentration of available S0 2 equivalent to about 55 per 
cent., whereas the anhydrous sodium sulphite (over 96 per cent, 
purity in many commercial samples) would have a concentration of 
available S0 2 equivalent to about 49 per cent. ; the difference in the 
concentration of available S0 2 in the latter case, therefore, could 
hardly affect the reaction in any given case where the bisulphite 
might be used as a reagent. 

On the other hand, it seemed that, having the anhydrous sodium 
sulphite as a ready source of supply of S0 2 , we might also be able 
to readily prepare and isolate the bisulphite whenever wanted by 
taking advantage of the comparatively sparing solubility of the 
latter in strong alcohol. In order to test this plan the following 
experiment was tried : 

Since 1 Gm. of water will absorb 9 0.168 Gm. of S0 2 (at 8° C. 
and a barometric pressure of 760 mm.), to saturate 40 Gm. of water 
would require 6.72 Gm. S0 2 . To obtain this quantity of S0 2 from 
Na 2 SO,, 13.2 Gm. of the latter will be required. Since, however, 
the actual amount of Na 2 S0 3 in the sample of sulphite used was 
only about 95 per cent., it would, therefore, theoretically require 
13.9 Gm. of the sulphite. This, therefore, gives us an idea as to 
the approximate amount of sulphite required under the conditions 
of this experiment; hence 15 Gm. of the sulphite were used. This 
was placed in a distilling flask of about 250 c.c. capacity, the mouth 
of which was fitted with a doubly perforated stopper; one of these 
perforations being- used for connecting with the separatory funnel, 

9 Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. 4, p. 614 (1902). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1910. / 



Anhydrous Sodium Sulphite, 



217 



into which 30 c.c. of strong (93 per cent.) sulphuric acid were 
placed; while the other perforation in the stopper was used for 
uniting, by means of suitable tubing, the inner atmosphere of the 
flask with that of the separatory funnel; the arrangement, there- 
fore, being the same as that previously used 10 for the preparation 
of chlorinated soda solution. The delivery tube of the flask was 
connected with a small Drechsel gas washing bottle, in which were 
placed 40 Gin. of recently distilled water. The Drechsel bottle was 
placed in a glass jar containing ice-water and unmelted ice, and 
its outlet tube was connected with a piece of glass tubing which 
led into a test-tube containing a little of a strong solution of sodium 
carbonate. After all the connections had been made, the stop-cock 
of the separatory funnel was turned so as to let the sulphuric acid 
fall slowly in drops on the solid Na 2 SO s in the flask. Heat was not 
applied at the beginning- of the operation, but when the current of 
S0 2 was observed to have weakened, gentle heating was applied to 
the flask, and the operation continued until practically the entire 
available S0 2 had been evolved. When thus carried out not even 
the slightest odor of S0 2 could be noticed in the room in which this 
operation was performed. The Drechsel and contents were weighed 
before and after the passage of the S0 2 into it and the increase 
in weight was found to be 6.8 Gm., corresponding, therefore, to 
8.7 Gm. of sulphurous acid, H 2 SO s . To combine this amount 
of H0SO3 with Na 2 SO ;3 so as to yield the acid salt, 
NaHSOo, it would require 13.4 Gm. of pure Na 2 S0 3 , or 13.96 
Gm. of a sample containing 96 per cent. Na 2 S0 3 . The latter 
quantity was, therefore, added to the sulphurous acid solution in 
the Drechsel, the removable upper part of the latter was replaced 
by a cork, and the contents well shaken. It was then transferred 
to a beaker of about 250 c.c. capacity and 200 c.c. of alcohol 
added to it. The beaker and contents were then placed in the ice- 
water bath, the contents well mixed, and the whole allowed to 
remain in this bath for about 15 minutes. The precipitate 
formed was filtered off on a Hirsch funnel with the aid of the 
vacuum pump until no more liquid could be observed to drain from 
the funnel ; the final drying being effected by pressing between 
layers of filter paper. The weight of the bisulphite thus obtained in 
the solid state was found to be over 11 grammes, representing, 



" Amer. Jour. Pharm., 82, 161-166 (1910). 



2l8 



Quinine Salts. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t May, 1910. 



therefore, about 50 per cent, of the theory. The filtrate, however, 
continued to yield further crops of the salt which, if it had been 
desired to collect, would have increased the obtained yield still 
further. An analysis of this salt showed it to be 96.5 per cent, 
pure sodium bisulphite, NaHSOg. 

It is thus seen that when having the anhydrous sodium sulphite 
we can readily obtain a sulphurous acid solution containing about 
14.5 per cent. S0 2 (the U.S. P. requires not less than 6 per cent. 
S0 2 ) ; and that by adding to such a sulphurous acid solution an 
equivalent of the solid anhydrous sodium sulphite, we can readily 
obtain a very strong solution of the acid salt (which could be used 
as such in at least many cases where the bisulphite is required) ; 
while by adding a sufficient amount of alcohol to such an aqueous 
solution of the bisulphite we can readily obtain the latter even in the 
solid state and in a condition of higher purity than that required 
by the U.S. P. It would seem, therefore, that in addition to the 
substitution of the anhydrous sodium sulphite in place of the hy- 
drated sulphite (Na 2 S0 3 .7H 2 0) given in the present U.S. P., and the 
omitting of the acid salt or bisulphite from the list of substances 
having a fixed standard of purity, it might also be well to substitute 
anhydrous sodium sulphite as the source of the S0 2 in the prepara- 
tion of sulphurous acid instead of obtaining the latter by the indirect, 
and certainly not very simple, method of reducing sulphuric acid by 
means of charcoal, which is the method adopted in the present 
U.S.P. 

Hygienic Laboratory, P.H. and M.H.S. 
Washington, D. C. 



NOTES ON QUININE SALTS AND OTHER CHEMICALS 
OF THE U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA. 

By George L. Schaefer. 

The following notes on the solubilities of a few important 
quinine salts in ether and other solvents are given, for the reason 
that there are a considerable number of discrepancies in the liter- 
ature regarding these data. I have also included a few corrections 
of the melting points and other tests of a few other chemicals in 
the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, which may be of interest to pharmaceutical 
chemists at the present time. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
May, 1910. 



Quinine Salts. 



219 



QUININE HYDROBROMIDE. 

Lines 21 and 22 of the U. S. P. description of this salt read: 
" Ammonia water added to an aqueous solution of the salt produces 
a white precipitate, which is soluble in a large excess of the re- 
agent." This test cannot be carried out, except with very small 
traces of the salt, and ought to be omitted. 

In view of this I would suggest the following modification of 
this test and its adoption for all the quinine salts : " Ammonia 
water added to an aqueous solution of the salt produces a white 
precipitate, which is easily soluble in ether." This would differen- 
tiate the quinine salts at once from the salts of other cinchona 
alkaloids. 

The solubility in ether of this salt is, according to the U. S. P. 
1 to 16, while it is practically insoluble or very difficultly soluble, 
requiring about 700 parts of the solvent for solution. 

QUININE HYDROCHLORIDE. 

According to the U. S. P., sulphuric acid should not produce a 
color with this salt. However, if the salt is treated with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid the resulting solution is yellowish, hydrochloric 
acid gas being developed. 

When slowly heated it melts at about 120° C. with its full 
amount of water of crystallization. The commercial salt containing 
1-2 per cent, less water melts at about 125 C. The completely 
anhydrous salt melts at about 1 5 5-1 60 C. The latter quickly ab- 
sorbs water from the air, again lowering the melting point. 

There is no distinct melting point for the commercial salt, accord- 
ing to> the larger or smaller percentage of water of crystallization 
in the salt, the melting point differing from 5-10 C. 

The salt is not soluble in ether in the proportion of 1 to 240, 
but it is almost insoluble or very difficultly soluble in ether, requir- 
ing about 1000 parts of the solvent. 

QUININE SALICYLATE. 



Solubility in water at 25 C 1: 2100 

Solubility in water at 80 C 1 : 280 

Solubility in alcohol at 25 C 1:23 

Solubility in alcohol at 6o° C 1:5 

Solubility in ether, about 1 : 780 

Solubility in chloroform 1:10 



220 



Quinine Salts. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1910. 



CODEINE ALKALOID. 

The solubility of this alkaloid in ether is not i to I2^>, but I 
to 25. 

CODEINE PHOSPHATE. 

All the preparations on the market contain only y 2 molecule of 
water of crystallization. The salt with 2 molecules of water exists, 
but it is a practical impossibility to produce it for commercial 
purposes. 

The salt with y 2 molecule of water ought to be made official, 
being the pure commercial chemical. 

DIACETYL MORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE. 

In all the publications pertaining to this salt the formula is 
written C 17 H 17 (C 2 H 3 0) 2 N0 3 HC1, this having reference to the 
anhydrous salt, which, however, cannot be made commercially. The 
salt, when freshly prepared from an alcoholic solution in the regular 
way and dried in the air, contains 3 molecules of water of crystal- 
lization. When dried at a moderate heat it becomes anhydrous, 
but if this anhydrous crystalline powder is taken from the drying- 
room it absorbs quickly 1 molecule of water of crystallization from 
the air. Therefore, no anhydrous salt can be found on the market. 
The following formula ought to be adopted for this chemical : 
C 17 H 17 (C 2 H 3 0) 2 N0 ;! HC1 + H 2 0, which accordingly contains 
95.75 per cent, of anhydrous salt and 4.25 per cent, of water of 
crystallization, and which is the pure commercial salt. 

STRYCHNINE ALKALOID. 

Solubility in alcohol at 25 C 1 : 150 

Solubility in chloroform at 25 C 1:7 

STRYCHNINE NITRATE. 

Solubility in water at 25 C 1:55 

Solubility in alcohol 1 : 220 

STRYCHNINE SULPHATE. 

Strychnine sulphate does not melt at 200 C. If heated to about 
250 C. it begins to get brown, and at a higher temperature it 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1910. 



} 



Quinine Salts. 



221 



melts with decomposition. It thus follows that no distinct melting- 
point can be given for this salt. 



This acid requires 475 parts of water at 25 C. for solution. 



The test adopted by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia for the determina- 
tion of the presence of acetanilide cannot be used in its present 
form, as even the purest acetphenetidin will not give a clear solution. 
If, however, the method is modified in the following way, very 
small quantities of acetanilide can be detected : 

A quantity of 0.1 Gm. of acetphenetidin is mixed in a test-tube 
with 2 c.c. of a solution of potassium hydroxide, 1 to 2, and 
the test-tube put in boiling water for two minutes, shaking it 
during this time. The contents of the tube are now diluted 
with 4 c.c. of cold water, the mixture cooled and filtered through 
a small pellet of glass wool. To the resulting clear liquid 5 c.c. 
of solution of chlorinated soda are added. If the acetphenetidin 
is pure a clear yellowish solution is produced ; if acetanilide is 
present the liquid will assume at once a slight to a dark purplish- 
brown color, according to the quantity of acetanilide present, the 
color changing gradually to yellow when allowed to stand for 
some time. 

This test will show the presence of even less than 2 per cent, 
of acetanilide. 

A list of official chemicals is appended for which the sulphuric 
acid test has been adopted. It is very important to have this test 
carried out in distinct proportions of the substance and concentrated 
sulphuric acid to get uniform results in the hands of different 
chemists. From practical experience I have found the proportions 
given in this list to be perfectly satisfactory. 



Solubility in water at 25 C 
Solubility in water at 80 C 
Solubility in alcohol at 25 C 



i:45 
1:9 
1 : 105 



SALICYLIC ACID. 



ACETPHENETIDIN. 



222 



Quinine Salts. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
{ May, 1910. 



PROPOSED PROPORTION OF SUBSTANCE AND CONCENTRATED 
SULPHURIC ACID. 

Atropine 0.02:5 c.c. 

Benzoic acid 1:10 c.c. 

Caffeine 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Cinchonidine sulphate 0.1:10 c.c. 

Cinchonine sulphate . . ." 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Cocaine hydrochloride 0.1:10 c.c. 

Codeine alkaloid 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Codeine phosphate 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Codeine sulphate 0.1:10 c.c. 

Hyoscine hydrobromide 0.0 1 : 5 c.c. 

Hyoscyamine sulphate 0.0 1 : 5 c.c. 

Hyoscyamine 0.01 : 5 c.c. 

Morphine 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Physostigmine sulphate 0.01 : 5 c.c. 

Physostigmine salicylate 0.01 : 5 c.c. 

Pilocarpine hydrochloride 0.0 1 : 5 c.c. 

Pilocarpine nitrate 0.0 1 : 5 c.c. 

Piperine 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Quinine 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Quinine bisulphate 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Quinine hydrobromide 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Quinine hydrochloride (slightly yellow) . .0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Quinine sulphate 0.1:10 c.c. 

Sparteine sulphate 0.01 : 5 c.c. 

Strychnine 0.1 : 10 c.c. 

Strychnine sulphate 0.1:10 c.c. 



Laboratory New York Quinine and Chemical Works. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1910. / 



Ammoniated Mercury. 



223 



THE ASSAY OF OINTMENT OF AMMONIATED 
MERCURY. 

By John R. Rippetoe. 

Determining the ammoniated mercury by extracting the fats by 
means of a volatile solvent and collecting the insoluble residue of 
this salt on balanced filters, or a Gooch crucible, proved to be very 
tedious and besides it was impossible to obtain a result that was 
even approximate. Ether, petroleum ether, and chloroform were the 
solvents used. Several filter papers of fine texture were used, but 
none of them seemed to be of such a character as to prevent some of 
the ammoniated mercury from being carried through. Extraction 
of the fats by means of a Soxhlet apparatus, using an extraction 
tube, was even less satisfactory. 

Hence the following method was worked out which so far has 
given very satisfactory results. Weigh accurately 2.5 to 3.0 
grammes of the sample into a four-ounce, wide-mouthed Erlenmeyer 
flask. Add 50 c.c. ether and dissolve the fats by agitation, then 
add 10 c.c. hydrochloric acid (10 per cent.) and 10 c.c' distilled 
water, and dissolve the ammoniated mercury by agitation. Trans- 
fer the solutions to a separator and draw off the acid solution. 
Wash the flask and separator with water until the washings give 
no test with silver nitrate solution for chlorides. Pass hydrogen 
sulphide into the combined acid solution and washings until satu- 
rated, and set aside for 15 minutes in a warm place. Collect the 
mercuric sulphide on balanced filters or a Gooch crucible, wash 
thoroughly with water, and dry to a constant weight at ioo° C. 
The weight of mercuric sulphide obtained multiplied by 1.0837 
equals the weight of ammoniated mercury in the sample taken. 
Working with a known amount of ammoniated mercury incorporated 
with the same proportion of white petrolatum and hydrous wool fat, 
as in the official ointment, 99.1 per cent, of the salt taken was 
determined, assuming the salt to have been 100 per cent. pure. 

The above method should be equally applicable for the assay of 
the ointments of mercuric nitrate, and yellow and red mercuric 
oxide. 

It would seem desirable that the next revision of the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia should have some such method of assay for the 
above ointments, since the present one gives a method of assay for 
mercurial ointment. 

Analytical Department, 
Schieffelin & Co., New York. 



224 



Echinacea. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1910. 



ECHINACEA AND A SPURIOUS ROOT THAT APPEARED 
IN THE FALL OF 1909. 

By John Moser, Jr., P.D. 
Pharmacognosist for J. L. Hopkins & Co. 

During the fall of 1909, a root of uncertain botanical origin 
was offered as echinacea to the New York drug merchants. The 
commercial source was St. Louis, and for a time nearly all of the 
echinacea offered was found on examination to be spurious. The 
spurious root may have been offered before this time, but if so 
it has not to our knowledge been reported. 

A search of the literature on the subject, which is not abundant, 
failed to bring out any information that would indicate that the 
root in question had been previously recognized as spurious, or 
that would throw any light whatever on its probable botanical 
source. (See note.) 

The "spurious root when in the entire state differs in certain 
features from echinacea, but yields a powder that has a very 
similar appearance, and in this form its detection is extremely 
improbable without a microscopic examination. 

Considerable difference of opinion as to the medicinal value of 
echinacea exists, as certain recent reports indicate. That the drug 
is attracting much attention is shown by the fact that the demand 
is constantly increasing, while the market supply of the true root 
is now practically exhausted. 

Echinacea contains 1 per cent, or more of an acrid resinous 
substance, and is said also to contain an alkaloid. When tasted 
it exhibits certain characteristics which would lead one to believe 
it is far from inert. However this may be, it is certain that the 
spurious root cannot be expected to represent in any way the 
activity of the true drug. 

A comparative study of echinacea and the spurious root has 
been made in our laboratory, with a view of bringing out data 
which will aid in the detection of the spurious when in powdered 
form or when present as an admixture with powdered echinacea. 
The principal difference was found in the sclerenchymatous tissue 
as will be later pointed out. 

Two closely related plants of the Composite? contribute to the 



Am. Jour. Pbariu. 1 
May, 1910. / 



Echinacea. 



225 



supply of echinacea root : Brauneria purpurea, the purple cone 
flower, and Brauneria pallida, pale purple cone flower, the former 
growing from Western Pennsylvania and Virginia to Illinois and 
southward, and the latter from Illinois and Wisconsin southward. 
They are perennial herbs with stout and nearly simple stems, 
terminated by a single large head. The name cone flower is derived 
from the conical torus, which is covered with a lanceolate, spiny- 
tipped chaff, longer than the disk florets. The ray florets are 
about 5 cm. long, drooping, pistillate but sterile, and usually rose- 
purple in color. 

The dried root is the part used medicinally, and has the fol- 
lowing characteristics: Root of vertical growth, usually in pieces 
5 to 20 cm. long, 0.5 to 3 cm. in diameter; crown branched, the 
branches somewhat annulate above and with stem scars, rarely 
stem remnants present ; dark brown to blackish externally, slightly 
tapering-, sometimes twisted, deeply longitudinally wrinkled ; frac- 
ture short, weak; bark thin, 0.5 mm. or less in diameter, and brown- 
ish ; wood radiate from the numerous greenish-yellow wood wedges ; 
parenchymatous tissue dark gray to blackish ; odor distinctly and 
peculiarly aromatic, characteristic; taste pungent, somewhat acrid, 
producing a profuse flow of saliva, followed by a tingling sensation 
and slight numbness. 

The powder may be described as follows : Light grayish-brown ; 
tracheae numerous, lignified, 15 to 20fx in diameter, with simple 
pores, or 20 to 50^ in diameter and scarlariform ; wood fibres 
usually single or in groups of 2 or 3, 250 to 600^ long, 20 to 30M 
in diameter, the average being' 300^ long and 25/x in diameter, 
strongly lignified and with numerous simple pores ; cork cells ir- 
regular and deep reddish-brown ; parenchyma of cortex irregular 
and with yellowish- or reddish-brown resinous contents ; fragments 
of resin cells with suberized walls and a pale yellowish resin which 
is changed to greenish-yellow by KOH, breaking up into small 
globules and apparently dissolving. When mounted in concentrated 
H 2 S0 4 the fragments of parenchymatous tissue assume a reddish- 
brown color which gradually deepens. Stone cells are absent. 

The spurious root has the following characteristics : Somewhat 
conical crown, 3 to 10 cm. long, 1 to 4 cm. in diameter, tapering 
upward and terminated by a stem scar or stem remnant ; dull brown 
to blackish externally and finely wrinkled ; base spherical and 
giving rise to several fusiform roots of horizontal growth, 5 to 15 



226 



Echinacea. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1910. 



cm. long, 0.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, dark brown to blackish exter- 
nally and longitudinally wrinkled ; occasionally with fibrous rootlets, 
sometimes also fusiform, and 5 to 10 cm. long; fracture short- 
fibrous, rather tough ; bark 0.5 to 1 mm. thick, brownish and with 
numerous groups of stone cells ; wood grayish, radiate with yellow 
wood wedges; odor faintly but distinctly aromatic; taste momen- 
tarily pungent, slightly bitter and acrid. 

The powder is light gray in color and also exhibits the following 
characteristics: Tracheae numerous, lignified, 15 to 50^ in diameter, 
with simple or bordered pores, occasionally with scarlariform mark- 
ings ; wood fibres 200 to 300a long, 12 to 30^ in diameter, strongly 
lignified and with simple pores; stone cells numerous, usually in 
groups, isodiametric and 25 to 40^ in diameter, or elongated, 50 to 
150^ long, 25 to 40/x, in diameter, very thick walled and with numer- 
ous simple pores; cork cells reddish-brown; parenchyma of cortex 
regular and with a brownish or reddish resinous content ; fragments 
of resin cells with pale yellowish resin, less numerous than in 
echinacea. KOH and concentrated H 2 S0 4 have an action similar 
to that on echinacea. 

In the examination of powdered echinacea containing some of 
the spurious root, the isolation of the sclerenchymatous fibres by 
means of Schultze's macerating solution or by digestion with 10 
per cent. KOH solution, was found to facilitate the work greatly 
and to render it possible to detect minute quantities of the spurious 
root. 

Note. — Since the completion of this article the attention oi 
the author was called to the editorial " Is Echinacea Valueless 
in The Druggis\ts J Circular, February, 1910, p. 70. It is stated 
that a St. Louis friend of the editor called attention to the fact that 
a large quantity of the root of Parthenium integrifolium had been 
collected in that vicinity and disposed of in the St. Louis market. 
He also expressed the fear that it was intended as a substitute for 
or adulterant of echinacea. From the brief description which is 
given of parthenium it would appear that its characteristics are 
very similar to, if not identical with, the spurious root herein 
described. However this cannot be definitely stated until an oppor- 
tunity is afforded to examine an entire plant at the flowering period. 

It is believed that the facts here presented will enable the manu- 
facturer to insist upon being supplied with the true echinacea, the 
identity of the spurious root being of secondary importance. 



Am ' May r 'i9io arm ' } Chemical and Sand Filtration. 227 



RAPID CHEMICAL FILTRATION COMPARED TO SLOW 
SAND FILTRATION. 

By William G. Toplis. 

On three previous occasions 1 it has been my privilege to address 
this body on the subject of water purification — each time some phase 
of slow sand nitration was considered. 

To-day the subject is again water purification, but this time 
we consider a different side, which is known as rapid filtration. In 
order that we may have a better understanding of the difference 
between the two methods, it seems proper to restate, briefly, -the 
basic principles of slow sand filtration. This method is favored 
for the purification of municipal water supplies and the objects 
sought to be accomplished are : first, the removal of suspended 
matter, and, second, the decomposition of organic matter in solu- 
tion. The first is simple, the mud being strained out as the water 
percolates through the sand. The second is much more complex, 
and is brought about through the growth of living vegetable organ- 
isms, known as bacteria, that thrive within the sand bed, and are 
attached to the grains of sand, in such quantity that they actually 
form a coating over the surface of each grain of sand. The sand 
bed is about four feet deep. The water is controlled in its passage 
through the sand and is allowed to proceed at a rate of from three 
to six million gallons per acre per twenty-four hours. This means 
that each square foot of area filters about ten cubic feet of water 
in twenty-four hours at the three million rate. Now as the strained 
water passes through the fine spaces between the grains of sand in 
the filter it carries the dissolved organic matter together with some 
atmospheric oxygen, also in solution, to the bacteria growing within 
the sand bed. Here the organic matter is absorbed by these growths, 
and it furnishes pabulum for their existence and propagation. The 
extreme limit of organic contamination in drinking water is perhaps 
represented in urea, and as the greater includes the less, the treat- 
ment of urea will cover all kinds of organic contamination. Urea 
is composed of four elements : carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitro- 
gen. As the contaminated water passes slowly through the sand the 

1 Amer. Jour. Pharm., 74, 67, Feb., 1902; 76, March, 1904; 81, 220, 
May, 1909. 



228 



Chemical and Sand Filtration. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1910. 



bacteria absorb the dissolved matter and digest it and resolve it 
into the simple oxides of the elements composing it, viz., carbon 
becomes carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), hydrogen and oxygen combine to 
form water (H 2 0), nitrogen is finally changed into compounds of 
nitric acid. 

Chemical analyses of water properly treated by the method thus 
described prove the statements to be facts, and the water wholly 
acceptable from both hygienic and aesthetic considerations. There 
is no better method known for the purification of municipal water 
supplies when properly conducted. It will be noted, however, that 
the conditions are rigid and inflexible, and that the method is suit- 
able for but one purpose and limited to that one, especially so because 
of the large areas of land necessary for its execution. 

The purification of municipal water supplies is but one of the 
many water purification problems, which problems seem to be of 
unending variety, and call for wide knowledge and experience for 
their successful handling. The variety of requirements for indus- 
trial purposes calls for a system of great flexibility, one that can be 
quickly adapted to changing needs, and deliver large volumes of 
treated water in little time and by apparatus that must be confined to 
restricted space. These conditions are quite the reverse of those 
necessary in slow sand filtration. 

There are two types of rapid filtering apparatus, one of the 
open variety known as the " gravity filter.'' and one which is closed 
and constructed in a metallic case, known as a " pressure filter.'' 
The closed type is used where filtered water is to be delivered to a 
level higher than that of the filter, and the open type is used where 
the water may flow from the filter by gravity to a point of delivery 
below the level of the filter. 

The same principles are involved in the operation of both types : 
and both types are built on the same general plan though the pres- 
sure filter must be provided with a cover bolted upon it. The most 
common form is that of a cylinder, of any suitable material. It may 
be of wood, metal, or concrete, provided with proper inlets and out- 
lets. At the bottom, inside of the container, a special line of piping 
is arranged. Upon the upper surface of this piping a number of 
sand valves are placed. The sand valve is the most important feat- 
ure connected with this system of filtration. Its function is to retain 
the sand in the filter but allow the water to pass freely out after 
filtration, and in addition to this allow the freest ingress of water 



Am. Jour, rharni. ) 
May, 1910. / 



Chemical and Sand Filtration. 



229 



at the bottom of the fitter for washing purposes ; and, further, the 
sand valve must be so constructed that it will automatically open 
and discharge any particles of sand that may effect lodgement in 
its parts. 

The action of these filters is wholly chemical. In the reaction 
between alum and bicarbonate of calcium is found the agency to 
which this method owes its efficiency. All river and spring waters 
have hardness to a greater or less degree, and very few, if any, are 
devoid of it. Hardness is commonly due to the presence of lime 
compounds dissolved in the water, generally in the form of bicar- 
bonate of calcium. If a solution of alum be added to such water, 
being- careful to keep the lime compounds in excess, an interchange 
between the alum and lime follows, with the result that aluminum 
hydrate is precipitated, carbon dioxide is evolved, and sulphate of 
calcium produced, the latter remaining in solution. The objective 
point of this reaction is the production of aluminum hydrate. This 
substance when freshly precipitated forms a very voluminous, gelat- 
inous, white precipitate that embraces all suspended matter in a 
sticky envelope and holds it in a layer upon the sand. The water 
passes through at a rate greatly in excess of the slow sand method, 
about 100 to 1. So thoroughly is the filtering performed that the 
water is quite as brilliant as the most carefully prepared distilled 
water. 

The result in this respect is very often better than the slow sand 
filter attains. This is not surprising when it is remembered that the 
particles of clay suspended in water are often less in size than bac- 
teria, and frequently are as small as one one hundred thousandth 
of an inch in diameter, as has been determined by the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Health. 

After the filter has been operating for a period it becomes notice- 
ably clogged, resulting in what is technically known as loss in head — 
to remedy this condition the filter is washed by passing in at the 
bottom filtered water through the sand valves, at such a rate that 
the sand is turned over and lumps and adhesions are broken up, 
and all of the adhering mud and separated matter are washed out 
of the filter into the sewer. This is accomplished in from five to 
ten minutes and the filter again performs its duty when the flow 
of water is directed downward through the sand. 

As stated before no oxidizing action takes place in this method 
of filtration, but recently successful effort has been made to bring 



230 Chemical and Sand Filtration. f Am jour. Pha™. 

^ I May, 1910. 

this about in a chemical way as follows : Calcium hypochlorite in 
solution was introduced into the water before filtration in the pro- 
portion of two or three parts per million. The reaction that follows 
is precisely the same as that employed in urinalysis in the estimation 
of urea in which nitrogen is evolved as gas. The result of this as 
compared with the oxidation change in the slow sand filter is, in- 
stead of forming nitric acid and increasing nitrates, the nitrogen, 
as gas, is thrown off and hydrochloric acid is produced, increasing 
chlorides. Other changes are the same. In addition to this the 
hypochlorite has the effect of increasing- the bacterial efficiency to an 
extraordinary degree. 

Another interesting adaptation of this method of filtration may 
be cited in conditions such as are met in the Passaic River, New 
Jersey, at Passaic. The water of the river at this city is black, 
colored by the refuse discharged into it from the silk dye works at 
Paterson. In addition to the dye, all of the sewage of the City of 
Paterson empties into this stream, forming a malodorous combination. 
The problem was to deodorize and decolorize the water and to free 
it from bacteria to a large degree. The first was accomplished by 
aeration and sedimentation. The second by taking advantage of 
the property of aluminum hydrate to form lakes with dye colors, 
that, becoming insoluble in water, are easily filtered out and these, 
together with the bacteria, were readily removed by the filter, work- 
ing at a rate of 1000 cubic feet of filtered water per square foot 
per twenty-four hours. The water resulting from this treatment was 
suitable for use in bleaching wmite goods and the manufacture of 
white paper. 

Another problem quite different was met in the treatment of the 
water supply at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, New Jersey. This 
water was so strongly impregnated with iron that it was altogether 
unfit for drinking. Tea was turned into ink, and for laundry pur- 
poses it was impossible. The Government engineers had endeavored 
to free it by oxidation and sedimentation, but it was found that all 
of four days were required for oxidation and not less than two 
weeks were necessary for complete sedimentation, conditions that 
were altogether impracticable. Finally, the chemical filter was in- 
stalled. The water was treated with small quantities of calcium 
hydroxide in solution and then filtered at the rate of 400 million gal- 
lons per acre per twenty-four hours, which is equal to 10 cubic feet 
in twelve minutes per square foot of surface as compared with 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1910. j 



Chemical and Sand Filtration. 



231 



10 cubic feet in twenty-four hours which is the slow sand filtering- 
rate for each square foot of surface. The result was a water entirely 
palatable and faultless for laundry work. 

Each of the preceding examples described applications of prin- 
ciples with the effluent as the objective. The following case is one 
where the filtered water is run to waste in the sewer and the con- 
tamination saved, just reversing the conditions. 

At Mt. Vernon, New York, there is a large silver manufacturing- 
establishment. For various reasons considerable silver finds its way 
into the wash water used by the silversmiths. This waste is allowed 
to run into a sedimentation basin where it is treated with sodium 
chloride, and allowed to subside. The water after standing is 
pumped into a filter where any suspended matter is caught, and after 
this process has been carried far enough the filter is washed and 
the washings returned to the sedimentation basin, and the clear 
water is again directed into the sewer. The saving to the manufac- 
turers is $5000 per annum, the cost of which is Si 50 for one 
year's operating expenses. 

One other and very important adaptation of rapid filtration is 
that in connection with so-called water softening. This process con- 
sists in removing from the water dissolved salts of calcium or mag- 
nesium that may be present. The handling of this matter requires 
precise manipulation as will be understood from the character of 
the reactions involved — because excess of the reagents would also 
produce hardness ; hardness it will be remembered is commonly due 
to the presence of bicarbonate and sulphate of calcium. The first 
step is to add a slight excess of calcium hydroxide to the water. 
The result of this is to neutralize the half bound carbonic acid of 
the bicarbonate of calcium and precipitate it as neutral calcium 
carbonate. After an interval sodium carbonate solution is added, 
when any excess of calcium hydroxide is changed to neutral car- 
bonate of calcium and the sulphate of calcium is precipitated also as 
carbonate — the resulting sodium sulphate remains in solution. 
After this treatment the water is conducted to a filter where the 
precipitates are removed and the water is passed on practically 
free of hardness. This treatment is capable of reducing water of 
extreme hardness at a very rapid rate, to about 2 degrees of hard- 
ness. This is the limit because neutral calcium carbonate is soluble 
in water to this slight extent : refinement in apparatus is absolutely 
essential but it is quite practicable in competent hands. 



232 Conservation and Chemical Engineer. { Am ' M ^ y ur i 9 i? arm ' 



CONSERVATION AND THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER.* 



By Samuel P. Sadtler. 



We have heard much in the last year or two concerning the 
conservation of our natural resources and we shall, I feel certain, 
hear much more in the next few years, as the facts elicited from the 
preliminary studies of the subject come to be understood by the 
public at large. The importance of the subject will grow corre- 
spondingly as the matter is studied by the thoughtful citizen, and his 
appreciation of it will in time be reflected in the activity of the 
statesmen at Washington in the proposing of remedial measures. 

Conservation let us note, however, represents the third stage 
in the history of the development of natural resources. 

The first stage is exploration or discovery. This is the era of 
the prospector and has given us in this country some famous epi- 
sodes. We need only recall the discovery of gold in California in 
1849 and the way in which it operated to attract adventurous spirits 
from the older parts of our country, or the repetition of the same 
story with the discovery of the rich gold deposits on the Yukon and 
at Nome in Alaska. 

The first discovery of rich petroleum deposits of Western Penn- 
sylvania in the early sixties broug-ht, similarly, multitudes of pros- 
pectors or " wildcatters," as they came to be known locally, and this 
experience has been repeated also from time to time as great petro- 
leum gushers or powerful gas wells have been reported in various 
sections of the country, resulting in the opening of new fields, as in 
Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. 

The second stage is exploitation, when these lavish gifts of 
nature are worked with a view mainly of increasing production and 
usually in a wasteful way with no thought of the exhaustion of the 
supply. 

As illustrations of this stage we need only cite the way in which 
our coal mines have been worked. In Bulletin 394 of the U. S. 
Geological Survey (papers on the conservation of mineral resources) 
we find the statement that " it has been estimated that the actual 

* Presidential address delivered at the second annual meeting of the 
American Institute of Chemical Engineers in Philadelphia, Dec. 8, 1909 ; and 
reprinted from Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 8, p. 9, Jan., 1910. 



Am *May r 'i£o arm ' } Conservation and Chemical Engineer. 233 

loss or waste sustained through coal left in the mines in conducting 
mining operations amounts to 50 per cent, of the quantity produced 
and marketed." Worse than this, when the Anthracite Coal Waste 
Commission made its report in 1893 tne y estimated that " for every 
ton produced one and a half tons were lost." 

One of our most valuable gifts of nature is the natural gas, which 
is associated more or less directly with petroleum, It is a fuel of 
the greatest value, being nearly pure hydrocarbon in its composition. 
Yet we find in the same Bulletin of the Geological Survey before 
referred to the following: " As to the amount of natural gas which 
is being wasted daily, no accurate statistics have been attempted 
and the judgment of Dr. I. C. White, State Geologist of West 
Virginia, may well be accepted to the effect that no less than 1,000,- 
000,000 cubic feet of gas are wasted every twenty-four hours. 
Of this, undoubtedly the larger part is wasted in the production of 
oil." This waste, Dr. Day of the Geological Survey says, " practi- 
cally equals the annual consumption of natural gas reported for 1907. 
This waste should furnish light for half the urban population of the 
United States." 

The exploitation of our once great timber resources and the 
resulting denudation of great tracts of land and the evils to the 
soil which have followed in the train of this ruthless waste have 
been so graphically portrayed by the U. S. Forestry Bureau and 
others recently that I need not more than allude to this case of 
reckless extravagance. 

It is not my intention, however, to take up this evening the 
question of the conservation of our natural resources and the abso- 
lute need thereof, as so ably developed in recent reports of the 
" National Conservation Commission," the Forestry Bureau, and 
other official publications, nor yet the part played by the chemist 
in this conservation of natural resources which has been so ably 
reviewed by Dr. Bogert in his recent Presidential address before 
the American Chemical Society. 

What I would like to do is to indicate that these same three 
stages of exploration or discovery, exploitation or effort at produc- 
tion, and finally conservation, are to be seen in the history of every 
great chemical industry, and to point out, that, while it is the part 
of the chemical engineer to aid in the exploitation step, what is still 
more important is his part in counselling and indicating how the 
wholesome influence of conservation can be applied so as to broaden 



234 Conservation and Cheinical Engineer, j Am May U i* 9 f harm ' 

and extend the scope of the industry, to maintain and add to its 
remunerative character, and to give it stability and promise of 
permanence. 

Let us illustrate this view by examples, and take first the great 
petroleum industry to which reference has already been made in 
speaking of the era of exploration when the petroleum fields were 
first outlined by the work of the prospector and driller. The second 
stage of exploitation began to draw upon the help of those who were 
chemical engineers, in fact if not by title. The development of the 
distilling and refining processes came first. Starting with the old 
cheese-box still with its circle of heating grates under it, there was 
a change, following upon the discovery of the " cracking process " 
as applied to crude oil, to the present form of cylindrical still with 
its movable cover to regulate the chilling of the vapors during the 
latter part of the operation. This simple feature in distilling enables 
the refiners to get 75 per cent, or more of burning oil from the crude 
petroleum instead of the 45 per cent, of a normal fractional distilla- 
tion, while producing a residuum which can be advantageously dis- 
tilled for paraffin oils. 

The proper control of the acid and alkali treatment of the crude 
distillates, the change from the old forms of presses for paraffin scale 
to the modern filter press, the introduction of bone-black filtration 
for reduced oils and residuums all contributed to develop and ex- 
pand enormously the several parts of the industry to which they 
were applied. With these improvements in large scale methods 
went the inauguration of improved testing and analytical methods, 
so that uniformity of product so essential for sound business develop- 
ment was secured. 

Let us turn now to the newer evidence of the work of the chemi- 
cal engineer in the way of conservation as illustrated in this same 
industry. The collection and utilization for fuel purposes of the 
uncondensed gas from the distillation of crude oil is one of the 
important economies that has been generally adopted. The working 
up of the sludge-acid and recovery of not only sulphuric acid but 
of valuable side-products is now a feature of the larger refineries. 
The introduction of clay filtration to improve the quality of the 
heavier grades of oils is an important advance as well as a step of 
economy. The production of gas oils from the less valuable crude oils 
has also become an important industry, as these are of great value 
for gas-making and gas-enriching. The more thorough utilization 



Am, M J a°y, r i9w arm *} Conservation and Chemical Engineer. 235 

of residues is also a feature of recent years. From these residues 
are now made excellent road oils for the aid of the good roads move- 
ment. The petroleum pitch is all utilized also, partly for electric 
light carbons and partly for fuel purposes. Most promising of all. 
however, is the result, not as yet fully attained, but most certain of 
solution in the immediate future, viz., the utilization of crude petro- 
leum of the lesser valuable kinds and residuums in internal com- 
bustion engines for the development of power. 

A second typical industry is that of coal distillation. We have 
already spoken of the wastage in the mining of coal. It is not neces- 
sary here to speak of the corresponding waste in its utilization as 
fuel. We will speak solely of the distillation of coal. This treat- 
ment may be carried out from either one of two points of view, and 
the exploitation in each case has been pushed with great energy, 
utilizing all available chemical and engineering skill. The first is 
the distillation for the manufacture of illuminating gas. While 
the mechanical side of this process has advanced steadily, particu- 
larly after the introduction of regenerative firing and mechanical 
stoking, the chemical side did not advance so rapidly. While the 
coal-tar is no longer thrown away, unless it be in very isolated 
localities, the proper chemical utilization of this tar has lagged be- 
hind both in this country and in England. On the other hand, 
the true conservation of this valuable side-product and the develop- 
ment of its possibilities has advanced in a notable degree in Germany, 
the home of the coal-tar industry. Here the research chemist 
and the chemical engineer have gone hand in hand in the building 
up of a great industry or rather two industries based upon the 
utilization of the coal-tar, the manufacture of the coal-tar dye colors, 
and the manufacture of synthetic medical preparations possessing 
valuable therapeutic characteristics. Besides these most important 
and highly developed illustrations of conservation, we have, how- 
ever, some minor utilizations of coal-tar or products from the same 
that deserve mention. Thus the manufacture of creosote oils for 
the preservative treatment of wood, the roofing-pitch and tar-paper 
manufacture and the use of pitch in the biquetting of coal are illus- 
trations of value given to the coal-tar and its products. 

The thorough extraction of the ammonia and the impurities 
like the cyanides from the ammoniacal liquor and the production of 
commercially valuable products from them is, moreover, an accom- 
plishment in the way of conservation. The utilization, too, of the 



236 Conservation and Chemical Engineer. { Am, ^ ur i 9 I [o arm " 

gas carbon for the manufacture of electrode carbons, battery plates 
and for electric light carbons is another illustration of this work. 

The second method of distilling coal is that for the production of 
coke for metallurgical purposes. This has been developed or more 
properly exploited to such a degree that, according to the " Mineral 
Resources of the United States," published by the U. S. Geological 
Survey, the production of coke for the year 1907 was 40,779,564 tons, 
of which, however, 35,171,665 tons were produced in beehive ovens. 
In these as is well known, only the fixed carbon of the bituminous 
coal is saved and all volatile constituents including gas, tar, and 
ammonia are absolutely wasted. On the other hand, 5,607,899 tons 
of coke were produced in by-product recovery ovens and the value of 
the by-products (gas, tar, and ammonia) obtained therefrom amounted 
to $7,548,071. It is easy to reckon from this what the loss was 
on the 35,171,665 tons of coke made in beehive ovens. In fact, the 
article on " Coal," in Bulletin 394 before referred to< says with 
reference to this, " at the prices which prevailed in 1907, the value 
of the by-products wasted in beehive coke-ovens was a little over 
$55,000,000." 

But the result achieved by the chemical engineer in the working 
of this by-product over represents more than merely saving certain 
by-products. The gas produced can be separated by the perfect 
control of the method into " poor gas " for fuel purposes and " rich 
gas " for illuminating purposes, so that the highest economy or 
conservation of values is thereby attained. 

Another industry in which the chemical engineer has worked 
first for the purpose of exploitation and later for conservation of 
material and values is the starch industry. Starch, as we all know, 
is one of the most widely distributed vegetable products and has 
always played a great part in the world's supply of food. In 
Europe, it is potato and wheat starch, in the United States it is corn 
starch, and in tropical countries it is rice, tapioca, sago, etc., that are 
the important varieties of this cereal food. Not only has the produc- 
tion of starch been developed, however, for food purposes, but enor- 
mous quantities of the starchy substances serve as the starting point 
in the fermentation industries. Then we have the -use of both 
starch and its alteration product, dextrine, in the textile industries 
and the production of glucose as the product of the hydrolysis of 
starch, and the manufacture of nitro-starch and its utilization in the 
explosives industry. All of these industries have attained a high 



Am "i\my r 'i9io arm '} Conservation and Chemical Engineer. 237 

degree of perfection by the application to them of a chemical under- 
standing of the nature of starch and its alteration products and the 
devising of processes by which the several reaction changes could 
be carried out with exactness and economy. What that means as 
applied to one single branch of the starch industry, those of us who 
had the opportunity on the occasion of our meeting last June to go 
through the works of the Corn Products Company at Edgewater, 
N. J., can appreciate. The glucose production of the United States 
in 1907 is stated to have been 800,000 tons, requiring 40,000,000 
bushels of corn as raw material. But besides the production of the 
solid grape-sugar and the liquid glucose for a great variety of uses, 
the separation of the germ of the corn from the starchy portion has 
made possible the production on a large scale of corn-oil, a product 
adapted for a wide range of uses — from soap making to the manu- 
facture of rubber substitute. 

Turning now to inorganic chemistry for an illustration, we have 
a splendid example of the work of the chemical engineer in the 
direction of conservation in the case of the natural and artificial 
nitrate industry, to which latter the Germans have already given the 
expressive name of " air-salpetre." The great source of nitrate 
for forty or more years past has been the deposits on the west coast 
of South America, furnishing the so-called Chili salpetre or sodium 
nitrate. This has been drawn upon increasingly until in 1908 the 
quantity shipped was 1,730,000 tons, valued at $87,500,000. But 
the Chilean deposits are far from being inexhaustible. It is esti- 
mated that if the annual consumption increases merely by 50,000 
tons, and this is to be reasonably expected, from thirty to forty 
years will see the practical exhaustion of this supply. So in 1899, 
Sir Wm, Crookes startled the industrial world by calling attention, 
in what the newspaper men would call a " scare-article," to the nitro- 
gen problem and the necessity of maintaining a supply of nitrogenous 
plant food if the world's food requirements were to be met. Crookes 
pointed out the way of relief when he said "the fixation of atmos- 
pheric nitrogen is one of the greatest discoveries awaiting the in- 
genuity of chemists. It is certainly deeply important in its practical 
bearings on the future welfare and happiness of the civilized races 
of mankind." The chemical engineer has responded nobly to this 
demand for conservation of available nitrogenous material by the 
working out of practical methods for the manufacture of what we 
called " air-salpetre." It must not be supposed, however, that 
success was easily obtained. 



238 Conservation and Chemical Engineer. { Am - M J a ° u r i 9 io arm ' 

Not only were the usual experimental difficulties to be overcome 
but, as Prof. Bernthsen has well shown in his address before the 
London International Congress of Applied Chemistry in May last, 
there are theoretical difficulties of the most serious kind standing 
in the road of ready fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen 
in the form of nitrogen oxides convertible into nitrates. So it 
happened that the first large enterprise of this kind, the process of 
the Atmospheric Products Company, established at Niagara Falls, 
had to be given up as commercially unavailable. This was followed 
by the Birkeland and Eyde process, started in Norway with the 
cheapest water power to be found, and this is still in successful 
operation. A few years later (in 1905) the Schonherr process was 
worked out by the Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik, also using 
Norwegian water power and still later the Pauling process at Gelsen- 
kirchen, near Innsbruck, in Tyrol. The Schonherr process seems 
to be the most successful. 

It produces a 40 per cent, nitric acid, calcium nitrate, or calcium 
or sodium nitrite, according as the absorption part of the process is 
modified. All of the processes mentioned require the cheapest elec- 
trical energy, which can only be developed by cheap water power, 
and thus far best developed in Norway. Prof. Bernthsen states, how- 
ever, that probably within a few years the annual output of calcium 
nitrate or " air-salpetre " will reach 100,000 tons. As this involves 
first the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, and second the use of 
" white coal," as water power is sometimes fancifully called, it is a 
true lesson in conservation of natural resources, especially as it also 
enables us to replace a rapidly disappearing natural product. 

Closely related to this recently developed inorganic industry of 
air-salpetre is the slightly older one of calcium carbide and its off- 
shoot the cyanamide or " nitrolime " industry. With the production 
of calcium carbide in the electric furnace in 1892 by Willson and the 
publication of Moissan's work on the electric furnace in 1894, sprang 
into existence a great industry, as the acetylene gas lighting made 
possible thereby had great advantages. Isolated lighting plants, 
acetylene lamps for automobiles and carriages, luminous buoys and 
signals, a new material for lampblack manufacture, and other utiliza- 
tions all were rapidly developed. The perfecting of the furnaces 
and the process for this manufacture of carbide enlisted the atten- 
tion of electrical and chemical engineers and at the present time 
the world's production of calcium carbide is estimated to be about 



Am *3{ay r i£o arm '} Conservation and Chemical Engineer. 239 

200,000 metric tons per annum, largely in countries like Norway, 
Italy, and Switzerland where cheap water power is available, as well 
as in the United States at Niagara Falls and Sault St. Marie. This 
production, however, for the time being outran the demand for 
carbide for acetylene lighting. 

Relief from over-production by finding new outlets and utiliza- 
tions is always to be preferred to closing of works already in opera- 
tion, so chemical engineers have found new possibilities for calcium 
carbide. By far the most important of these is the production from 
calcium carbide of calcium cyanamide by the action of nitrogen gas, 
as worked out by Drs. Frank and Caro. We have here an exother- 
mic reaction in which nitrogen is absorbed by the carbide with the 
production of calcium cyanamide and carbon. This takes place at a 
temperature of from 8oo° to 1000 C, much below that needed for 
the carbide manufacture. Not only can all the nitrogen of this 
cyanamide be converted into ammonia by decomposition with steam, 
but it is gradually decomposed by the chemical and bacteriological 
constituents of the soil into ammonia, which becomes fixed by the 
vegetable mould and is so held. The cyanamide is also convertible 
into calcium cyanide by melting with fluxes, into dicyandiamide for 
dye-color manufacture, into urea, guanidine, and other hitherto 
relatively expensive organic compounds. The dicyandiamide is 
already used as a " deterrent " in smokeless powder manufacture, 
reducing the temperature of the explosion without diminishing ex- 
plosive force, and the crude calcium cyanamide with certain fluxes 
under the name of " ferrodur " is employed for case-hardening of 
iron and steel. 

The statement is made that the works for the manufacture of 
" nitrolime " now in operation or in course of construction have 
a capacity of 166,000 tons per year. 

The illustrations of conservation, whether from the point of 
view of better utilization of materials, or the production of new 
and varied products, or the recovery of what were waste products, 
could be greatly extended did time allow. 

We might refer to the way in which sulphur recovery has 
been worked out in the alkali industry, or to the manganese recovery 
in connection with the chlorine production from manganese dioxide, 
so that " recovered manganese " is to-day a most valuable article 
of commerce. Or we might note the saving resulting from the 
manufacture of reclaimed rubber, but these and similar illustrations 



240 Conservation and Chemical Engineer. { A ^^ r iSS!' m ' 

of the conservation theme as influenced by the work of the chemical 
engineer will have to be passed by for the present. 

That there are numerous problems as yet unsolved of equal and 
possibly greater importance than some of these discussed will also 
be conceded by those possessing even a moderate acquaintance with 
chemical industries. 

One of these problems, for instance, is the recovery of the 
valuable constituents of the waste liquor of the sulphite wood-pulp 
process. A German authority states that every litre of this waste 
liquor contains 120 Gms. of organic material as against 10 to 15 Gms. 
of mineral substance. Dr. A. Frank estimated that in 1904 there 
was wasted in this way in Germany 300 million kilogrammes of 
organic material, concerning which we know that it has value in 
several directions. In this country, the sulphite wood-pulp process 
has also an extensive development and the same waste liquor is run 
off into our streams. 

A somewhat different problem, but one of even greater impor- 
tance, is the loss of valuable metals in smelter smoke and fumes. 
The American production of bismuth is not over 10,000 lbs. a year 
and considerable amounts of bismuth and bismuth compounds are 
imported every year. Yet it is estimated in the forthcoming report 
of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1908 that 880 lbs. of bismuth 
per day are being thrown off in the smoke of the great Washoe 
smelter at Anaconda, Mont., and with this also go copper, lead, zinc, 
arsenic, and other mineral products. One way of saving much of 
this lost material is pointed out in noting that the replacing of 
smelting methods by electrolytic methods, possible in some cases, 
allows these metals to be recovered from .the deposited slimes. 

In conclusion, let us emphasize the fact that our chemical indus- 
tries need not merely development or exploitation, but if they are 
to continue to flourish as we are drawn more and more into inter- 
national competition they must have the newest and best results 
of chemical research applied by the experienced chemical engineer. 
New and better materials must be sought, better processes evolved, 
economies effected at all possible stages, and waste products care- 
fully looked after. The most successful chemical industries in the 
world, which show the highest scientific and technical development 
and which are steadily expanding and throwing out branches, are 
those of the great German chemical companies. Organizations like 
the Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik, which have by their employ- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
May, 1910. f 



Abstracts of Chemical Theses. 



241 



ment of both research chemists and chemical engineers effected in- 
dustrial revolutions, one after the other, like the introduction of 
artificial indigo, the contact sulphuric-acid manufacture, and last of 
all the production of air-salpetre or artificial nitric acid and nitrates, 
are those which reap the rich commercial rewards and for the reason 
that they have done the work and earned them. The hope of a suc- 
cessful American chemical industry lies in the same direction. 



ABSTRACTS OF THESES ON CHEMICAL SUBJECTS.* 
By J. W. Ehman. 

Phenyl Salicylate (R. J. Wotring). — Chiefly a study of the 
liquefaction of mixtures of salol with other substances. Salol and 
menthol may be mixed in the proportion of one molecular weight of 
the former to three of the latter, also in the proportion of three to 
two molecules to form a dry powder ; two molecules salol to three 
menthol produce a damp powder and equal molecules of each 
liquefy. 

Salol and camphor in different proportions produce either pasty 
mixtures or liquids. 

Salol with either phenacetine, antipyrin, or salicylic acid will 
result in dry powders, but the addition of a small amount of camphor 
to either mixture will cause liquefaction. Salicylic acid with camphor 
alone forms a dry powder. 

Three molecules of salol to one of thymol or one of salol to three 
of thymol form pasty mixtures ; in other proportions they liquefy. 

Either one or three molecules of salol to two of chloral hydrate 
form moist powders, but in other proportions dry mixtures result. 

Salol and resorcinol in different proportions form dry powder. 
With acetanilid a dry mixture results, but the addition of antipyrin 
causes liquefaction. 

Either beta-naphthol, pyrogallol, or sodium salicylate mixed with 
salol results in dry mixtures. While salol with either antipyrin or 
resorcinol forms dry powder, when all three are mixed a pasty mass 
results. 



* The experimental work embodied in these theses was performed in the 
chemical laboratory of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



242 Abstracts of Chemical Theses. { Am ^°%iS arm ' 

Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid (A. A. Piatt). — In view of 
the time required in its preparation and the poor keeping qualities of 
the diluted acid, it is recommended that it be prepared when required 
by simply diluting the strong acid. Six samples were obtained in 
drug stores, and assayed for free chlorine, One sample, known to 
have been prepared within a few days, assayed 1.542 per cent. CI; 
the others from 0.257 to 0.514 per cent., average 0.334 per cent. 

Experiments were made to ascertain the effects of heat in hasten- 
ing the preparation of the acid. The reaction appeared to be com- 
plete in ten or fifteen minutes, and, after dilution, assayed the same 
percentage of free CI as an acid made in the usual way and allowed 
to stand for twenty-four hours before dilution, namely, 1.5 to 2 per 
cent. The freshly made diluted acid deteriorated rapidly on stand- 
ing in a warm place exposed to light. 

Diluted nitrohydrochloric acid made by diluting some specimens 
of the strong acid obtained from drug stores assayed from 1.565 
per cent, to 5.5 per cent, free CI. 

Some Points of Difference between Gum and Wood Tur- 
pentine (S. S. Jacobs). — Specific gravity and refractive index pre- 
sented no essential difference. As to optical rotation, either gum or 
wood turpentine may rotate to the right or left, depending upon its 
source. In carrying out fractional distillation the chief point of 
difference appears to be that oil from the gum ceases to distil at 
165 C, while the wood variety continues to distil up to 185 C, 
leaving in either case a very small residue. The specific gravity, 
optical rotation, and refractive index of the different fractions were 
too variable for definite conclusions to be drawn therefrom. The 
only distinctive difference between the fractions of the two varieties 
appears to be the characteristic odor peculiar to each. 

Sulphurated Lime (P. M. Davis.) — Of five samples assayed, 
only one, taken from a sealed package obtained from a wholesale 
house, contained as much as 55 per cent, calcium sulphide. The 
author experienced great . difficulty in preparing a satisfactory 
sample from commercial calcium sulphate, but had no difficulty 
when a chemically pure sulphate was used. 

Stramonium (H. W. Eakle). — Leaves were collected from 
plants, full grown but before flowering, others from plants after 
flowering but before deterioration, and others were obtained in the 
wholesale market with time of collection not stated. Tinctures were 
prepared from the recently dried leaves and were then assayed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1910. J 



Correspondence. 



243 



The first specimen assayed 0.0176 per cent, mydriatic alkaloids, the 
second 0.02048 per cent., and the third 0.0324 per cent. 

Zinc Stearate (C. E. Hoffman). — Of four samples examined, 
two on ignition left a residue of 15.5 per cent., one 11.4 per cent., 
and the fourth 9 per cent. The stearic acid liberated from the third 
had a melting point of 6o° C. and that from the fourth was yellow 
in color and melted at 72 C. 

A sample prepared from zinc acetate and soap met the require- 
ments of the U.S. P. A sample prepared by forming a soda soap 
with the stearic acid and treating this with zinc sulphate produced 
a satisfactory preparation. 

Tincture of Iodine (Ernest A. Noedel). — Analyses of seven 
samples of tincture of iodine obtained in Philadelphia and vicinity. 
Iodine per 100 c.c. ranged from 4.522 Gm. to 7.172 Gm., average 
6.455 Gm. One specimen, that containing the lowest amount of 
iodine, contained no potassium iodide. The others contained from 
4.08 Gm. to 5.16 Gm. KI per 100 c.c, average 4.67 Gm. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

A CORRECTION. 

To the Editor, American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Please note, that in the article about " Solubility of Alkaloids, 
etc./' published in the last issue of your paper, there is a typo- 
graphical error. Instead of " quinine /n-drophosphite " it should 
read " quinine %/>ophosphite." The first named combination, of 
course, does not exist, and the error ought to be corrected. 

Very truly yours, 

George I. Schaefer. 

April 22, 19 10. 



244 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. ■j Am 'May r 'i9 P io arm ' 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the College was held March 28 at 4 
p.m. in the Library. The President, Howard B. French, presided. 
The minutes of the quarterly meeting held January 4, were read 
and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees for Decem- 
ber 7, 1909, January 4, and February 1, 19 10, were read by the 
Registrar, and approved. 

The President delivered his annual address, from which the 
following items of information are abstracted. 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The condition of the property in general is very good, numerous 
repairs having been made during the year. The internal telephone 
system has been repaired, the push buttons having been removed 
and replaced by a switchboard, so that the phones are now in first 
class order. The chemical lecture room which lacked proper ven- 
tilation has been remedied by placing an electric fan in the southeast 
corner, which has proved very successful in securing proper ven- 
tilation. The hot-house has been completed, and the Professor of 
Botany and his assistants have added a small addition to it. 

The hot-house has been of material advantage in enabling the 
Professor of Botany to carry over during the winter about 150 
interesting economic plants. These have been used as exhibits dur- 
ing the lectures, and have proven of great advantage to the students, 
enabling them to familiarize themselves with plants yielding official 
drugs. The Professor has in addition also had access to one of 
the largest hot-houses near the city, enabling him to exhibit plants 
of unusual interest to the students. 

The Course in Operative Pharmacy has been unusually success- 
ful. The time given to laboratory work has been doubled in the 
Third Year Course, and nearly so in the First Year Course. The 
Special Course in Dispensing has also been materially increased. 

The Course in Commercial Training has been of unusual in- 
terest, a number of lectures by men actively engaged in commercial 
pursuits having been given. 



Am Ma°v, r i9 P iS arm *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 245 

There is an increase of 40 students over the preceding year. 
In the Chemical Laboratory 85 students from the three classes have 
been doing individual work, and 29 third year students are doing- 
thesis work. There have been 26 students in Special Chemistry, 
four of whom felt themselves sufficiently qualified to take positions 
of profit, and 44 other students are taking special courses. 

During the year six active members have died, in the death of 
two of whom the College has sustained more than an ordinary loss, 
viz., Mahlon N. Kline and Thomas S. Wiegand. 

The continued activity of the Alumni Association is much ap- 
preciated and highly commended. At the reunion of the Alumni 
Association held last May the Class of 1884 presented to the College 
a weather observatory barometer, which is to be followed shortly 
'by an aneroid barometer. They also established a Memorial 
Scholarship. 

In conclusion the President expresses his appreciation of the 
efforts of all who have actively co-operated with him, and hopes 
that the members, the Faculty, and others interested in the pros- 
perity and advancement of the College, will work together in con- 
cord and harmony, having but one purpose in view, and that is, 
the success of the College. 

The address was attentively listened to and at its close was 
warmly applauded. 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings. — The meetings 
have been held regularly during the year, various members presid- 
ing. A number of the members presented papers or addresses and 
participated in the discussions, and quite a number of others, not 
members, several of whom were from other cities, also presented 
papers and took part in the discussions. The minutes have been 
regularly published in the American Journal of Pharmacy and 
reports have been furnished the leading drug journals. 

Professor Kraemer, who has acted as Secretary of the Com- 
mittee on Pharmaceutical Meetings for the past ten years, submitted 
the following letter : 

According to Article XI of the By-Laws of the College, " A recorder 
shall be elected annually at the Pharmaceutical Meeting in May to issue the 
notices, prepare business, and record the proceedings of these meetings, and 



246 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Mm. Jour, pharm. 

*^ ^ ivLiiv, iyiu. 

to make selections therefrom for publication in the Journal." While I 
am willing to act as recorder or secretary up until the meeting in May, 
I desire to be relieved of this work, and that another recorder be selected 
at that time. I am not clear from the By-Law whether it is necessary for 
the recorder to be a member of the Committee or not. 

I am willing to serve on the Committee, but desire to be relieved of 
the details and responsibilities of the work, particularly as the meetings 
come at a time when I have class- work, and make this statement at this 
time in order that it may be properly considered. 

I may say that while the meetings are not as well attended by the 
members of the College as they might be, they are a source of great strength 
to the College, and must serve to stimulate all our members who read the 
printed reports of them, and besides serve to attract and interest others 
who are not members of the College. 

In conclusion, I may say that it would indeed be unfortunate if these 
meetings should ever be discontinued or fail to be conducted on the high 
plane which has characterized them from the time of their inception. 

Respectfully yours, 

Henry Kraemek. 

Publication Committee. — The American Journal of 
Pharmacy has been issued regularly during the year. There is an 
increase in the amount received from advertisers and quite an 
increase in the amount received from subscribers. This is a gratify- 
ing feature, showing that with the advances in pharmacy and allied 
lines, the Journal is coming to be more appreciated, particularly 
by analytical workers. 

Editor's Reporiv — As a result of the activity of the members of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, particularly in the 
various branches of the association, and also in the various State 
pharmaceutical associations, some of the best papers that have been 
contributed to American pharmacy have appeared in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy during the past year. Some 61 papers 
have been published, including seventeen on analytical-chemical sub- 
jects, five on strictly pharmaceutical subjects, twenty-seven on 
Pharmacopceial matters and related subjects, others on pharmacog- 
nosy, pharmacology, biological subjects, besides biographical and 
memorial articles. In addition 33 book reviews were published, as 
also reports of the annual meetings of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, the American Medical Association, the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association, the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference, the Twelfth International Congress on Alcoholism, the 
Sixteenth International Medical Congress, and other associations. 



Am '3Lu Ur i9 P io arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 247 

The quarterly review of the progress in pharmacy continues to 
reflect the advances abroad as well as in this country. 

Curator's Report. — The Museum is in good condition and 
has received a number of donations during the year, the following 
being the donors: Howard B. French, Charles H. LaWall, M. 1. 
Wilbert, Smith, Kline and French Co., D. H. Hage, James P. 
Lengel, and E. H. Gane. The historical and general collections are 
growing in number and importance and soon additional case-room 
will be required. 

Acknowledgments of having received certificates of election to 
honorary membership were received from Surgeon-General Walter 
Wyman and Professor O. A. Oesterle. 

The members went into executive session at 4.30 p.m. and con- 
tinued in session till 5 p.m., when the following appointments were 
announced by the President : 

Delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association : 
Joseph P. Remington, F. E. Stewart. O. W. Osterlund. William 
Mclntyre, and William L. ClirTe. 

Delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation : C. B. Lowe, William E. Lee, William Mclntyre, Charles 
H. LaWall, H. L. Stiles, Joseph P. Remington, F. P. Stroup. 
Jacob M. Baer, Theodore Campbell, and Charles Leedom. 

Delegates to the Xew Jersey Pharmaceutical Association : 
George M. Beringer, C. B. Lowe, Henry Kraemer, H. L. Stiles, 
and Theodore Campbell. 

Committee on By-laws: George M. Beringer, Joseph W. 
England, and C. A. Weidemann. 

The resignation of Theodore L. Gamble, associate member, was 
accepted. 

A letter was received from Mrs. Isadora E. Kline acknowledging 
the receipt of the " In Memoriam " resolutions on the death of 
her husband, Eirst Vice-president Mahlon N. Kline. 

Professor S. P. Sadtler presented to the College on behalf of 
the family of the late Rev. Dr. Schaeffer a very ancient hvdrometer 
— probably a century old — formerly used by Doctor William Ash- 
mead, a physician and druggist of Germantown. A vote of thanks 
was tendered the donors. 

The report of the Committee on Nominations was read. Messrs. 
Jacob M. Baer and Theodore Campbell were appointed tellers, who, 
after a ballot was taken, reported the election of Howard B. French, 



248 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. \ Km \f^\^ vm ' 

President; R. V. Mattison, First Vice-president; Joseph L. Lem- 
berger, Second Vice-president ; Richard M. Shoemaker, Treasurer ; 
A. W. Miller, Corresponding Secretary ; C. A. Weidemann, Record- 
ing Secretary ; Joseph W. England, Curator ; and Henry Kraemer, 
Editor. Trustees for three years: Samuel P. Sadtler, William L. 
ClifTe, Henry Kendall Mulford. Publication Committee: Samuel 
P. Sadtler, Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, Martin I. Wilbert, Miss Florence Yaple, and Charles H. La- 
Wall. Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings : Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, C. B. Lowe, Henry Kraemer, William L. ClirTe, William 
Mclntyre. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

ABSTRACTS FROM MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

January fourth, ipi 0. — Fourteen members were present. The 
Committee on Announcement reported that another issue of the 
Bulletin would soon be published ; and it was suggested that a 
brief outline of the activities of the College be published therein, 
also extracts from the special lectures being delivered in the College. 

February first, 10 10. — Fourteen members present. The Com- 
mittee on Property was authorized to have repairs made to the 
intercommunicating telephone system. A communication was read 
from the Athletic Association and they also submitted a petition 
favoring athletics, which had been signed by 405 students. A general 
discussion followed, many of the members strongly advocating that 
the Board of Trustees establish a Department of Athletics in the 
institution. The letter and petition were referred to a committee 
for their consideration and report at a future meeting. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

MARCH PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, March 15, 1910, at 3 p.m., Mr. W. 
L. ClifTe presiding. 

A paper by Dr. George L. Schaefer, chemist for the New York 
Quinine and Chemical Works, Ltd., on " Solubility of Alkaloids of 
Cinchona Bark and their Salts," was read, in the absence of the 



Am "May, r i9 P io arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 249 

author, by Freeman P. Stroup, Ph.G. (see April number of this 
Journal, p. 175). 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington said that there are several things 
to be considered in discussing a paper of this kind, and stated that 
there are a number of methods for determining solubilities, and 
that investigators find differences in the solubilities of chemicals 
due to the differences in methods. He advocated the establishment 
of standard methods for solubilities, melting points, and other con- 
stants. He also called attention to the various alkaloidal assay 
methods, and said that the Pharmacopoeia is specific in this respect, 
as, for example, under colchicum corm, where it is stated that the 
percentage of alkaloid is that obtained " when assayed by the process 
given below." The subject of solubilities was also discussed by 
Frederic Rosengarten and Messrs. Beringer and Cliff e. 

George M. Beringer, Ph.M., presented "'A Note on Cardamom 
and Oil of Cardamom " (see April number of this Journal, p. 167), 
and exhibited samples of the genuine oil which had been furnished 
him by different firms. 

In discussing this paper, Professor Remington asked what would 
be the advantage in introducing the oil of cardamom into* the 
National Formulary, and into what preparations it would enter? 
He said that cardamom is used on account of the flavor, and if the 
proposal was to replace the official cardamom fruit by the oil the 
preparations would not be as satisfactory to physicians. He stated 
that the essential oils are largely adulterated and prone to deteriora- 
tion, especially under the varying conditions under which they are 
kept in pharmacies throughout the country, and stated that it was 
on account of the deterioration of oils of lemon and orange that 
the fresh peel had been introduced into the Pharmacopoeia. 

Mr. Beringer stated that it was not the intention to replace 
cardamom fruit for use in the tincture, but to furnish an oil for 
elixirs in order that physicians might have a choice of these. He 
said that he had been manufacturing elixirs for twenty years in which 
cardamom oil was used in small quantities and in such manner as to 
give a blended flavor. Mr. Beringer stated that the keeping quality 
of the oil appeared to be well established, oils which he had kept 
for several years under favorable conditions, in a darkened closet, 
showing no perceptible change. 

J. J. Bridgeman, P.D., said that he had been using an oil of 
cardamom in prescription work which he knew to be at least four 



250 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. \ Am -^'i9w. Tm ' 

years old, and that it is still of good quality both as regards flavor 
and odor. 

William G. Toplis, Ph.G., presented a paper on " Rapid Sand 
Filtration Compared to Slow Sand Filtration" (see p. 227) and 
in this connection exhibited a model of a " sand valve,'' and demon- 
strated the chemical process involved in the purification of water 
by the use of alum. To show the practical efficiency of rapid sand 
filtration, Mr. Toplis also read a report on a bacteriological and 
chemical investigation which he had made of the operation of the 
filter plant recently installed at Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y., by 
Hungerford & Terry, Inc., of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Cliffe stated that in making milk of magnesia with the 
filtered water of either the Delaware or Schuylkill River, which 
is ordinarily clear, the preparation has a yellow color, and that the 
use of distilled water made the process an expensive one for the 
retail pharmacist. He then inquired of Mr. Toplis whether in his 
opinion the entire process outlined by him would render the water of 
such a degree of purity as to fit it for use in the making of milk 
of magnesia, which question Mr. Toplis answered in the affirmative. 
Otto W. Osterlund, P.D., spoke of the same difficulty, and stated 
that he had found it advisable to abandon the manufacture of milk 
of magnesia. 

Mr. Beringer stated that he makes hydrated oxide of bismuth 
by an inverted percolation process, which he said is in reality a 
process of dialysis. He remarked on the difficulty of removing the 
ammonia in the magma by decantation, stating that much less water 
is required by his process than in the official method, and that a 
constant layer of water can be kept above the magma until the 
process is completed by use of the dropping bottle. He stated, also, 
that he obviates the undue expense connected with the manufacture 
of this preparation by manufacturing his own distilled water. For the 
clarification of tap water he suggested the use of magnesium carbon- 
ate or light calcined magnesia as a filtering medium, and stated that 
sometimes the cloudy appearance of the tap water is due to a dis- 
turbance of the lining of the pipes. The speaker also pointed out 
that in the chemical examination of water, it. is desirable for the 
chemist to have a knowledge of the chemical purification undergone 
bv the water, as, otherwise, supposedly objectionable elements, such 
as chlorine, resulting from the purification, would be considered 
natural deleterious ingredients. 



Am '£v r 'i9i h o arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 251 

Others taking part in the discussion of this subject were Pro- 
fessor Remington and Messrs. Boring and Poley. 

A paper on " Echinacea and a Spurious Root That Appeared in 
the Fall of 1909 " by John Moser, Jr., P.D., was presented in abstract 
by Professor Kraemer, the author not being present (see p. 224). 

Mr. Toplis called attention to a method which he has been using 
in the making of syrup of ferrous iodide, in which the bright iron 
wire of the official formula is replaced by reduced iron, the syrup 
being of a beautiful green color. He stated that the reaction is 
very prompt, the time required for the combination of iron and iodine 
in quantities to give 500 c.c. of syrup being eight minutes, the rise 
in temperature during the reaction being 18 C„ and that the entire 
process may be completed within one hour. In order to overcome 
the generation of an excessive amount of heat in the making of larger 
quantities of syrup, Mr. Toplis suggested that a flask of ample pro- 
portions be used, that all of the iodine be added to the water first, 
and that the iron be added in small successive portions with vigorous 
agitation after each addition, which method, it was claimed, provides 
for the dissipation of the heat as rapidly as it is generated. 

The chairman directed attention to books, manuscripts, pharma- 
ceutical journals, including bound volumes of the American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy from 1854 to 1877, and some specimens of drugs 
and pharmaceutical preparations, which belonged to our late fellow 
member, J. B. Moore. Professor Kraemer stated that Mr. Francis 
B. Hays, of New York, had written him stating that he had obtained 
through the kindness of Mr. Moore's daughter, Mrs. H. H. Wat- 
kins, and son, Rev. J. J. Joyce Moore, both of Philadelphia, letters 
of the late Albert E. Ebert and Prof. John M. Maisch for the His- 
torical Section of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and also 
that they would be glad to make a similar disposal of the remainder 
of their father's pharmaceutical collection, and that, accordingly, he 
had procured the collection for the College. Of the books the follow- 
ing may be mentioned as of special interest : Richerand's Elements 
of Physiology, English translation, 1823 ; The American Dispensa- 
tory, by John Redman Coxe, M.D., 183 1 ; Jourdan's Pharmacopoeia 
Universalis, English translation, 1833 ; Notes of Lectures on the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine delivered at Jefferson Medical 
College by John Eberle, M.D., 1834; New Conversations on Chemis- 
try by Thomas P. Jones, M.D., 1839 ; Dial of the Seasons by Thomas 



252 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { Am 'M°y r i 9 ^ arm 

Fisher, 1845 ; Treatise on the Practice of Medicine by George B. 
Wood, 1849. 

A motion by Professor Remington, seconded by Professor 
Kraemer, heartily thanking Mrs. Watkins and the Rev. Mr. Moore 
for their generous donation, was adopted. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tern. 



PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 
To the Members of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation : 

On the 28th day of June next we hold our thirty-third annual 
meeting at Buena Vista Springs. 

The Membership Committee realize the importance of a large 
addition to our number this year. Other State associations have 
been going forward rapidly, and we feel that this should be our 
banner year, and there is no good reason why it should not be if 
every member would try to secure at least one new member. The 
coming year will be an important one in legislative matters. 

If every druggist could be informed touching what benefits he 
may derive by having our Legislative Committee look after our 
interests, he certainly would come to the conclusion that it is the 
best investment he makes (and to think, that only two dollars is all 
that he is required to pay). In addition — he has the proceedings 
forwarded him without additional cost — and it is self-evident that 
if he will read them carefully he will be very much benefited in many 
ways. 

No doubt you are well posted as to the text of this letter, but 
this is only a reminder from the committee as to what we feel is 
your duty to your brother druggist. 

We enclose herewith a copy of a circular letter, which the 
Executive Committee have sent to all non-members of the associa- 
tion in the State. A liuk mLcionary work on your part will materi- 
ally aid in bringing those in your State within the fold. Will you 
do it? 

Enclosed please find " blank application." If in need of more, 
write our Secretary, Mr. Heffner, or myself. 

Yours fraternally, 

Wm. E. Lee. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, i 9 io % 



SUGGESTED U.S. P. TESTS FOR GLYCERIN. 
By Thomas M. Starkie, Manager, William F. Jobbins, Incorporated. 

The Food and Drugs Act having adopted the Pharmacopoeia 
as the standard by which manufacturers must be governed, it is 
desirable and necessary that the Pharmacopoeia requirements should 
specify such definite, fixed limits of impurities, and tests for deter- 
mination thereof, as will avoid the possibility of contention between 
pharmacists and chemists, and in the commercial world, and the 
attention of the members of the Committee of Revision, meeting 
in Washington this month, is invited to the subject of Glycerin. 

Many of the tests set forth in the Pharmacopoeia, official at 
the present time, are indefinite and unreliable, and allow of so 
much possibility of contention, particularly by some pedantic analyst, 
that any glycerin could be claimed as failing to meet the require- 
ments of the Pharmacopoeia. It has been contended that in a 
general way the tests as given in the present Pharmacopoeia will, 
in the hands of an intelligent analyst, enable him to distinguish 
between a pure and an impure glycerin. Experience over a great 
many years in the glycerin business has shown that even the 
most intelligent and careful analysts will differ regarding the Phar- 
macopoeia tests for glycerin. 

Tests involving mixing with concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
heating glycerin with sulphuric acid and alcohol, should be aban- 
doned, inasmuch as they lead to varying results in different hands, 
and even when carried out with the greatest care may lead to 
wrong conclusions, and, also, such tests show no more than can 

(253) 



^54 Suggested VS. P. Tests for Glycerin. {^j^im**' 

be determined with greater definiteness from tests exactly stated. 
Tests involving treating glycerin with ammonia and silver salts, 
or with ammoniacal silver salts, and requiring heating with alkaline 
copper solutions, are unreliable, and likely to give erratic results in 
the hands of different analysts, and should be abandoned. Such 
requirements should obtain that will insure a quality of glycerin 
with only innocuous limits of impurities, and such as is contemplated 
by the Food and Drugs Act, and the necessary tests for the deter- 
mination of the purity of glycerin should be set forth in such 
language that there can be no erroneous conclusions, regardless 
of the measure of intelligence of the analyst, conceding always, 
of course, that the analyst must necessarily have such knowledge 
and ability in chemistry to make the tests. The requirements also 
should be such as will avoid any possibility of advantage to any 
dishonest refiner, by reason of tests that permit of any controversy 
or contention as to the meaning thereof. 

With such purpose in view it is suggested that taste and odor 
tests be eliminated, since two different individuals' senses of taste 
or smell are almost invariably widely different, one chemist some- 
times being of the opinion that there is a foreign taste or smell, 
while another equally careful and exacting chemist can detect 
neither, resulting in contention. 

Specifications are herewith submitted as requirements covering 
all possible impurities to be found in chemically pure glycerin: 

Specific gravity, not less than 1.249 at 25 C. (=95 per cent, 
glycerin). Factor of .00061 to be added for each degree of tem- 
perature below 25 C, between 15 and 25 C, at which gravity 
is determined. The gravity to be ascertained by picnometer, or 
by means of an accurate plummet (as employed with a Westphal 
specific gravity balance), suspended from the arm of an analytical 
balance sensitive to one-tenth milligramme. 

Carbonaceous residue, including mineral and carbonized organic 
impurities, not to exceed .01 per cent. Test : weigh 50 grammes 
of glycerin in a tared platinum dish, heat cautiously until it 
inflames upon direct application of fire (say from lighted match), 
then remove the source of heat (preferably Bunsen burner), and 
allow the glycerin to burn away in a place free from draught; 
transfer the dish to a desiccator, and weigh when cold. 

Ash, including chlorides, not to exceed .007 per cent. Test: 
incinerate the carbonaceous residue at a dull red heat until carbon 



Am j^fi£o am '} Suggest^ V.S.P, Tests for Glycerin. 255 

is entirely burned off; then transfer to a desiccator, and weigh 
when cold. 

Chlorides, not to exceed .001 per cent., figured as NaCl. Test : 
put the ash in 100 c.c. distilled water, add 2 or 3 drops of a cold, 
saturated solution of neutral chromate of potassium (K 2 Cr0 4 ) as 
indicator; then run in, from accurately calibrated burette, 'N/106 
silver nitrate volumetric solution till tinge of permanent red color 
appears; the c.c. of N/100 silver nitrate volumetric solution used, 
multiplied by .0005806 for each c.c, and then by 2, giving the 
percentage of chlorine as sodium chloride. 

Total acid equivalent, in terms of NaOH, not to exceed .02 per 
cent. Test : weigh 100 grammes of the glycerin, and dissolve in 
100 c.c. of distilled water. Use phenolphthalein solution as in- 
dicator. Run in 10 c.c. of N/10 NaOH solution (3.976 grammes 
of NaOH to 1 litre) from a burette, heat to boiling over Bunsen 
burner, and continue boiling for three or four minutes, then titrate 
with N/10 H 2 S0 4 solution (4.8675 grammes per litre) run in 
from a burette, until pink color just disappears. The NaOH 
solution used, less the H 2 S0 4 solution used, must not exceed 6 c.c. 
to neutralize. 

Arsenic not to exceed 1 part in 100,000; to be determined by 
the Gutzeit test, and 5 c.c. of a i-in-10 aqueous solution of the 
glycerin placed in a narrow-necked flask with 2 grammes of zinc, 
20 c.c. of hydrochloric acid (22.5 c.c. concentrated and 77.5 c.c. 
water). The flask is closed by a filter paper saturated with alcoholic 
solution of mercuric chloride, and dried. The neck of the flask 
contains a roll of cheese cloth impregnated with 10 per cent, 
lead acetate, to prevent any hydrogen sulphide from reaching the 
sensitive paper. The flask, 60-75 c - c -> should have a narrow neck, 
and the circle of paper exposed should be about 1 cm. in diameter. 
The action is allowed to continue until the greater part of the 
zinc is dissolved, and at that time the paper should not be stained 
a distinct yellow or orange. 

Silver nitrate test: An aqueous solution (2 c.c. of glycerin to 10 
c.c. of distilled water), with 5 c.c. of N/10 silver nitrate solution; 
the mixture shaken and placed in a dark place for 10 minutes may 
assume a slight pink or gray tinge, but must not turn red nor 
black, nor give a precipitate (limit of chlorides and impurities 
having reducing properties). 

Glycerin conforming to the above tests will insure such purity 



256 Progress in Pharmacy {^j^\$S? m ' 

as is necessary and desirable, and applicable for use in medicines, 
foods, or drugs, and are requirements which no honest refiner of 
glycerin can reasonably make objection to. 

The question of sugar adulteration was investigated about three 
years ago by the United States Department of Agriculture, prompted 
by the assertion that no American glycerin was obtainable that 
would not reduce Fehling's solution. The investigation led to 
finding that the glycerin of reputable American refiners did not 
reduce Fehling's solution. Sugar adulteration of glycerin, how- 
ever, has long since ceased to be practised, and the test with 
Fehling's solution is no longer employed, as sugar, if present, 
would increase the carbonaceous residue, and is, therefore, covered 
by the definite, fixed limits of carbonaceous residue in the proposed 
requirements. 

PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING LITERATURE 
RELATING TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

Pharmaceutical history has been materially augmented by the 
recent happenings, both in this country, as well as abroad, though 
the observer would be rash, indeed, who would attempt, at this 
early date, to designate which of the several happenings is destined 
to have the more far reaching influence on the progress of pharmacy 
at large. 

The annual meeting- of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, coming, as it did, immediately before the decennial meet- 
ing of the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, was unusually well 
attended and the members present appeared to take more than 
ordinary interest in the program that had been provided for their 
consideration. The general meetings of the Association as well 
as all of the sessions of the several sections were well attended, 
the papers presented were both numerous and meritorious and the 
discussions were, usually, much more interesting, certainly more 
comprehensive, than in former years. 

Pharmacopceial revision was freely discussed both in and out 
of meeting and at least several of the features of the meeting, 
in this connection, were unusually interesting and will undoubtedly 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1910. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



257 



prove to be of value in the coming revision of the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States. 

Among the more interesting features, bearing upon the revision 
of the Pharmacopoeia, were the discussion of the report of the 
A. Ph. A. Committee on the U.S. P. in the Section on Scientific 
papers and the symposium on foreign pharmacopoeias in the Section 
on Practical Pharmacy and Dispensing. 

These two events will probably be recognized by those present 
as being the more interesting, certainly the more influential, events 
of the week and it is unfortunate indeed that it will be impossible 
to reflect, in the printed report of the proceedings, the spirit and 
the earnestness manifested by those taking an active part in the 
discussion. 

The United States Pharmacopceial Convention, held in Wash- 
ington, May 10. 11, and 12, 1910, will undoubtedly be recorded 
in history as the beginning of a new era in matters pharmacopceial 
though the ultimate outcome, at the present time, is quite prob- 
lematical. 

It is perhaps unfortunate that the general medical practitioner 
and the teachers of clinical medicine and applied therapeutics in 
medical schools are not more liberally represented on the General 
Committee of Revision, though on the other hand it is a matter 
for congratulation to note that the new thought in pharmacal 
therapy, as represented by experimental pharmacology, is well 
represented ; no less than six members of the General Committee 
of Revision being directly interested in this line of work. 

Altogether it is fair to assert that the General Committee 
of Revision, despite the hit or miss fashion in which it was neces- 
sarily selected, is unusually well balanced and is fully representative 
of the interest manifested by the members or delegates present. 

Forecasting the possible outcome of the present revision an 
article on the U.S. P. (Drug. Circ, 1910, w. 54, p. 224) concludes: 

" It would appear that we have once more come to the parting 
of the ways, and that the delegates gathered at the decennial 
meeting of the United States Pharmacopceial Convention, on May 
10th of this year, must decide whether or not the United States 
Pharmacopoeia IX is to reflect the bright light of the morrow 
or the dim after-glow of the waning day. In other words, they 
must decide between the acceptance of knowledge, science and 
truth, or the retention of speculation, empiricism, and self-de- 



258 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am jSe r i£o arm " 

ception ; between a pharmacopoeia for the future along the lines 
laid down by the originators of the American Pharmacopoeia, or a 
book of standards for the thousand and one articles that have 
been and are being used as medicine without any definite knowledge 
of how or why. . . . Which will it be, a repetition of the stagnation 
evidenced in 1870, or of the progress recorded in 1880? The 
delegates present at the convention will decide, and the people at 
large will be benefited or injured by their decision to the extent 
to which it will foster or retard progress in the science of medicine.'' 
An editorial in the New York Medical Journal (May 14, 1910, 
p. 1020) commenting on the Pharmacopceial Convention, says in 
part: 

" The only important difference of opinion which arose in the 
Convention was regarding the scope of the Pharmacopoeia. In 
discussing the principles laid down by the Convention for the 
guidance of the Committee of Revision some of the members of 
the Convention desired to limit the scope of the Pharmacopoeia 
so as to make it available as a text book, while others wished 
to widen its scope so as to include all medicinal substances in 
general use, whether of approved therapeutic value or not. While 
the recommendation to the Committee of Revision was . general 
in character, its purport was in favor of widening of the scope. 
The Convention took the ground that the extent to which a drug 
was used was a safer criterion of its availability for introduction 
into the Pharmacopoeia than the expression of expert opinion re- 
garding its therapeutic value. Consequently the use rather than 
the therapeutic value of a drug will be taken as a guide by the 
committee regarding admissions and deletions. 

" The election of Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief of the Bureau 
of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
and charged in his official capacity with the enforcement of the 
Food and Drugs Act, to the presidency of the Convention gives 
assurance of complete harmony between the Government and the 
Committee of Revision. The substitution in this office of a chemist 
and government official for a physician and therapeutist may be 
taken as indicative of the change in the status of the Pharmacopoeia 
from that of a purely academic pronouncement to a book of legal 
standards." 

The general principles adopted by the Convention for the 
guidance of the Committee of Revision are well worthy careful 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



259 



consideration on the part of those interested in the revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia and to many at least these general principles would 
appear to leave the responsibility for the scope and content of 
the Pharmacopoeia as well as many of the details of the revision 
entirely with the Committee of Revision. 

One of the more important of these principles, No. 14, refers to 
publicity and recommends that : The general Committee of Re- 
vision be authorized to make public for comment and criticism an 
abstract of standards and tests before final adoption. 

The value of preliminary publication of proposed pharmacopceial 
standards is well illustrated by the discussion that has been aroused 
in German and English Pharmaceutical Journals, through the pre- 
liminary publication of proposed changes in the German and 
British Pharmacopoeias. In Great Britain the publication of the 
monographs proposed for the Ph. Brit. V. has been followed by 
a full and free discussion of the several proposed requirements 
and the resulting information that has been offered will, no doubt, 
be of advantage to the editors of this particular portion of the 
Ph. Brit. 

An editorial ( Chem. & Drug., Lond., 1910, March 26, p. 64) 
in discussing the prior publication of the proposed pharmacopceial 
monograph for essential oils points out that this is the first time 
that this course has been attempted in connection with the Ph. 
Brit., and commends the move as being one in the right direction, 
despite the fact that it still remains to be proved how far the new 
method will meet the wants of the case. There can be no two 
opinions about the fact that it is a rational experiment devised for 
the good of all interested. 

Ph. Germ. V. — A list of the proposed changes to be made in 
the German Pharmacopoeia is published in the Pharm. Zeitg. (1910, 
v. 55, p. 177). The changes include admissions, deletions, changes 
in the Latin title, and a number of changes in the requirements 
for the several articles. 

An editorial (Pharm. Zeitg., Berlin, 1910, v. 55, p. 269) com- 
menting on the changes proposed for the new edition of the 
German Pharmacopoeia, points out that the proposed additions in- 
clude 63 separate titles and 12 general headings. Among these 
63 titles are 17 substitute preparations, 2 new oils, and 5 new 
drugs. The number of articles proposed for deletion amounts to 
32, so that the new Pharmacopoeia will include in round numbers 



260 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1910. 



40 additional titles. Even with this addition the German Phar- 
macopoeia will contain fewer medicaments than the majority of 
other foreign pharmacopoeias. This is considered as evidence of 
the scientific development of medicine in Germany. 

The following titles proposed for the corresponding trade names 
will illustrate the difficulties that confront the prospective user of 
the Ph. Germ. V.: 



Paraminobenzoyldiaethylaminoaethanolum hydrochloricum Novocaine 

Benzoylaethyldimethylaminopropanolum hydrochloricum Stovaine 

Tropacocainum hydrochloricum Tropacocaine 

Trimethylbenzoxypiperidinum hydrochloricum ..B. Eucaiue 

Aethylmorphinum hydrochloricum Dionin 

Diacetylmorphinum hydrochloricum Heroin 

Acidum acetylo-salicylicum _ Aspirin 

Pyrazolonum phenyldimethylicum salicylicum Salipyrine 

Pyrazolonum dimethylaminophenyldimethylicum Pyramidon 

Natrium Arsanilicum Atoxyl 



Some criticism has been aroused in Germany by the proposed 
use of the full chemical name for the new additions to the German 
Pharmacopoeia. It is proposed, for instance, that in place of the 
chemical name for novocaine the name aethamin be used, and 
for stovaine the name propamin {Pharm. Ztg., Berlin, 1910, v. 55, 
p. 270). 

J. Prescher, in a communication to Pharm. Zentralh., 1910, v. 
51, p. 288, discusses the nomenclature of the haloid salts of sodium, 
ammonium, calcium and magnesium in the Ph. Germ., and points 
out that " chloratum " has been and is likely to continue to be 
mistaken for the designation frequently used for the " ic " salts 
of the same elements. 

New Italian Pharmacopoeia. — An editorial (Chem. & Drug., 
London, 19 10, Feb. 26, p. 327) commenting on the new Italian 
Pharmacopoeia, shows that in certain directions tests are adapted 
to the requirements of the average pharmacist rather than to 
please the analytical specialist. 

Servian Pharmacopoeia. — The recently published " Pharma- 
copoeia Serbica. Edito secunda," embodies several interesting in- 
novations. To overcome the criticism that deleted articles are no 
longer subject to any official requirements it is provided that 
when an article not official in the second edition but described in 
the first edition of the Servian Pharmacopoeia is prescribed by a 



Am. Jour. Pkarin. 
June, 1910. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



physician the article, as dispensed, must comply with the require- 
ments laid down in the former edition of the Pharmacopoeia. The 
provisions of the Brussels Conference are closely adhered to. 
Physical and chemical tests have been added. Patented chemicals 
are introduced and described under their chemical titles (Pharm. 
Post, 1910, v. 43, p. 169). 

Pharmacopceial Comments. — The following abstract from an 
editorial (Pharm. J. } London, 1910, v. 30, p. 510) serves as an 
illustration of the interest taken abroad in every thing pertaining 
to pharmacopceial revision : 

" As an example of thoroughness in the department to which 
it specially applies Bulletin No. 58 of the Hygienic Laboratory 
of the United States is probably unequalled anywhere. . . . Even 
a casual perusal of this volume will quickly convince the reader 
that 'a maximum amount of disinterested information ' has been 
collocated in a manner which may well serve as an example to 
older countries. The status of the U.S. P. as the official standard 
for determining the purity and strength of widely used medicaments 
could not be maintained on better material than is to be found 
in this digest, for the compilation of which the pharmaceutical and 
chemical literature of the whole civilized world has been ran- 
sacked in a way which, one is almost compelled to think, can 
only be done in America. The compilers having hit upon what is 
undoubtedly the right way to go about it, have apparently left no 
leaf unturned in their efforts to find material which in any way 
dealt critically with official articles. . . . International standards 
are fully considered in twenty-two pages, while the remaining 411 
pages are taken up with comments on official articles drawn from 
all available sources, and which for the most part constitute the 
material with which the compilers may make or mar their National 
Pharmacopeia." 

International Congress. — The International Pharmaceutical 
Congress, to be held in Brussels from September 1 to 5, 19 10, is 
attracting considerable attention abroad, particularly in Germany 
and France. 

At a recent meeting of the German Pharmaceutical Society, 
held in Berlin, the several propositions that have been submitted 
were discussed at some length. The desirability of greater uni- 
formity in the strength of test solutions and in the method of 



262 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



using them as directed in the several pharmacopoeias was par- 
ticularly emphasized. 

Alkaloidal Content of Solanaceous Plants. — T. Chevalier 
(Comptes rend, 1910, v. 150, p. 344) points out that the generally 
accepted statement that wild belladonna is richer in total alkaloid 
than the cultivated plant would appear to require modification. 
A series of cultural experiments show that by employing the right 
manure the proportion of alkaloids in the leaves of solanaceous 
plants may be more than doubled. 

Apomorphine Hydrochloride. — An abstract from articles by 
E. Harnack, H. Hildebrandt and others shows that a trade prepara- 
tion sold as apomorphine hydrochloride contained from 66 to 75 
per cent, of trimorphine hydrochloride, which has a different 
physiological action to apomorphine. It is generally known that 
apomorphine and trimorphine hydrochloride cannot be sharply 
separated by salting out with hydrochloric acid. The presence 
of large quantities of trimorphine hydrochloride, however, is thought 
to be objectionable (The Pharm, J. and Pharmacist, London, 19 10, 
545). 

Boric Acid, as a Food Preservative.— The conclusions which 
Dr. Julius Bernstein, bacteriologist to the City of Westminster, 
draws from a series of experiments directed to find out the effect 
of boric acid on foods are worthy of attention. He finds that 
boric acid to the extent of 20 grains to the pound prevents objective 
decomposition, such as is detectable by smell. If objective putre- 
faction has commenced, it inhibits further changes of this kind, 
possibly leading to diminution in the smell. It has a marked selec- 
tive activity on the various organisms, inhibiting the growth of 
yeasts and organisms of the proteus group, and possibly other harm- 
less saprophytes, though not the organisms of the coli group. 
(The Pharm. J. and Pharmacist, London, 1910, p. 509). 

Buchu Leaves. — A correspondent discusses the collection and 
marketing of buchu leaves in Cape Colony and points out 
that the genus Barosma is peculiar to the Cape, as many as eight 
varieties having been classified. Of these, 3 are considered of 
medicinal value in Europe, although in Cape Colony many other 
varieties are used in domestic medicine. Barosma betulina, the 
official variety, is the one chiefly collected, as it commands much 
higher prices, as does B. serratifolia. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that 20 years ago the value of these two 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
; June, 1910. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



263 



varieties was reversed. The correspondent also points out that 
the buchu market in London mainly depends on the American 
demand {Chem. & Drug., London, 1910, March 5, p. 338). 

Coto Bark. — An editorial in the British Pharmaceutical Journal, 
1910, v. 30, p. 231, asserts that true coto bark has long been un- 
obtainable in commerce, and it is generally understood that the 
article now in use is paracoto bark, which possesses similar proper- 
ties, though not yielding identical chemical products. But even 
the paracoto bark has recently become scarce, and there are at 
present two false barks in commerce, which differ essentially from 
the genuine coto. 

Cixchoxa Assay. — Bernard F. Howard, commenting on a 
recent paper by Engelhardt and Jones who assert that " in most of 
the cinchona barks the relation of the percentages of the four 
principle a 1 kaloids of the drug is almost constant," expresses the 
belief that there is an immense variation in the proportions of 
the four common alkaloids in different samples of cinchona bark. 
This is, perhaps, best illustrated by the fact that a considerable 
number of well known Dutch analysts in Amsterdam publish about 
once a month an official list of analyses of samples of bark up for 
sale, and a study of these analyses will show at once not only a 
great variation in the percentage of total alkaloids in various 
samples of barks but also great differences in the proportion of 
quinine present to cinchonidine, cinchonine. and quinidine (The 
Pharm. /., London, 1910, p. 504). 

Cod Liver Oil. — An editorial discusses the economic conditions 
prevailing in the cod liver oil market and points out that the price 
of Norwegian cod-liver oil has appreciated more than 25 per cent., 
as Lofoten fishing has proved very irregular, and although the 
number of fish caught was quite up to the figures of the previous 
year, the production of medicinal cod-liver oil is 3,756 barrels or 
4,357 hectolitres less. The general opinion in Norway is that the 
livers will be leaner next season {Chem. & Drug., London, 1910, 
March 26, p. 62). 

Ergot. — An abstract from an article by A. T. Livingstone (Med. 
Rec, Jan. 29, 19 10, through B. I. M.) points out that the peculiar 
province of ergot is to stimulate diseased rather than normal un- 
striped muscle. However contrary to previous knowledge of ergot, 
it is practically true that it acts on the diseased organs better than 
on normal ones containing unstriped muscle fibres. The author 



264 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Juue, 1910. 



has never found any bad effects from the use of large doses of 
ergot. He prefers the less refined preparations, since some principle 
seems to be removed by standardization (The Pharm. J. and 
Pharmacist, London, 1910, p. 496). 

Mucilage of Acacia. — A correspondent calls attention to the 
need for preserving mucilage of acacia and asserts that the addition 
of 10 per cent, of alcohol will serve as an efficient and unobjection- 
able preservative (Pharm. Ztg., Berlin, 1910, v. 55, p. 232). 

Nux Vomica. — Planchon and Tuillet (Repert. Pharm., 1910, v. 
22, p. 97) discuss the identity of " Corozo " which has frequently 
been found as an adulterant of powdered nux vomica. They point 
out that large and increasing quantities of so-called Australian 
corozo are now imported into Hamburg. 

Opium. — Frank Browne discusses the nature and composition 
of the several varieties of opium and the methods of consuming 
the drug and its several preparations (Pharm. J., London, 1910, 
v. 30, pp. 452-453)- 

The Susceptibility of Children to Opium. — A recent edi- 
torial, in the British Pharmaceutical Journal, 1910, v. 30, p. 230, 
discusses the general belief that children are more susceptible than 
adults to the toxic effects of opium ; it is pointed out that children 
respond as readily as adults to the therapeutic action of opium, 
and are really less susceptible to its toxic effects. 

Sterilizing Ampoules. — Baroni considers that steam at 112 
C. is indispensable for effective sterilization of ampoules. In the 
case of adrenalin chloride and eserine salicylate a tint sometimes 
develops owing to the presence of an air-space in the ampoule. This 
has been obviated by filling the space with a harmless gas, such as 
carbon dioxide, but the apparatus required is somewhat more 
complicated than is needed for filling ampoules in the ordinary way 
(Chem. & Drug., London, 1910, March 26, p. 68). 

Standards for Brandy, Whisky, and Rum. — Regulations that 
have been made by the Governor-in-Council and published in the 
Hong Kong Government Gazette, providing standards for brandy, 
whisky, and spirit, define brandy as a spirituous liquid distilled from 
the wine of grapes, and " Cognac " as brandy made in the Cognac 
region from grapes grown therein. Whisky is defined as a spirit 
obtained by distillation from a mash of cereal grains saccharified 
by diastase of malt. Rum is defined as a spirit distilled direct 



Am jime, r i9m am '} Progress in Pharmacy. 265 

from sugar-cane products jn sugar-cane growing countries (Pharm. 
J., London, 191 o, v. 30, p. -422). 

Tincture of Iodine. — C. Courtot (Journ. de Pharm. et de 
Chim., 1010, Nr. 67) presents a study of the changes that take 
place in tincture of iodine and concludes that the products formed 
are hydriodic acid, acetaldehyde and acetic ether. The reactions 
taking place he outlines as follows : Through the action of iodine 
on alcohol hydriodic acid and acetaldehyde are produced; the latter 
is decomposed by iodine in the presence of water to acetic acid, 
which, reacting on the alcohol, produces acetic ether {Pharm. 
Ztg., Berlin, 1910, v. 55, p. 346). 

Volatile Oils. — Hill and Umney present a number of mono- 
graphs for volatile oils which it is proposed to submit for inclusion 
in the coming edition of the British Pharmacopoeia (Pharm. J., 
London, 1910, v. 30, pp. 177-181). 

The Che mist and Druggist (1910, March 12, pp. 94-96) presents 
a comprehensive comparative table of data on essential oils as 
propounded by different authors, British Pharmacopoeia, Squire's 
Companion, Hill and Umney, Parry's Essential Oils, and others, 
the object being to show at a glance the points upon which there 
is agreement and disagreement. 

Amenyl. — Amenyl is the hydrochloride of methylhydrostimide 
and occurs as yellowish needle shaped crystals melting at 227 C, 
and readily soluble in warm water (Pharm. Post, 1910, v. 43, 

p- 293). , 1 ;4.'' -j 

Arylarsonates. — J. Ernest Lane calls renewed attention to the 
possible untoward effect resulting from the use of such preparations 
as atoxyl, orsudan, and soamin. He reports a case of optic atrophy 
and complete blindness following the use of orsudan in a case of 
syphilis. Also calls attention to three cases, which recently came 
under his notice, in which blindness was caused by soamin (Brit. 
Med. Journ., 1910, v. 1, p. 599). 

The Dangers of Orsudan and Soamin. — An editorial in the 
Pharmaceutical Journal, 1910, v. 30, p. 387, calls attention to the 
numerous reports that have been published recently on the possible 
dangers that might accrue from the use of orsudan and soamin. 

Cetual. — Cethal is cinnamylmethyl with 10 per cent, of thymol. 
Used for the treatment of pulmonary affections ; to be inhaled 
by means of a special apparatus (Chem. & Drug., London, April 2, 
1910, p. 44.) 



266 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



j A.m. Jour. Pharru. 
X June, 1910. 



Neopyrin. — Neopyrin is valerylamido antipyrine and occurs 
as white nearly odorless crystals that are but slightly soluble in 
water. The substance melts at 103 C. and has a bitter, quinine- 
like taste. On boiling with alkali or dilute acid neopyrin is split 
into amidoantipyrine and isovalerianic acid (Pharm. Post, 19 10, 
v. 43, p. 293). 

Phenol, Antidotal Effects of Alcohol upon. — Novack 
(Monthly Ency. and Med. Bull., Aug., 1909, v. 42, p. 1132) presents 
the following conclusions drawn from an investigation on the 
antidotal effects of alcohol upon phenol : ( 1 ) The peculiar phenom- 
ena by reason of which alcohol has been acclaimed an antidote to 
phenol are the result of its solvent and repellent properties and 
not of any chemical antagonism. (2) Phenol, or carbolic acid, 
although it is a powerful corrosive, limits its destructive progress 
by the formation of an albuminous coagulum. (3) Alcohol is 
of great value externally when used early, but when used late the 
destruction of tissue is not prevented, although the appearance is 
better. (4) On account of the repellent and solvent properties of 
alcohol it is dangerous to be left in the stomach together with the 
phenol. (5) The advised treatment is first lavage with some 
solution as the magnesium-sulphate-albumin mixture, followed by 
lavage with a solution of alcohol as a clearing agent (Pharm. /.. 
London, 1910, v. 30, p. 268). 

Protargol. — F. Goldmann, in discussing the dispensing of 
protargol, warns against the use of glycerin to facilitate solution 
and asserts that glycerin is not only objectionable but also un- 
necessary. He points out that an aqueous solution of protargol can 
readily be prepared by sprinkling the substance on the surface 
of the distilled water and allowing to stand for a few moments. 
He concludes that solutions of protargol should be freshly prepared, 
should contain no glycerin and should not be prepared by the aid 
of heat (Apoth, Ztg., Berlin, 1910, v. 25, p. 274). 



Am june r 'i9w arm '} ^ - Pharmacopceial Convention. 267 

U. S. PHARMACOPCEIAL CONVENTION OF 1910. 

The ninth decennial U. S. Pharmacopoeial Convention convened 
on the morning of May 10 in the large auditorium of the New 
Willard Hotel, Washington, D. C. It was a gathering represen- 
tative of the varied interests in the professions of medicine and 
pharmacy and the drug trade as well. 

The Convention was called to order by Prof. Otto A. Wall, 
the Second Vice-President, upon whom devolved the duties as 
presiding officer owing to the illness of the President, Dr. H. C. 
Wood, and the death of the First Vice-President, Prof. A. B. 
Prescott. 

Nearly every one present recognized that the deliberations of 
the few days furnished an opportunity for the expression of opinions, 
which would not recur again for ten years. Delegates and alter- 
nates representing 158 institutions — 80 medical and 78 pharma- 
ceutical and chemical organizations — were in attendance. The total 
number of 311 accredited delegates, included 140 medical and 171 
pharmaceutical and chemical representatives. While there may 
be some question as to the limit and scope of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia it is quite certain that the principle of general use of 
an article will not be the sole criterion for its admission. The last 
ten years have seen the recognition of a principle that is surely 
in the direction of progress. Ten years ago the President of the 
Convention stated that " if powdered brickdust was employed by 
the medical profession then it should be admitted into the Phar- 
macopoeia." At the Convention of 1910 the principle was discussed 
that not only must a substance be in general use, but that it 
must also have some value as a remedial agent in order to be 
admitted into the Pharmacopoeia. After having been acceded to 
by a good majority this principle was subsequently, on motion of 
Dr. Solis Cohen and without any additional discussion, eliminated 
and we believe that this was due to a misunderstanding of the 
purport of the recommendation from the outgoing Committee of 
Revision. 

The address of welcome by Secretary Charles Nagel of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor was appropriate and indirectly 
suggestive of the motive and spirit which should dominate the de- 
liberations of a convention which concerns the protection of the 



268 U. S. Pharmacopccial Convention. (Am Jour pharm. 

1 ( June, 1910. 

public health. He said that there must be co-operation of the 
representatives of industry, commerce and government; that the 
delegates were assembled to consult and confer in order that they 
might develop their professional work; and that in the elevation 
of standards which are intended for the protection of the public 
health and which are to be adopted by the Government, it is 
desirable that this be done in such a manner that commerce is 
not interfered with and no new regulations are required for their 
enforcement. 

The address of His Excellency Senor Calvo, the minister to 
the United States from Costa Rica was suggestive of the op- 
portunity afforded the convention to make the U. S. P. an 
American Pharmacopoeia. He stated that the Spanish American 
population amounted to 40,000,000 people. He also referred to 
the fact that the U. S. Pharmacopoeia is one of the recognized 
pharmacopoeias official in Costa Rica and in several of the States of 
South America. 

The address of President Wood was then read by Dr. Wall. 
It was in printed form and copies were distributed to the delegates. 
As the address was being read no doubt those who had intimately 
known Dr. Wood and were present at the 1900 Convention thought 
of him and saw him as he was then, the ablest exponent of the 
medical profession and as the leader and most magnetic personality 
of that convention. The present address revealed the character 
that has been shown in all of the papers of Dr. Wood during 
the past fifty years and is a fitting close to- a life of over-strenuous 
labor in the interest of the professions of medicine and pharmacy, 
he being as well known to the pharmacists of the United States, 
and indeed throughout the world, as he is to the medical profession. 

From the address the following paragraphs are selected as 
having a bearing on the future work of revision : 

The position of the Convention is so anomalous that a parallel is very 
difficult to find, but the lighting and buoying of the English coast is under 
the control of a Corporation which is analogous to the U. S. Pharmacopoeial 
Convention in that it exercises legal governmental authority although an 
independent body. Its power to erect and take charge of the light-houses 
and beacons of the coast of England was given to it by Queen Elizabeth 
in 1573, and its work has been so satisfactory that whilst the coasts of 
Scotland and Ireland are under government care, the Brothers of the Trinity 
still remain masters of the English coast. 

As it was with the Corporation of Trinity House, so originated in 



Am !w mo arm ' } U- 5 "- Pharmacopceial Convention. 



269 



the early days of the American Republic, nut by law but by voluntary action 
and consent, the Convention' of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia; but to-day, in- 
corporated and its actions legalized, it constitutes the power which regulates 
the relations between the professions of pharmacy and medicine, and gives 
the standard of legal purity for certain substances used widely for other 
than medical intent. 

The Corporation of Trinity House has maintained its supremacy and 
the character of its work by its conservatism, and by its refusal to widen 
the circle of the Executive or the character of its membership. As with 
it so do I believe that the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention will, to the 
great benefit of the professions of pharmacy and medicine and of the people 
of the United States, maintain its own existence by conservatism, by guard- 
ing well the portal of entrance to the Convention, and by making scientific 
and practical fitness rather than geographic representation the requirements 
for membership, especially in its Executive. 

President Wood also referred to the fact that as the Spanish 
translation of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia had become the official 
Pharmacopoeia of Cuba, he believed that the University of Havana 
should be given the inherent right to send a delegate or delegates 
to the Convention, because to the University of Havana we ought 
to look for the translation of the Pharmacopoeia into the Spanish 
language. This recommendation was subsequently approved by 
the Convention. During the reading of the address there was 
present upon the platform Dr. Jose Guillermo Diaz, of the Uni- 
versity of Havana, who translated the U. S. Pharmacopoeia into 
Spanish and to whom in large part is due the popularization of 
the Spanish edition. Dr. Diaz was later introduced to the Con- 
vention and he and his colleagues Dr. Juan Guiteras and Dr. 
Jose Alacan also Professors in the University of Havana were 
extended the privileges of the floor. 

One other matter might be mentioned which was considered 
by President Wood in his address. He says : 

In 1902, your President and Dr. Frederick B. Power, Ph.D., an 
American chemist, Director of the Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories 
of London, were appointed by the Secretary of the Interior as delegates 
to represent the U. S. Government in the International Conference for 
the Lnification of the Formula; of Heroic Medicines, which had been 
called by the Belgian Government and which met in Brussels in September, 
1902. Although attempts had been made before to obtain such unification, 
and failed, this Conference fully achieved the object for which it was 
summoned, namely — the making of a list of drugs which were considered 
actively remedial and yet capable of doing great harm, with a list ot prepara- 
tions and their strength; so that the traveller can, when the work of the 
Conference has been accepted by the various nations individually, have a 



270 U. S. Pharmacopoeial Convention, { Am j^"iS^ rm ' 

prescription compounded of the same strength in any city of a Nation party 
to the Conference. The Committee on Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopceial 
Convention has in great measure conformed to the recommendation of the 
meeting at Brussels. The failure to do so completely seems to me the one 
blot on their work. 

Nov. nth, 1908, I received from the Acting Secretary of State a 
translation copy of a letter from the Belgian Legation concerning the 
creation of a permanent institution, to be called the International Secretariate 
for the Unification of Pharmacopoeias, located at Brussels, its expenses to 
be paid by annual quotas from the adhering nations. In reply, I wrote 
to the Hon. Robert Bacon that such a Secretariate seemed to me so 
foreign to the immediate objects of the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, 
and so open to the possibilities of serious pecuniary responsibilities, that I 
personally could not endorse it, but would refer the matter to the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeial Convention of 1910. I have heard nothing further con- 
cerning this subject, and have transferred all my correspondence to Dr. 
Murray G. Motter, Secretary of the U. S. Pharmacopoeial Convention. With 
this information I leave this subject to be decided as may be thought 
fit by you. 

The address of Professor Joseph P. Remington, Chairman of 
the Revision Committee was devoted in large part to a summary 
of the results achieved and the trend of events during the past 
ten years. He pointed out the grave responsibilities connected 
with the work of the next revision of the Pharmacopoeia and 
stated that the Committee would receive greater aid from manu- 
facturers and importers than heretofore and that the next Com- 
mittee would be embarrassed with riches rather than a lack of 
information and that the greatest difficulty will be to make a 
wise selection for the U. S. P. IX. He also referred to the 
fact that the health and well-being of the nation depends in a 
large measure upon the work of the Convention and that if the 
Committee of Revision fails to recognize the responsibilities of 
the situation the sceptre must pass from the hands of the Con- 
vention forever. 

It was fitting that the Chairman of the Revision Committee 
should give due credit to Professor Diaz for his services in the 
Spanish translation of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and also to Sur- 
geon-General, Dr. Walter Wyman for his co-operation in fixing 
the standards for Diphtheria Antitoxin and especially in the 
preparation of the " Digest of Comments " on the Eighth Decennial 
Revision. 

Professor Remington as Chairman of the Committee of Re- 



Am "jine^9i h o arm "} U- $- Pharmacopceial Convention. 271 

vision also presented in printed form the general principles to 
be followed in revising -the U. S. Pharmacopoeia IX. As these 
principles had been formulated by the members of the outgoing 
Committee of Revision they received the endorsement of the Con- 
vention, though not without some discussion. As we have not 
sufficient space to print all of the general principles accepted it 
may suffice to call attention to some of the more important of 
them. 



Scope of the Pharmacopoeia. — We recommend that the Committee of 
Revision be authorized to admit into the Pharmacopoeia any medicinal 
substance of known origin ; but no substance or combination of substances 
shall be introduced if the composition or mode of manufacture thereof 
be kept secret, or if it be controlled by unlimited proprietary or patent rights. 
Substances used only for technical purposes should not be admitted to the 
next Pharmacopoeia, and a statement should be placed in the preface to the 
effect that standards of purity and strength, prescribed in the text of the 
Pharmacopoeia, are intended solely to apply to substances which are used 
for medicinal purposes or in determining the purity and identity of the same. 

Synonyms. — We recommend that the list of synonyms should be en- 
larged for the next revision, and the synonyms printed in the text of 
the Pharmacopoeia, immediately after the English name of the substance. 
A statement should be made in the preface of the Pharmacopoeia, that 
substances labeled with synonym, must comply with the same standards, 
tests and requirements as are demanded for the official article under any 
name. 

Purity and Strength of Pharmacopceial Articles. — We recommend 
that the Committee be instructed to revise as carefully as possible the 
limits of purity and strength of the pharmacopceial chemicals and prepara- 
tions for which limiting tests are or may be given. While no concession 
should be made towards a diminution of medicinal value, allowance should 
be made for unavoidable, innocuous impurities or variations due to the 
particular source or mode of preparation, or to the keeping qualities of 
the several articles. 

The " Purity Rubric," which limits the percentage of innocuous im- 
purities, as introduced into the Eighth Revision, should be continued, and 
tests and requirements should be appended to each article carrying a 
"Purity Rubric." 

In the case of crude drugs and natural products, the limits of admissible 
impurities should be placed at such a figure as to exclude any that would 
not be accepted by other countries. 

International Standards. — The International Conference for the Unifi- 
cation of Formulas for Potent Remedies performed a signal service for all 
countries by recommending the various pharmacopoeias of the world to 
adopt certain standards for potent medicines. It is recommended that the 
next Committee of Revision adopt these standards, but it is believed that 



272 U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention. j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



it would be unwise to require the acceptance of the details of pharmaceutical 
or other processes recommended by the International Conference. 

If the finished product conforms to the International standards we 
believe that each Country should be left free to adopt such detail and 
manipulation as may seem to them best. Nothing should prevent, how- 
ever, the adoption of the recommendation of the conference, as to details, 
if in the opinion of the next Committee of Revision, by so doing, the 
Pharmacopoeia can be improved. 

General Formulae. — It is recommended that general formulae be in- 
troduced as far as the particular nature of the several drugs will permit, 
for fluid extracts, tinctures and such other preparations as are made by 
identical processes, and that the general formula to be followed in each 
case be merely indicated by reference. 

Appending a List of Preparations in which an Official Article is 
Used. — It is recommended that, especially for the convenience of practising 
physicians, there should be appended after each article in the text a list 
of the official preparations in which it is used. 

A few exceptions may be made to this in such cases as water, alcohol, 
glycerin, sugar, etc. 

Alcoholic Percentage in Official Preparations. — It is recommended 
that a range of volume content, of absolute alcohol, be stated in the Phar- 
macopoeia, for each preparation containing alcohol. 

Assay Processes. — We recommend that the Committee be instructed to 
introduce assay processes for as many of the potent drugs and preparations 
made therefrom as may be found practicable, provided that the processes 
of assay are reasonably simple (both as to methods and apparatus required) 
and lead to fairly uniform results in different hands. As regards the 
products of such assays, tests of identity and purity should be added wherever 
feasible. 

It is recommended that biological tests or assays, when accurate and 
reliable, may be admitted. 

Composite Preparations. — It is recommended that new composite (com- 
pound) preparations be discouraged as far as possible. 

Pharmacognostical Descriptions. — It is recommended that, with the 
description of a crude drug, there be included brief, pharmacognostical 
descriptions, both macroscopic and microscopic where practicable, and there 
should be added a statement of the appearance of the structural elements 
in the powder, when examined microscopically, as a means of detecting 
adulteration. 

Powdered Drugs. — It is recommended that, in the next Pharmacopoeia, 
powdered drugs be required to represent the entire drug unless specifically 
stated otherwise. Where the drug can be powdered without residue this 
should be required ; in other cases the amount of allowable tailings, gruffs, 
or residue should be determined and inserted in the text. 

Diagnostical Reagents. — It is recommended that there be included 
in the next Pharmacopoeia, such reagents, with standards for strength and 
purity, as are needed for the proper execution of tests that are valuable 
and important in the making of a correct diagnosis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1910. J 



U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention. 



273 



Publicity. — In the course of the discussion of the report of the Com- 
mittee of Revision the following principle was introduced by Dr. W. J. 
Schieffelin and received the support of the Convention : " It is recommended 
that the General Committee of Revision make public for comment and 
criticism an abstract of the changes in descriptions and standards which 
may be proposed before the final adoption of the report and publication of 
the Pharmacopoeia," 

With the exception of the subject of diagnostical reagents all 
of the principles adopted had received the thorough consideration 
of the members of the professions interested. As to whether 
diagnostical reagents should be included in a Pharmacopoeia the 
future only can determine. 

On the recommendation of the Board of Trustees the following 
amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws were adopted after 
some discussion by the Convention. 

I. — Amendment of Section 2, Article II, relating to member- 
ship, by inserting after the title " the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Marine-Hospital Service," the following: "the 
Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, the Association 
of State and National Food and Dairy Departments, the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association and the National Dental Asso- 
ciation." 

II. — Also amendment of Article IV, concerning " Committees 
and Trustees," by changing the title " Committee of Revision," 
to that of " General Committee of Revision." 

III. — Also Chapter V of the General Committee of Revision 
was amended so that the general effect was to increase the number 
of members on the Committee of Revision hereafter to be known 
as the " General Committee of Revision " from twenty-five to 
fifty, said General Committee of Revision to create from its own 
membership an Executive Committee of Revision of fifteen mem- 
bers, to have immediate charge of the work of revision, and 
also giving to said General Committee of Revision certain advisory 
and supervisory powers over the work of the Executive Committee 
of Revision. 

Prof. Wm. C. Anderson offered an amendment to include the 
National Association of Retail Druggists among the associations 
entitled to representation. This was ruled out of order by the 
Chairman, Dr. Wall, and was subsequently laid upon the table 
upon motion of Dr. McCormack. It should be stated that this 



274 U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention. { Am j*™*i9m rm ' 

amendment could not be acted upon by the Convention as it 
required a previous recommendation from the Board of Trustees 
(see this Journal, 1909, p. 524). In some quarters the im- 
pression is that Dr. Simmons, of the Board of Trustees, is largely 
responsible for the Board's failing to recommend the seating of 
the N. A. R. D. It would be indeed interesting to know just 
what the minutes of the Board of Trustees show in this connection. 

The fact that it was necessary for the Board of Trustees to 
borrow $7000.00 during 1902-1905 caused some discussion as to 
the devising of ways and means not only to relieve this situation, 
but to provide sufficient funds to carry on the work of revision. 
A recommendation was submitted by the Board of Trustees, to 
whom the matter was brought for consideration, that each organiza- 
tion entitled to representation pay a sum of $50.00 and that failing 
to comply with this within one year the sum of $75.00 be required 
of them; and furthermore, that all new organizations be required 
to pay $100.00 on being admitted to the Convention. It was also 
intended that all organizations which comply with this requirement 
be allowed 10 copies of the U. S. P. IX. These several recom- 
mendations were voted down, it being the unanimous opinion that 
the Board of Trustees should secure sufficient revenues by in- 
creasing the price on each copy of the Pharmacopoeia and guarding 
the copyright. Ten years ago (see U. S. P. VIII, p. xxvi) the 
balance turned over to the Convention of 1900 amounted to about 
$12,000.00. The Convention of 1900 voted an honorarium of $200.00 
to each member of the Committee of Revision so that the balance 
in the hands of the Board of Trustees during 1900-1901 amounted 
to nearly $6000.00. The income from the sales of the VII edition 
of the U. S. P. during the years 1 900-1905 amounted to about 
$10,500.00 while the receipts from sales of the VIII edition of 
the U. S. P. between 1905-1910 amounted to $87,244.56; and the 
receipts from the Spanish translation were %2,y62.22. The balance 
reported by the Treasurer, Dr. G. Wythe Cook, to the Convention 
of 1910 amounted to $8,394.01. 

The amount expended for publication was $39,985.42. The 
Chairman of the Revision Committee received an honorarium of 
$5000. The following members of the Committee received an 
honorarium of $1000.00 each: Messers. Coblentz, Dohme, Sadtler 
and Lyons. The following members received $600.00 each : Messrs. 
Caspari, Jr., Diehl, Hallberg, Kraemer and Squibb. The follow- 



Am june r i9m arm ' } U. S. Pharmacopoeia! Convention. 275 

ing members received $400.00 each : Messrs. Haines, Kremers, 
Rusby, Scoville. and Stevens. The following members received 
$200.00 each: Abel, Davis, Good, Gregory, Hare, Marshall, Old- 
berg, Payne, Sayre, Wilcox and Wood. The Treasurer received 
$200.00 and the Secretary to the Board of Trustees received 
$1500.00. For clerical assistance and general office supplies 
$17,255.73 was expended, the greater proportion of which was 
used by the Chairman of the Committee of Revision in circularizing 
and distributing reports, etc. For chemicals and other supplies 
about $1500.00 was expended and for the use of experts $5263.25 
was expended, of which about $3000.00 was used by the Committee 
on Inorganic Chemicals. For the Spanish translation $1500.00 was 
given to Professor Diaz and the sum of $1000.00 was paid the 
Rice Estate. Messrs. Matos and Pablo were awarded $250.00 and 
$97.56 respectively for reading proof of the Spanish translation. 
In addition to this the Board of Trustees used for travelling and 
general expenses the sum of $7855.33. A number of additional 
items are given in the Financial Report submitted by the Board 
of Trustees. 

The Nominating Committee of 148 members met at 8 o'clock 
on the evening of May 10th and concluded its work at 4 a.m. 
on the morning of the nth. The following nominations were 
approved by the Convention: 

President, Dr. H. W. Wiley, Washington, D. C. ; First Vice-President, 
Dr. N. S. Davis, Chicago, 111. ; Second Vice-President, Chas. Caspari, Jr., 
Baltimore, Md. ; Third Vice-President, Dr. O. T. Osborne, New Haven, 
Conn. ; Fourth Vice-President, Leo Eliel, South Bend, Ind. ; Fifth Vice- 
President, Dr. W. A. Bastedo, New York, N. Y. ; Secretary, Dr. M. G. 
Motter, Washington, D. C. ; Assistant Secretary, Dr. N. P. Barnes, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; and Treasurer, S. L. Hilton, Washington, D. C. Board of 
Trustees: J. H. Beal, Scio, Ohio; F. W. Meissner, La Porte, Ind. ; W r . J. 
Schieffelin, New York, N. Y. ; Dr. G. H. Simmons, Chicago, 111. j and 
Dr. H. M. Whelpley, St. Louis, Mo. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE OF REVISION. 

1. Remington, Joseph P., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy. 

2. Kraemer, Henry, 

Professor of Botany and Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 



276 U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention. { Am j u J n e u , r i 9 iJ. arm ' 

3. Caspari, Chas., Jr., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, University of 
Maryland, Department of Pharmacy. 

4. Diehl, C. Lewis, 

Professor of Practical Pharmacy, Louisville College of Pharmacy. 

5. SCHLOTTERBECK, JULIUS 0., 

Professor of Pharmacognosy and Materia Medica, University of 
Michigan, Department of Pharmacy. 

6. Lyons, Albert B., 

Chemist, Nelson Baker & Company, Detroit, Michigan. 

7. Wood, Horatio C, Jr., 

Associate Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania. 

8. Osborne, Oliver T., 

Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica, Yale Medical School. 

9. Wilbert, M. I., 

Assistant Pharmacologist, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public 
Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

10. Rusby, Henry H., 

Professor of Botany and Materia Medica, College of Pharmacy 
of the City of New York. 

11. Hunt, Reid, 

Chief, Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, United States 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

12. Dohme, Alfred R. L., 

Chemist, Sharp and Dohme, Baltimore, Md. 

13. Stevens, A. B., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, University of 
Michigan, Department of Pharmacy. 

14. Beringer, George M., 

Chemist and Retail Druggist, Camden, N. J. 

15. Eberle, Eugene G., 

Dean, Department of Pharmacy, Baylor University, Dallas, Texas. 

16. Sayre, Lucius E., 

Professor of Materia Medica, University of Kansas, School of 
Pharmacy. 

17. Kremers, Edward, 

Director of Chemical Laboratories, University of Wisconsin. 

18. Puckner, W. A., 

Director, Chemical Laboratory, American Medical Association, 
Chicago, 111. 

19. Kebler, Lyman F., 

Chief of Drug Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

20. Hallberg, Carl S. N., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, University of 
Illinois, School of Pharmacy. 

21. La Wall, Charles H., 

Associate Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am 'jime r i£o arm ' } ^' Pharmaeo'pmal Convention. 277 

22. ROSENGARTEN, GEORGE D., 

Chemist, Powers — W eightman — Rosengarten Company, Philadelphia, 
. Pa. 

23. Coblentz, Virgil, 

Professor of Chemistry, College of Pharmacy of the City of 
New York. 

24. Hatcher, Robert A., 

Professor of Pharmacology, Cornell University, Medical Depart- 
ment, New York. 

25. Good, James M., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, St. Louis College 
of Pharmacy. 

26. Arny, Harry V., 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, Cleveland School 
of Pharmacy. 

27. Koch, Julius A., 

Professor of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Department of 
Pharmacy. 

28. Sadtler, Samuel P., 

Professor of Chemistry, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

20. B0DEMANN, WlLHELM, 

Retail Druggist, Chicago, 111. 

30. Long, John H., 

Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 
Chicago. 

31. Raubenheimer, Otto, 

Retail Druggist, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

32. Vanderkleed, Charles E., 

■ Chemist, H. K. Mulford Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

33. SOLLMANN, T0RALD, 

Professor of Pharmacy and Materia Medica, Western Reserve 
University, Medical Department. 

34. Nixon, Charles F., 

Retail Druggist, Leominster, Mass. 

35. Anderson, John F., 

Director, Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service. 

36. Davis, Nathan S., 

Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine and Clinical 
Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School. 

37. Francis, John M., 

Chemist, Parke, Davis and Company, Detroit, Mich. 

38. Caspari, Charles E., 

Professor of Chemistry, St. Louis College of Pharmacy. 

39. True, Rodney H., 

Physiologist, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. 



278 U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention. { Am j t fne, r i9iS. arm ' 

40. Gregory, Willis G., 

Dean, Buffalo College of Pharmacy. 

41. Gordin, Harry M., 

Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Department of 
Pharmacy. 

42. England, Joseph W., 

Director Scientific Department, Smith, Kline and French Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

43. Edmunds, Charles Wallis, 

Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica, University of 
Michigan, Department of Medicine and Surgery. 

44. Diekman, George C, 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy 
of the City of New York. 

45. Marvel, Philip, 

Physician, Atlantic City. 

46. Bartley, Elias H., 

Professor of Chemistry, Toxicology and Pediatrics, Long Island 
College Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

47. Haines, Walter S., 

Professor of Chemistry, Materia Medica and Toxicology, Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, 111. 

48. Alpers, William C, 

Retail Druggist, New York. 

49. Hopp, Lewis C, 

Retail Druggist, Cleveland. 

50. Plaut, Albert, 

Wholesale Druggist (Lehn and Fink), New York. 

The General Committee on Revision had several meetings on 
Thursday and Friday and elected the following officers : Chair- 
man, Joseph P. Remington ; First Vice-Chairman, C. Lewis Diehl ; 
Second Vice-Chairman, H. C. Wood, Jr. ; Secretary, C. H. La- 
Wall. 

The Executive Committee will be selected by ballot of the 
General Committee of Revision which will be effected by cor- 
respondence. 

A number of written communications were received and a 
number of recommendations were adopted and referred to the 
General Committee of Revision. Among these were recommenda- 
tions from the American Pharmaceutical Association, the Phila- 
delphia Branch of the A. Ph. A., the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, Section on Dermatology of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, etc. The delegates from the Medical Society of New 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



J U. S. Pharmac op octal Convention. 279 



Jersey presented the following code of ex cathedra rules formulated 
by Dr. Henry L. Coit of Newark, N. J. which was referred to 
the General Committee of Revision and Board of Trustees. 



Ethical Rules for the Guidance of Physicians and Pharmacists in 
their Relations with One Another. 



Propositions. 

First. — Ethical principles or standards of right conduct exist, irrespective 
of their formulation or codification. 

Second. — Ethical rules are calculated to elevate standards of moral 
conduct and to foster a spirit of harmony between professional men. 

Third.— A code of ethics is designed not only for the restraint of those 
who are actuated by unworthy motives, but for the guidance of those, 
also, who seek to be governed in their actions by high and true principles. 

The Duties of the Physician to the Pharmacist. 

First. — The physician has no moral right to discriminate in favor 
of one pharmacist to the detriment of another, except for dishonesty, in- 
competency or unscientific methods of work. 

Second. — The physician is never justified in receiving from a pharmacist 
gratuities in return for patronage ; in depositing secret formulas with an 
individual pharmacist, or by word or deed to jeopardize his professional 
reputation. 

Third. — The physician may sometimes find it an advantage to the 
patient to dispense the medicine ; yet in the main it must be regarded as 
a subterfuge and a hindrance to all interests involved. The physician 
should, if practicable avail himself of the superior technical skill of a 
trained pharmacist in the preparation and dispensing of medicines. 

Duties of the Pharmacist to the Physician. 

Fourth. — The pharmacist who recommends drugs or medicines for 
specific remedial purposes either directly or through the avenues of adver- 
tisement thereby exceeds the limits of his profession and commits an act 
unworthy of his calling. 

Fifth. — The pharmacist who consents to diagnose disease or prescribe 
for patients except where emergencies arise, without a proper medical train- 
ing, assumes responsibilities for which he is not qualified and justly incurs 
the disapproval of physicians. 

Sixth. — The pharmacist transgresses his true province when for com- 
mercial purposes he issues to physicians printed matter setting forth the 
therapeutic indications for the use of drugs or medicinal preparations. The 
constituents of a drug or compound together with its chemical and physical 
properties should be a sufficient guarantee of its utility. 



28o U. S. Pharmacopmal Convention. I^j;^™ 



The Duties of t/ie Physician and the Pharmacist to the Public, 

Seventh. — The combined efforts of the physician and the pharmacist 
are required to protect the public from the nostrum maker, the pseudo- 
scientific pharmacist, the sectarian physician and. drug vendor, and the two 
should be in continual alliance to demand the extermination of these com- 
mercial and mercenary institutions. 

Eighth. — The physician and the pharmacist should, as far as possible, 
limit the multiplication of manufactured proprietary compounds. It must 
be regarded as reprehensible to encourage the use of these remedies to 
the exclusion of those which are official in the pharmacopoeias. It is also 
their plain duty to discourage the use and sale of all medicines which lead 
to baneful drug habits. 

Ninth. — The best interests of the patient are undoubtedly conserved 
by the custom of physicians to practice rational therapeutics to the exclusion 
of those methods which tend to the use of many remedies or those of 
unknown composition; and the supreme effort of the dispensing pharmacist 
should be to complete the circle of therapeutics by supplying the demands 
of experimental and clinical teaching with eligible and trustworthy prepara- 
tions. 

In accordance with a motion by H. M. Whelpley, the Secre- 
tary was instructed, by the Convention, to furnish the pharma- 
ceutical and medical press of the country, with the following 
resolutions. 

By E. G. Eberhardt : Resolved, That this Convention recom- 
mend to the National and State Food and Drug Inspectors that 
they urge the purchase of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia by such drug- 
gists as they may find to be without them. 

By H. G. Beyer: That every physician in this country should 
be requested, by the various medical associations, that he should 
keep in his office a Pharmacopoeia. 

The sessions on Tuesday, and on Wednesday morning were 
presided over by Dr. Otto A. Wall, who showed himself to be 
an able parliamentarian and dispatched the work with discretion 
and justice. While there were a number of attempts made on 
Wednesday morning by some of the members to have the President- 
elect, Dr. Wiley, presented to the members at that time, Dr. Wall 
showed that he proposed to present him at a time which could be 
characterized as the climax of the strenuous sessions already held 
and which marked the termination of the old Convention and the 
beginning of the new. At the right moment he introduced the 



Am june, r wi h o afm '} U - S ' Pharmacopceial Convention. 281 

members of the General Committee of Revision to the Convention. 
This was followed by the introduction of the members of the Board 
of Trustees and subsidiary officers of the Association, for each of 
whom he had an appropriate word of encomium, and finally the 
presentation of the President-elect, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, who was 
brought to the platform by Dr. Wilcox. Dr. Wall then turned over 
the gavel and office to Dr. Wiley, saying that he " needed no in- 
troduction to this Convention as he was well known to all of the 
people of the United States." In response to calls for a speech, Dr. 
Wiley said among other things that the man of science is a patriot 
and a man of deeds. He not only does his duty but he does it 
promptly. He promised a prompt beginning of the work of revising 
the Pharmacopoeia and a vigorous prosecution of it and that if 
the Constitution permits the exercise of authority of the President 
he will wield it in this direction. 

On Wednesday afternoon during the discussion of the " General 
Principles," Dr. N. S. Davis of Chicago occupied the chair and on 
Thursday morning Dr. O. T. Osborne acted as presiding officer, 
both of whom discharged their duties in a creditable manner. 

At the conclusion of the Convention on Thursday morning 
President Wiley occupied the chair, while resolutions of thanks to 
the out-going officers, to the Committee on Credentials and Arrange- 
ments, etc., were passed. About noon he declared the Convention 
adjourned to meet on the first Tuesday in May, 1920. 

It is not too much to say that the Convention just concluded has 
shown a progressive spirit to a degree that could hardly have been 
anticipated. Professor Remington, as Chairman of the Committee 
of Revision, called attention to the fact that there could be but 
one thought in Pharmacopoeia work and that was that " the best 
and always the best " must be found therein. President Wiley 
reminded the members of the Committee of Revision that as 
patriots in the service of their country they must endeavor to 
accomplish the work before them promptly. The actions of the 
delegates, including their resolutions, showed again and again that 
they did not desire to exercise any restraining influence on the 
Committee of Revision and that whatever the sciences and arts had 
produced they expected the members to utilize, wherever practicable, 
in the preparation of a work and standard that is to become the 
hand-book of the physician and pharmacist in ministering to the 
needs of the people who are suffering from disease and in ill 



282 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am j^ T i 9 lo &Tm ' 

health. Finally, it must be said that the promise of the new Decen- 
nial Revision is in some measure due to the efforts of the surviving 
officers and members of the Committee of Revision appointed in 
1900, who have labored in part under the inspiration of those who 
were taken from the ranks by the silent hand of Death, and who 
have stood by the work through tempest and calm eager that their 
work might be adapted to the new order of things and acceptable 
to the Convention. The new Pharmacopoeia (U. S. P. IX), without 
inviting comparison, ought to be, as we believe it will be, a book 
of the times, suited to the modern demands and practices of 
medicine and pharmacy in the best sense of the words and at the 
same time adapted to the legislative requirements of the Govern- 
ment, which supplements the united efforts of physicians and phar- 
macists in devising approved and acceptable standards for medicines 
by giving them the weight and authority of legal standards. 

H. K. 



THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL 
ASSOCIATION. 

The fifty-eighth annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association was held at the Hotel Jefferson in the City of Rich- 
mond, May 3rd to 7th. 

It was a notable convention not only by reason of the amount 
of Association work accomplished, but also because it proved to 
be the forum for the discussion of pharmacopceial matters, so 
that the members were well prepared to intelligently discuss and 
vote upon the subjects which were to be brought in a concrete 
form before the Pharmacopceial Convention the week following. 
The large number of papers which were presented in the various 
sections, the interesting reports from the various standing com- 
mittees, and the important recommendations from the Council, 
well indicated that the officers of the Association as well as of the 
several sections were competent, that the members were loyal, and 
that the Association truly represented the activities of the phar- 
macists of the United States. 

The weather was excellent, the surroundings were inspiring, 
and enthusiasm with earnestness characterized the entire proceed- 
ings from Tuesday morning till Saturday evening. 



Am 'i r i9 P io am '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 283 

Owing to restricted space in this Journal this year a much 
more condensed account of the meeting will be given than hereto- 
fore has been the custom, but we hope later to present abstracts, 
at least, of all the more important papers. 

At the opening session the Convention was fortunate in having 
addresses of welcome by Hon. William H. Mann, the Governor of 
Virginia, and Hon. D. C. Richardson, the Mayor of Richmond. 
The addresses were responded to by Messrs. Whelpley and Beal, 
respectively. Greetings were also extended from delegates of the 
National Association of Retail Druggists, the National Wholesale 
Druggists' Association, the United States Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service, the Department of Agriculture, and the American 
Medical Association. 

The address of Dr. H. H. Rusby, the President of the Asso- 
ciation, had been previously published in the Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association for May (pp. 298-310) and so 
the members were fully prepared to consider it. It Avas, as stated 
by Professor Beal, chairman of the committee, to whom the 
address was referred, " a frank and fearless treatment of matters 
which are of vital concern to the Association." Some ten or 
eleven of the recommendations dealing with methods of increasing 
the membership, the efficiency of the committees of the Association, 
and pharmacopceial principles were approved by the Association. 
A number of the subjects discussed by President Rusby are deserv- 
ing the further attention of those concerned in the development 
and coordination of the work of the several bodies that are each 
striving, more or less independently, to attain the highest degree 
of usefulness. While the Association was not prepared to con- 
sider the desirability and practicability of the publication of the 
National Formulary by the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, there 
must be sooner or later a closer affiliation between the com- 
mittees having in charge the N.F. and U.S. P. Again in calling 
" attention to the great desirability of the imposition of some 
educational and professional requirements with a corresponding 
license, for those engaging in commerce in drugs and medicines," 
President Rusby has presented a problem for the Committee on 
National Legislation which seems to be of a fundamental nature. 

In considering the subject of " danger of commercialization " 
Dr. Rusby, however, handled a " live wire " which at the present 
time is a subject for discussion. The Committee on the President's 



284 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am j u J °e r i9io arm ' 

Address took the position that these opinions should be received 
by the Association merely as " personal opinions upon questions 
and policies concerning which reasonable men may justly and 
honestly differ." 

So soon as convenient after the adoption of the Report on the 
President's Address Mr. C. M. Ford presented the following 
resolutions which it was moved to lay upon the table, but the 
motion being lost, were adopted by the Association without 
any discussion: 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation it is neither wise nor expedient, even in pursuit of schemes which 
it is claimed will advance the material welfare of dispensing pharmacists, 
to assail, antagonize, or malign any class inseparably joined to us by 
commercial or professional ties. 

Further, That we seriously deprecate the hostile attitude toward the 
medical profession and the jobbing fraternity of various drug journals 
assuming to represent pharmacists in general, or some considerable body 
of pharmacists in particular. 

Further, That we respectfully urge upon the officers of the American 
Druggists' Syndicate a more careful supervision of the utterances of 
their so-called " Organ." Its harsh language is hurtful to pharmacists and 
embarrassing to them in their relations with one another and with 
physicians and jobbers. 

The mercenary schemes of a few overzealous and adventurous individ- 
uals who, being frequently without any training in pharmacy, and who 
entered its ranks solely for gain and to explain their peculiar ideas of 
high finance, can have no sympathy with its aims or traditions. Such 
schemes can be helpful and profitable to only an insignificant few and 
must necessarily bring inevitable disappointment and disaster to the mul- 
titude who follow in their train. 

Be it further resolved, That we recommend that any movement for 
the reform of medical practice be allowed to originate and proceed within 
the medical profession. 

Further, That we are opposed to any attempt upon the part of the 
pharmacal press to dictate or compel any such reform, believing as we 
do that the medical profession is eminently qualified to institute and carry 
out its own necessary reforms. 

The report of the Treasurer, H. M. Whelpley, showed that 
the total invested funds of the Association, i.e., those on which 
the interest or only part of the interest can be used amounted 
to $28,223.89, being an increase over last year of $4,680.54. The 
general secretary, Charles Caspari, Jr., presented a report on 
the financial accounts in his hand, which related to the receipts 



Am juSe r i£o arm ' } American Pharmaceutical Association. 285 

from the sales of the National Formulary and Decennial Index, 
both reports showing a creditable balance in hand. 

The Nominating Committee presented a report giving a list 
of nominees for the respective offices, which list will be submitted 
to, and voted upon by, the members through the mails. 

The Council recommended that Professor Dr. Arthur Meyer of 
Marburg, Germany, and Professor Dr. A. Tschirch of Berne, Switz- 
erland, be made Honorary Members, which recommendation was 
approved by the Association and these eminent pharmacognosists 
were accordingly elected as honorary members of the Association. 

The Committee on Membership reported that during the year 216 
new members had been elected. It was also requested that in the 
future the names of applicants for membership be submitted to their 
respective State representatives upon the Committee on Membership 
for approval, before being voted upon by the Council. An applica- 
tion for permission to form a Nashville Branch of the A. Ph. A. 
was received by the Council and granted. A motion was also 
passed that the Association have official numbered buttons in lieu 
of the local badges. The next annual meeting will be held in 
Boston from August 14th to 18th, 191 1 and C. Herbert Packard 
was selected by the Council as the Local Secretary. 

The officers of the Council for the ensuing year are : Chairman, 
James H. Beal ; Vice-Chairman, Henry H. Rusby ; and Secretary, 
Joseph W. England. The following officers of the Association 
whose election is dependent upon the recommendation of the Coun- 
cil were re-elected : General Secretary, Charles Caspari, Jr. ; 
Treasurer, H. M. Whelpley; Reporter on the Progress of Phar- 
macy, C. Lewis Diehl; Editor of the Bulletin, C. S. N. Hallberg. 
The Historian, a permanent officer of the Historical Section was 
made a member of the Council Ex-officio. George M. Beringer 
was re-elected Chairman of the Committee on Unofficial Standards 
and the following new members were elected: C. A. Dye (in place 
of G. B. KaufTmann) ; and H. H. Rusby (in place of A. I. Cohn). 

One of the most important steps taken by the Association was 
the approval of the proposal to launch the Journal of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, the first number of which is to appear 
in 191 1. The scope of the Journal is to include editorial comments, 
signed editorials, original articles and abstracts of recent literature 
relating to pharmacy. It was decided, also, to issue the Report 
on the Progress of Pharmacy at the end of each fiscal year in the 



286 



American Pharmaceutical Association. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



form of a bound volume. The members of the Association will 
receive the monthly journal as issued and the bound report at the 
end of the fiscal year. It is proposed that the size of the reading 
page of the Journal shall be practically equal to that of the present 
page of the Proceedings and Bulletin. The publication of the 
Journal will be under the direction of a Committee on Publication 
of nine members. 

The reports of a number of special committees were presented, 
including that on Reorganization by C. S. X. Hallberg; and one 
of the A. M. A. on the National Formulary by Dr. Robert A. 
Hatcher, etc. 

The following is an abstract of the lengthy report of the Com- 
mittee on National and State Legislation which was read by the 
Chairman, S. L. Hilton : 

The field of legislation in which the A. Ph. A. may become effective 
and should be interested in, should be referred to one committee that has 
been carefully selected and well instructed with respect to the wishes of 
the association as to their attitude on all questions pertaining to national 
legislation. 

The original Coudrey bill providing for the editing and publishing 
of the U.S. P. should be opposed and defeated. The Coudrey bill providing 
that all drugs shall be of the standard required by the U.S.P. and N.F. 
and where no standards are provided granting the power to the Secretary 
of Agriculture to establish such standards should be carefully considered. 
The latter proposition providing for the establishing of standards needs no 
argument, providing that all interests be carefully considered, would be an 
advance in the right direction and redound to the good of every one. 

The first proposition, however should be carefully considered, under 
the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act, any drug may differ from 
the standard if it is clearly explicitly stated on the label. By the terms 
of this provision the field is left open for adulteration and sophistication 
and the object sought by the Coudrey bill is to overcome this difficulty. The 
Chairman stated that personally he felt that this provision of the Food 
and Drugs Act should be amended so that no deviation from the standards 
should be permitted, provided the standards of the U.S.P. and N.F. as 
established shall be fair and reasonable and that they can be met and 
attained as an average condition in the usual supply. 

The present conditions with reference to the use and abuse of habit- 
forming drugs must carefully be considered and some means devised, by 
enactment of a National character, whereby the sale of all narcotic and 
habit-forming drugs in interstate commerce to others than those licensed 
to prescribe and dispense shall be completely stopped. 

The bills proposing to establish a Department of Public Health should 
be amended so as to provide for a bureau of pharmacy. 



Am ;hfnTi9iS aim '} Amcr ' lcan Pharmaceutical Association. 287 

With reference to the sale of alcoholic beverages, pharmacists should 
recognize that the time has arrived when it has become necessary for them 
to clearly establish their position in the eye of the public that they are 
pharmacists, and not rum sellers. They should be willing to eliminate from 
their business all sales of alcoholic beverages for any purpose whatsoever. 

The bill to regulate the manufacture and sale of smoking opium is not 
rigid enough, it should provide for the abolishment of all such practices 
and provide heavy penalties in each and every case. 

The bill providing for the regulation of the sale of habit-forming drugs 
in interstate commerce, whereby the sale of narcotic and habit-forming 
drugs interstate commerce can be better regulated and controlled, should 
be supported, it should be the aim of every pharmacist to put a stop to 
the sale of all such drugs except for legitimate purposes and under proper 
regulation. 

The following' is an abstract of the Report of the Committee 
on Weights and Measures : 



Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, 
Department of Commerce and Labor. Washington, D. C, furnished the 
chairman, at his request, a pamphlet on " The International Metric System 
of Weights and Measures,"' which was expressly prepared to answer some 
of the more simple questions addressed to the Bureau of Standards in 
regard to the metric system and its use. This pamphlet gives a concise 
history of the metric system, the names of the countries giving govern- 
mental support to the system, a synopsis of the system, and tables and 
diagrams showing a comparison of metric and customary units. And it 
is believed that this pamphlet would furnish an excellent basis for an 
article intended for educational purposes, whether circulated among phar- 
macists, physicians or others. 

The Bureau of Standards has also gotten out a large chart showing 
the relation of the three metric units to one another, and in turn to the 
customary units employed. This chart would be especially useful in schools 
of pharmacy and medicine, and in other educational institutions where 
the subject of weights and measures is taught. 

In fact, the chairman is of the opinion that most effective educational 
work leading to the general approval of the metric system can be accom- 
plished by getting teachers in the public schools to lay more stress on the 
advantages of the metric system, and to give practical exercises using the 
actual measures and weights. In fact, the question of the adoption of the 
metric system universally in the United States could not long be de- 
layed when once the pupils in our schools have learned to actually use 
metric weights and measures. 

It is rather remarkable that, as shown in the pamphlet already referred 
to, when the use of the metric system is required in the Medical Depart- 
ments of the Army and Navy, and in the U. S. Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service, and beside legalized in the Philippine Islands and made 



288 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am j„°e, r iwo arm ' 

obligatory in Porto Rico, there has been adopted in the Senate of the 
U. S. resolution entitled S. J. Res. 37 (Congressional Record, March 11, 
p. 3121), which is now under consideration by the Committee on Printing 
of the House of Representatives. This resolution provides that all docu- 
ments, papers, etc., published by the Government of the United States be 
printed in the English language and would require that wherever references 
to metric weights and measures, centigrade thermometer and similar stand- 
ards are used, the equivalent in the English standard be given. 

This resolution scarcely needs other comment than to say that the 
necessity exists for guarding the progress that has already been made. 

A similar back tendency in certain directions is shown by a recent 
editorial in American Medicine (January, 1910, p. 7) on " The Tyranny of 
the Metric Advocates and French Metric Tyranny." While the percentage 
of physicians who actually use the metric system in prescription writing 
is very small, it is probable that the majority of them recognize its 
advantages, and hence it may be taken for granted that this editorial will 
not have any real influence in hindering progress. 

As showing what may be done by local branches of the A. Ph. A. 
attention is called to the action of the Chicago Branch which proposed 
two resolutions for submission to the National Convention of City Sealers 
which met in Washington on February 25 (See A. Ph. A. Bulletin, 
February, 1910). 

A. B. Stevens, 

Charles E. Caspari, 

C. S. Brinton, 

Philip Asher, 

Henry Kraemer, Chairman. 



One of the interesting and instructive features of the meeting 
was an exhibit of medicinal plants which was planned by President 
Rusby and largely contributed to by him. Dr. R. H. True, of 
the Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, also sent a number of interesting plants from the Arlington 
drug farm of the government. Support was also received through 
the specimens contributed by Messrs. Eli Lilly & Co., Prof. E. 
V. Howell, University of North Carolina Department of Pharmacy, 
Professor Sayre of the University of Kansas and Professor Kraemer 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. With the exception of the 
specimens of hydrastis growing in soil and brought to the meeting 
by Professor Kraemer, all of the plants were placed in jars con- 
taining water and retained their fresh condition during the greater 
portion of the meeting. Quite a number of the specimens repre- 
sented the leafy branches of the plant and gave rather a good 
idea of the nature of the plants. The following is an attempt 



Am joiir. Pharin. i American Pharmaceutical Association. 289 

June, 1910. ) ' 

to give a nearly complete list of the plants which were exhibited 
and is published as it may be suggestive for use in connection 
with future exhibits. 

Aconitum Napellus, Acorus Calamus, Achillea millefolium, 
Aesculus glabra, Aralia nudicaulis, Arctium Lappa, Aristolochia 
Serpentaria, Artemisia Absinthium, Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum 
reflexum, Asclepias tuberosa, Baptisia tinctoria, Brauneria 
(Echinacea) pallida, B. purpurea, Calendula officinalis, Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris, Carum Carvi, Chamaelirium carolinianum, Cercis 
canadensis, Chelone glabra, Cimicifuga racemosa, Cinnamomuni 
zeylanicum, Conium maculatum, Convallaria majalis, Cornus florida, 
Cornus florida variety purpurea, Dryopteris marginalis, Equisetum 
hyemale, Eriodictyon californicum, Euonymus atropurpureus, 
Foeniculum vulgare, Gelsemium sempervirens, Geranium macula- 
tum, Glechoma hederacea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gnaphalium obtusi- 
folium, Hepatica acuta and H. triloba, Hydrangea arborescens, 
Hydrastis canadensis, Hyoscyamus niger, Inula Helenium, Iris 
versicolor, Jeffersonia diphylla, Leptamnium virginianum, Levis- 
ticum officinale, Melissa officinalis, Mentha crispa, M. longifolia, 
M. piperita and M. spicata, Monarda fistulosa, Nepeta Cataria, 
Panax quinquefolium, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Passiflora 
caerulea, Phytolacca decandra, Piper nigrum, Phlox Carolina and 
P. ovata, Plantago major, Polygala Senega, Podophyllum peltatum, 
Primus serotina, Pycnanthemum (Koellia) albescens, Quercus alba, 
Rhus glabra, Rubia tinctorum, Rumex crispus and R. obtusifolius, 
Salix alba, Salvia officinalis, Saponaria officinalis, Sassafras offi- 
cinale, Scopolia carniolica, Senecio aureus, Spathyema foetida, 
Tanacetum vulgare, Thea sinensis, Trillium erectum, Taraxacum 
officinale, Triosteum perfoliatum and T. angustifolium, Valeriana 
officinalis, Vanilla planifolia, Veratrum viride, Verbascum thapsus, 
Viburnum prunifolium, Xanthorrhiza apiifolia. 

A Committee on Editing was appointed to consider the framing 
of certain rules in regard to the use of titles and academic degrees 
in connection with the names of members to be printed in the 
Proceedings and also to agree on common editorial forms. These 
rules are to be applied on all the publications of the A. Ph. A., 
and it was further recommended that outside associations appoint 
delegates to confer with this Committee in order that there may 
be unison in the general manner of editing pharmaceutical 
publications in this country. President Rusby appointed the fol- 



290 American Pharmaceutical Association, j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



lowing members on this Committee : H. F. Taylor, C. S. N. Hall- 
berg, C. A. Mayo, F. B. Hays and Henry Kraemer. 

William B. Day, Chairman of the Committee on Membership, 
recommended the appointment of an official delegate of the A. Ph. 
A. to each of the meetings of the various State Pharmaceutical 
Associations who is to be requested to be present at the opening 
meeting of each of the State Associations. This recommendation 
was adopted and ought to be a means of directing attention to 
the work of the A. Ph. A. and of increasing its membership and 
should besides receive the support of all the members of the various 
State pharmaceutical associations. 

The following reports were also received : the Committee on 
Reorganization, C. S. N. Hallberg, Chairman ; the Committee on 
Branches, C. A. Mayo, Chairman; the Committee on the William 
Procter, Jr., Monument Fund, John F. Hancock, Chairman ; the 
Committee on Publicity, F. B. Hays, Chairman ; the Committee 
on the Status of Pharmacy in the Army and Navy, George F. 
Payne, Chairman. 

The Committee on National Formulary through its Chairman, 
C. Lewis Diehl, presented a report which indicated the progress 
of the work and showed close co-operation with the members of 
the medical profession and the Committee on Unofficial Standards 
of A. Ph. A. The Association voted to allow a sum not exceeding 
$1000.00 for the use of the Committee in making a line of prepara- 
tions which shall become the property of the Association and be 
of use for purposes of reference. 

After the presentation of the report of the Committee on 
National Formulary it was moved by George M. Beringer that an 
honorarium of $50 be voted M. I. Wilbert for the extra services 
which he voluntarily rendered as a member of the Committee by 
having mimeographed copies made of the various circular letters 
and committee reports. This motion was at first approved by the 
Association, but later Mr. Beringer asked to reconsider the action 
taken, as Mr. Wilbert stated that on account of his being a 
government employe he could not accept the honorarium. After 
some additional discussion it was suggested that a vote of thanks 
to Surgeon-General Wyman, for his willingness to co-operate in 
the perfecting of the U.S. P. and the N.F., would be the more 
appropriate method of showing the appreciation of the work done 



Am junTi9io arm '[ American Pharmaceutical Association. 291 

in connection with the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service. 
A resolution of this nature was then passed unanimously. 

The final session of the Association continued till nearly 7 
o'clock on Saturday afternoon. It was announced that Mr. Ewen 
Mclntyre had been elected Honorary President. The session was 
concluded with the installation of the following officers-elect for 
1910-1911: President, Eugene G. Eberle; First Vice-President, 
William B. Day; Second Vice-President, Otto F. Clause; Third 
Vice-President, Leonard A. Seltzer; Treasurer, H. M. Whelpley; 
Reporter on Progress of Pharmacy, C. Lewis Diehl ; and General 
Secretary, Charles Caspari, Jr. 

With this was concluded a meeting which will always stand out 
in the recollection of the members on account of its pleasant asso- 
ciations and the accomplishment of a vast amount of work. 

SECTIONAL MEETINGS. 

Simultaneous sessions of the several sections continued through- 
out the meeting. The program for the Section on Scientific 
Papers as published in the May Bulletin of the A. Ph. A. was 
strictly adhered to, thus making it possible for those in attendance 
to know what was being done in at least this one section. 

The Scientific Section, with M. I. Wilbert as Chairman, held 
six sessions during which about 50 original communications were 
read and discussed. The Chairman's address was devoted to a 
consideration of lines of investigation and of fields of inquiry which 
might well claim our attention as it relates to the " uplift movement" 
in pharmacy. It included a discussion of the following subjects: 
(a) the pharmacist and the public health, (b) lost opportunities, 
(c) the coming revision of the U.S. P. and (d) the coming era 
in pharmacy. The whole of one session was devoted to the con- 
sideration of the report of the A. Ph. A. Committee on the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia. Thirty-two recommendations were discussed and 
finally approved by the Association and several of them were finally 
incorporated in the " General Principles to be followed in Revising 
the Pharmacopoeia " adopted by the U. S. Pharmacopceial Con- 
vention. 

The symposium on Physiological Testing was one of the im- 
portant events of the meeting. The papers and discussion were 
suggestive, inspiring and forceful. One of the results of this 
symposium was the appointment of a Committee on Physiologic 



292 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am j u J °e r i^o arm * 



Assays by the Association to consist of experts whose duty it will 
be to coordinate the various methods of biological assays and to 
propose standard methods. President Rusby subsequently appointed 
as members of this Committee: E. M. Houghton, Reid Hunt, H. 
C. Wood, Jr., R. A. Hatcher, Torald Sollmann and A. C. Crawford. 

The Ebert Prize was awarded to H. M. Gordin for his papers 
of last year as well as his numerous scientific papers to the 
Association. The Committee on Drug Market, through the Chair- 
man, E. L. Patch, presented a valuable report similar to those 
received by the Association for some years past. The officers- 
elect of the Scientific Section are Chairman, A. H. Clark ; and 
Secretary, Wm. O. Richtmann. 

The Section on Practical Pharmacy and Dispensing held three 
sessions. The Chairman, Mr. Otto Raubenheimer, in his address 
reminded the members of the role of eminent pharmacists, 
chemists, pharmacognosists and scientists who were born a hundred 
years ago and said that shortly there would be celebrated the 
centenary of the discovery of the most important alkaloids and 
that in about ten years the centenary of the oldest College of 
Pharmacy in the United States would also be celebrated. He 
also directed the attention of pharmacists to those studies and 
practices which would enable them to keep abreast of the times 
and to possess the necessary pharmaceutical knowledge which would 
assist them in doing their share for the protection of the patient. 

One of the interesting sessions of this section was that devoted 
to a " symposium on the most important pharmacopoeias of the 
world." While the greatest benefit must accrue to those who had 
an opportunity of seeing the pharmacopoeias and examining them 
as well as participating in the discussions it would be indeed 
fortunate if the symposium of papers could be published as a 
separate pamphlet or at least together in one number of the 
Bulletin of the A. Ph. A. There were twenty-five papers presented, 
and one session was devoted entirely to a comparison of the most 
important groups of galenicals of the more important pharma- 
copoeias with those of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National 
Formulary, which was illustrated with specimens. The officers- 
elect of this section for the year 1910-11 are: Chairman, Carl 
Saalbach and Secretary, P. Henry Utech. 

The Section on Education and Legislation held three sessions 
and as in the previous sections mentioned the interest was main- 



Am jiie r iwo arm ' } American Pharmaceutical Association. 293 

tained up to the time for adjournment. The address of the Chair- 
man, Charles H. La Wall was upon the subject of Education and 
Pharmacy and is published in full in the American Druggist for 
May 9, 1910, p. 288. Nearly twenty-five papers were presented 
in addition to which there was a joint session of the section with 
the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy and American 
Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. 

The following officers of this section were elected for the 
ensuing year : Chairman, Charles W. Johnson ; Secretary, W. J. 
Teeters ; Associates, J. W. Sturmer, Philip Asher and J. C. Wallace. 

The Historical Section held a single session with the Chairman, 
E. G. Eberle, in the chair. To the student of the Association and 
he who is the veteran in matters pharmaceutical these sessions are 
acknowledged to be to-day an essential part of the work of the 
Association. The papers of E. V. Howell on the pioneer botanists 
of the United States are always stimulating and refreshing. The 
letters of great pharmacists, the historical data relating to the 
Boards of Pharmacy and the State Pharmaceutical Associations, 
and the papers on historical subjects, which are pouring into the 
Association each year require that the Association very soon enter 
upon some plan for the erection of a permanent building where 
these documents may be conserved and made available to the 
members. 

The Historian, Edward Kremers, presented a report in which 
he again recommended the creation of the office of Librarian and 
suggested " that the numerous officers of the Association file such 
portions of their correspondence and other documents, as might be 
of value, with the Historian, when they are through with this 
material." He also suggested that some steps be taken to secure 
the deposit and permanent care of the valuable documents that 
must have been accumulated by the chairmen of the several revision 
committees of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia in some place where they 
will be generally available both to the medical and pharmaceutical 
professions. The officers-elect of the Historical Section for 1910- 
191 1 are: Chairman, J. L. Lemberger; and Secretary, Otto Raub- 
enheimer. 

The Commercial Section held two sessions with the Chairman 
Waldo M. Bowman presiding. The chairman's address dealt with 
the subject of the " Purification of Commercial Pharmacy," in 
which he directed attention to " the need of elevating the standards 



294 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ju™, r i9ia m ' 

of commercial practice in pharmacy and of purifying it of the 
evils that encompass it." Twelve papers were presented to the 
section and that some of these seemed to belong to one or the 
other of the other sections, furnishes an illustration of the difficulty 
in drawing the lines between the work of the several sections. 

The following are the officers of the Commercial Section for 
the ensuing year: Chairman, F. M. Apple; Secretary, B. E. 
Pritchard ; Associates, Sydney Yeomans and C. M. Ford. 

The Program of Entertainment under the charge of the Local 
Secretary, T. A. Miller, included a luncheon at Lakeside Park; 
a reception, tendered the Association by His Excellency, Wm. H. 
Mann, at the Governor's mansion; a card party for the ladies at 
the Woman's Club, and many courtesies including special trips to 
historic points in and around the city of Richmond. 

H. K. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The eighty-ninth annual commencement of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the American Academy of Music 
on Thursday evening, May 26. After prayer by Rev. Llewellyn 
N. Caley, the degrees were conferred by President Howard B. 
French. 

The following are the names of those who received the degree 
of Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), together with the subjects: 



Name. 
Amsterdam, Peter, 
Bartholomew, Samuel 

Howard, 
Baun, William David, 
Beck, Jay Dana, 



Blumberg, Joseph, 
Bolton, Stephen Dwight, 



Borneman, Warren 

Roland, 
Bose, Charles Henry, 
Breen, James Stanley, 



Thesis. State or Country. 

Cassia Bark and Cinnamons (official) Russia 

The Volumetric Determination of 
Sodium Borate, 

Cinchona and its Bast Fibres, 

A Simple Apparatus for the Recov- 
ery of Alcohol in the Retail Phar- 
macy, 

Zinc Oxide, 

The Manufacture of Extract of Va- 
nilla and its Importance in Phar- 
macy, 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



New York 



Potassii Bitartras, 
Sambucus Canadensis, 
A Process for Determining the Value 
of Soap, 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1910. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



295 



Name. 

Bringman, Merle Stoles, 
Brooks, Jay William, 

Butt, Luke Thomas, 
Chapman, George Ful- 
mer, 

Connelly, Lester Cleve- 
land, 

Deck, Roy, 

DeHaven, Henry Ver- 
non, 

Dilatush, Howard Bur- 
tis, 

Driver, Walter, 
Durbin, William Stacey, 
Eberly, Norman Elias, 
Eby, Maurice Herr, 
Emlet, John Matthias, 
Feinstein (Miss) Anna 
(P.C.), 

Gibney, Edward Paul, 

Goodwin, James Jeffries, 
Greenberg, Hyman, 

Greene, William Robert, 
Greiner, Chloe Earl, 
Griesener, Fred, 
Grom, Roland Bismarck, 
Grove, Norbert Harri- 
son, 

Guenther, Harold Dick- 
inson, 



Harris, William Clyde, 
Harting, Alfred Martin, 

Henkel, Joseph Victor, 
Henrie, Arthur Cecil, 

Hickory, Edward Cal- 



Honsaker, Charles Coy, 
Horn, Charles Lewis, 



Thesis. 

Blood and Tests for Blood, 

The A.O.A.C. Standards as applied 



to Belladonna, 
Pepsin, 

Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, 
The Advantages of the Compound 

Microscope in the Examination of 

Powdered Drugs, 
H2O2 as sold by Druggists, 

Sandalwood, 

Phenol, 

A Quick Method for Filling Bottles, 

Rhamnus Purshiana, 

Hydrastis, 

Prescription Difficulties, 
Ferri Sulphas Exsiccatuc, 

Microscopical Examination of Pov/- 
dered Rhubarb, j 1 ft, 

Soluble Bismuth and Sodmni Tar- 
trate, 3 a ? V; 

Assay of Ferrum Rsd^etum, 

Improved Method for Pr-p^r^d Can- 
tor Oil, 

Antiseptic Properties of Iron, 
Liquor Potassii Hydroxidi, 
Liquor Sodae Chlorinatse, 
Evolution and Pharmacy, 

Chromium Trioxide, 

Percentage Loss or Gain in Weight 
of U.S. P. Chemicals at Store Tem- 
perature, 

Arsenious Iodide, 

Solution Iron Peptonate with Man- 
ganese, 

Monohydrated Sodium Carbonate, 
Analytical Methods for the Pharma- 
cist, 



State or Country. 
Pennsylvania 

New York 
Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

New Jersey 
Utah 

Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



R\i3sia% 

"Pennsylvania 
Kentucky' \ 

Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Ohio 

Pennsylvania 
New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 

Maryland 
Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 



Toilet Creams of the Casein and So- 
dium Stearate Types, Pennsylvania 
Phenolphthalein, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Ferri Iodidi N.F. 3d, Pennsylvania 



296 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



Name. Thesis. State or Country. 

Hulick, George Bercaw, Spiritus yEtheris Nitrosi, Pennsylvania 
Jones, Ellsworth R., Rhamnus Purshiana, Pennsylvania 
Kehr, Erney Cornelius, Glycerite of the Phosphates of Iron, 

Quinine and strychnine, Pennsylvania 

Keister, Vastine Atkin- 
son, Bacterium Lactici Acidi, Virginia 
Keys, William Wallace, Commercial Varieties of Rhubarb, Pennsylvania 
Kniley, Eugene Walker, Sodii Sulphus, Pennsylvania 
Kooker, John Leedom, Caffea, Pennsylvania 
Korb, Edward Michael, Zinc Oxide, Pennsylvania 
Kramer, James, Syrup of Ferrous Iodide, Pennsylvania 
Lamb, Sylvan Deering, Magma Bismuthi, Indiana 
Lang, Charles Nicholas, The Collection, Preparation and 

Preservation of a local Herbarium, Pennsylvania 
Laros, William Jonas, Window Dressing and its Value, Pennsylvania 
Levan, George B., The Preservation of Vegetable 

Drugs, Pennsylvania 
Lounds, Albert Edward, Permanency of Glycerophosphates, Florida 
Lounsbury, Willi? m At- / 
-The Preservation of Syrup of Fer- 
rous Iodide, New Jersey 
, Fha Assay and, Micro-Chemistry of 
' '^krophantfras, Pennsylvania 



kinson, fJ \ } £ i 
Loveless, Earl Martin, 



McAninch, iliVfy El- 

m'ei;,c ( 

Me.Cart35, Raymond" : ' << 

Welles, 7 
McCutcheon, Thomas 

Edward, 

McGonigal, John Aloy- 
sius, 

McMillen, Donald At- 
lee, 

Mall as, Maurice Louis, 

Marshall, Thomas Car- 
penter, 

Metcalf, Elliott Harri- 
son, 

Metzler, Robert, 
Mohn, Emory Shinkle. 

Morgan (Miss) Lula 

A. (P.C.), 
Moser, Earl Spencer, 
Mueller, Sister Bertha, 



I iquor Magnesii Citratis, Pennsylvania 
Pepsin, Pennsylvania 
Aloes, Identification, Adulteration 



and Tests, 
History of Opium, 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



The Effect of Heat on the Alkaloidal 

Assay of Opium, Pennsylvania 
Collection of the Medicinal Barks of 

Commerce, Pennsylvania 



Elixir Digestivum Comp, 



Pennsylvania 



Pancreatin, Connecticut 
Hepatica, Pennsylvania 

Potassium Iodide and Potassium 

Bromide, Pennsylvania 



Acidum Boricum, 
Sapo Mollis, 
Digitalis, 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Michigan 



Am. Jour. Phai 

June, 1910, 



m -| Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



297 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 

Delaware 



Name. * Thesis. State or Country. 

Mutty, Joseph Edwin, Liquid Extract of China " Dutch," Maine 
Naly (Miss) Sarah L. 

(Ph.G.)j Microscopical Laboratory, 

Owens, Evan Richard, Viburnum Prunifolium, 
Pettyjohn, Harry Jack- 
son, Colocynthis, 
Press, Henry William, The Proper Time to Collect Roots 

and Rhizomes, Pennsylvania 

Raines, Edward 
William, Bacteriological Examination of Gela- 

tin, Illinois 

Ritchey, George Edgar, Kaolinum, Pennsylvania 

Ritchey, Jacob C. Leh- 
man, Hydrastis Canadensis, Pennsylvania 

Rodes, Zebulon Harri- 
son, Ammonium Sulpho-Ichthyolate, Pennsylvania 

Roof, William George, The Manufacture of Paper, Pennsylvania 

Rothenberger, Charles 

B., The Cultivation of Hydrastis Cana- 

densis, Pennsylvania 

Ruch, Walter Edward, The Utility of Pharmacognosy, New Jersey 

Russell, Percy Reginald, Milk of Magnesia, Pennsylvania 

Scargle, William, A Practical System of Discounts for 

Pennsylvania 

Schabacker, Horace 

Martin, 
Schuehle, Christopher, 

Jr., 

Shelly, William Harri- 
son C, 

Solomon, Roscoe, 

Stratton, Ernest Ken- 
neth, 

Topper, Louis LeRoy, 

Treichler, Frank Albert, Sodium Benzoate, 

Turner, Walter William, Cannabis Indica, 

Viner, Lewis, Glycerinum, 

Walton, John Carroll, Essentia Pepsini, 

Webb, Paul Carleton 

Hill, Notes on the Histology and Chemis- 

try of Tonquin Wood, Pennsylvania 

Webb, Walter Nardin, Olive Oil, S. Carolina 

Werner, Karl, Vanilla Flavoring Extracts, Pennsylvania 

Wiesner, Joseph Frank- 
lin, Potassii Bicarbonas, Wisconsin 

Willingmyre, Philip 
Shuster, The Effect of Heat on Opium, Pennsylvania 



Pharmacists, 
Pepsinum, 
Seed Dispersal, 

Phenolphthalein as a Cathartic, 
Phenol, 

Casein 
Saccharum, 



Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Russia 

Pennsylvania 



298 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, j 



Am. Jour. Ehmar. 
June, 1910. 



Name. 

Wilson, John Herbert, 

Wilson, Lewis Elmer, 
Wilson, Robert James, 
Wolfe, Claude Senft, 
Workman, Edward Ben- 
jamin, 

Zelmanoff, David Solo- 
mon, 

Ziegler, FranK Loomis, 
Ziegler, John Edwin, 



Thesis. State or Country. 

Some Special Tests for Valuation 

of Anthemis, Pennsylvania 
Fluid Glycerite of Krameria, Maine 
Precipitated Manganese Dioxide, Pennsylvania 
Elixir Aromaticum, Pennsylvania 



Magnesium Oxide, 

Sulphur Iodide, 
Calcium Orthosilicate, 
Oleum Cinnamomi, 



Pennsylvania 
Russia 

Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



The following are the names of those who received the degree 
of Pharmaceutical Chemist (P. C), together with the subjects 
of their theses : 

Name. 
Bost, William Dale, 
Cadwallader, Wayne, 
Calvin, William Ray, 
Cooper, William Benja 
min, 

Costello (Miss), Mary 

O'Dea, 
Ferry (Miss), Fanny, 

Fleisher, Lewis, 
Henry, Carl Racine, 
Klopp, Wallace Ell- 
wood, 

Lengel, James Petri, 
Powell (Miss), Mary 
G., 

Sankey, Foster John, 
Schmidt (Miss), Selma 

L., The Testing of Balsam of Peru, Ohio 

Severa, Lumir, Liquor Chlori Compositus, Iowa 

Siegel, Philip, Precipitates in i\lkaloidal Tinctures, Colorado 

The following were awarded certificates in the Pure Food and 
Drug Course : Harmon M. Sechler, Pennsylvania ; and Ralph 
Thomas Ulrich, P.D., Pennsylvania. 

There were 122 candidates for the degree in course, coming 
from the various States and countries as follows : Colorado, 1 ; 



Thesis. State or Country. 

Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis, N. Carolina 

Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus, Pennsylvania 

Liquor Potassii Arsenitis, Pennsylvania 

The Value of Efficiency of Grease- 
less Creams, Pennsylvania 

The Anatomy of Cactus, Pennsylvania 
The Size of Globules in Various 

Emulsions, Pennsylvania 
Cork, • Pennsylvania 

Liquor Sodii Phosphatis Compositus, New York 

The Commercial Varieties of Va- 
nilla, Pennsylvania 
Rhubarb, Pennsylvania 

The Morphology of the Glandular 

Hairs of Humulus, Pennsylvania 
Ammonia, Pennsylvania 



Am june^£o arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 299 

Connecticut, 1 ; Delaware, 1 ; Florida, 1 ; Illinois, 1 ; Indiana, 1 ; 
Iowa, 1 ; Kentucky, 1 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 1 ; Michigan, 1 ; 
New Jersey, 5 ; New York, 3 ; North Carolina, 1 ; Ohio, 2 ; 
Pennsylvania, 91 ; Russia, 4; South Carolina, 1 ; Utah, 1 ; Virginia, 
1 ; and Wisconsin, 1. 

A brief but trenchant address to the graduating class was 
delivered by His Excellency, Hon. Edwin S. Stuart, Governor of 
Pennsylvania, in which he considered " Some of the Qualities that 
make for Success," dwelling particularly upon the importance of 
industry, perseverance, and integrity. 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The following students received the grade of distinguished : 
Sister Bertha Mueller and Walter E. Ruch. The grade of meri- 
torious was attained by John A. McGonigal, Mary G. Powell, 
Zebulon H. Rodes and John E. Ziegler. 

The Proctor Prize, a gold medal and certificate, for the 
highest general average of the class with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to Sister Bertha Mueller, the presentation being made 
by President French. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and 
certificate offered for the highest general average in the branches 
of committee, operative pharmacy and specimens, was awarded to 
Sister Bertha Mueller, the presentation being made by W. L. 
Cliffe. The following graduates received honorable mention in 
connection therewith: John A. McGonigal and Zebulon H. Rodes. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe, for the best examination in materia medica and in the 
recognition of materia medica specimens with a meritorious thesis, 
was awarded to Sister Bertha Mueller. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith : Jay D. Beck, 
William R. Calvin, Lester C. Connelly, Charles L. Horn, Thomas 
E. McCutcheon, John A. McGonigal, Elliott H. Metcalf, Henry 
W. Press, Zebulon H. Rodes, Walter E. Ruch, Robert J. Wilson 
and John E. Ziegler. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a Zentmayer microscope, 
offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer, for the most meritorious thesis 
involving original microscopic work, was awarded to Sister Bertha 
Mueller. The following graduates received honorable mention in 



300 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. j Am £ i r - 1 t m - 

connection therewith : Peter Amsterdam, William D. Baun, Jay 
W. Brooks, Norman E. Eberly, Vastine A. Keister, Wallace E. 
Klopp, Earl M. Loveless, Mary G. Powell, Edward W. Raines 
and Paul C. H. Webb. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. 
Frank X. Moerk, for the best work in qualitative and quantitative 
analysis, was awarded to Norman Elias Eberly. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith: 
James J. Goodwin, Sister Bertha Mueller, Zebulon H. Rodes and 
Walter E. Ruch. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by 
Prof. Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in operative 
pharmacy, was awarded to Thomas Edward McCutcheon. The 
following graduates received honorable mention in connection there- 
with : Roy Deck, Arthur C. Henrie, John A. McGonigal, Sister 
Bertha Mueller, Joseph E. Mutty, Foster J. Sankey and Christopher 
Schuehle, Jr. 

The Maisch Pharmacognosy Prize, $20 in gold, established 
by the late Jacob H. Redsecker, of Lebanon, Pa., and continued 
as a memorial by his nephew, Jacob Redsecker Beetem, for his- 
tological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Sister Bertha Mueller, 
the presentation being made by J. L. Lemberger. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith : 
William R. Calvin, Charles L. Horn, Thomas E. McCutcheon, John 
A. McGonigal, Walter E. Ruch and John E: Ziegler. 

The Maisch Botany Prize, $20, offered by Mr. Joseph Jacobs, 
of Atlanta, Ga., for the best herbarium collection of plants, was 
awarded to Charles Nicholas Lang, the presentation being made 
by E. L. Newcomb. The following graduate received honorable 
mention in connection therewith : George B. Levan. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner Agate Pre- 
scription Balance, established by the late Mahlon N. Kline, for the 
best examination in theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded 
to John Aloysius McGonigal, the presentation being made by his 
son, C. Mahlon Kline. The following graduates received honor- 
able mention in connection therewith: Peter Amsterdam, Sister 
Bertha Mueller and Mary G. Powell. 

The Commercial Training Prize, $20 in gold, offered by 
Prof. Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best 
examination in commercial training at the final examination for 



Am j^ne, r i9 P io arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



301 



the degree, was awarded to Walter Ruch, the presentation being- 
made by E. Fullerton Cook. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith: Jay D. Beck, Jay W. 
Brooks, Wayne Cadawallader, William R. Calvin, Roy Deck, 
Walter Driver, John M. Emlet, Fred Griesemer, Norbet H. Grove, 
Alfred M. Harting, Edwin C. Hickory, Charles L. Horn, Wallace 
E. Klopp, Thomas E. McCutcheon, Sister Bertha Mueller, Joseph 
E. Mutty, Harry J. Pettyjohn, Mary G. Powell, Lumir Severa, 
Frank L. Ziegler and John E. Ziegler. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the 
College for the highest term average in the branches of pharmacy, 
chemistry and materia medica, was awarded to Walter E. Ruch, 
the presentation being made by F. P. Stroup. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith : 
Jay W. Brooks, William R. Calvin, John M. Emlet, James J. 
Goodwin, Charles L. Horn, Ceorge B. Levan, John A. McGonigal, 
Maurice L. Mallas, Sister Bertha Mueller, Henry W. Press, Zebulon 
H. Rodes, Christopher Schuehle, Jr., Frank L. Ziegler and John 
E. Ziegler. 

The Pharmacy Quiz Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
LaWall for the best term work in theory and practice of pharmacy, 
was awarded to Walter Ruch. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : George B. Levan and 
Zebulon H. Rodes. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, a gold medal, offered by the 
Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making the 
highest general average during his or her senior year at the 
College, was awarded to Sister Bertha Mueller, the presentation 
being made by Professor Remington. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith : John A. 
McGonigal, Mary G. Powell, Zebulon H. Rodes, Walter E. Ruch 
and John E. Ziegler. 

The Athletic Prize, a silver loving cup, offered by Henry 
S. Godshall, P.D., and John J. Bridgeman, P.D., to the member 
of the graduating class who, at commencement, stands with the 
greatest number of points in athletics to his credit and has ob- 
tained the highest general average amongst those participating 
in athletics at the College, was awarded to Evan Richard Owens, 
the presentation being made by Dr. R. Tait McKenzie, 



302 



Pharmaceutical Faculties. 



Am. Jour. Phann. 
June, 1910. 



Director of Physical Education in the University of Pennsylvania. 
The following graduate received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : John M. Emlet. 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER. 

A complimentary supper to the graduating class was given by 
the Faculty on Wednesday evening, May 25. In addition to the 
toast by the members of the Faculty and Instructors, brief responses 
were made by some 30 members of the graduating class represent- 
ing different sections of the United States and foreign countries. 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

The baccalaureate sermon was preached by the Rev. David M. 
Steele in the Church of St. Luke and the Epiphany on Sunday, 
May 22, at four o'clock. 

BANQUET. 

A banquet was tendered the alumni of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy who' were recently selected members of the General 
Committee of Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia at the Union 
League following the graduation exercises on Thursday evening, 
May 26. President Howard B. French presided, and among the 
invited guests was Governor Edwin S. Stuart. 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The Alumni Association held its forty-sixth annual meeting 
on Monday, May 23. The annual banquet was held on Tuesday 
evening, May 24, at the Hotel Walton and was attended by nearly 
250 members and invited guests. The details of the events of 
the Alumni Association will be published in the Alumni Report. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING 
OF THE AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF PHAR- 
MACEUTICAL FACULTIES HELD AT 
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. 

Twenty-six colleges of pharmacy were represented by delegates 
at this the eleventh annual meeting held May 2-7, 19 10. On 
account of the death of the president of the Conference, Wm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. J 
June, 1910. f 



New Essential Oils. 



303 



M. Searby, the vice-president, E. H. La Pierre, presided at the 
meetings. 

The vice-president in his address called particular attention to 
the growth of the Conference from seventeen schools at its organ- 
ization in 1900 at Richmond, Va., to thirty-three schools now 
holding membership. 

The report of the chairman of the executive committee showed 
that the Conference was doing much toward assisting in raising 
the standards of pharmaceutical education. 

The pharmaceutical syllabus was carefully considered and the 
Conference voted to approve its general scope and purposes. The 
following were elected to represent the Conference on the general 
syllabus committee: J. H. Beal, H. H. Rusby, J. O. Schlotterbeck, 
J. A. Koch, W. C. Anderson, C. B. Lowe, and H. V. Amy. 

The by-laws of the constitution were amended so as to provide 
that one year of high-school shall be the minimum requirement 
for entrance to all schools holding membership in the Conference. 

Prof. J. T. McGill, of Vanderbilt University, read a paper on 
" The High School in the Southern States." The aim of Professor 
McGill's paper was to show that the southern states had ample 
high-school facilities to prepare students to meet the minimum 
requirement of one year's high-school work. 

The following persons were elected as officers of the Conference 
for the year 1910-1911: President, J. O. Schlotterbeck, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Vice-President, W. J. Teeters, State 
University of Iowa, Iowa City; Secretary-Treasurer, Charles W. 
Johnson, University of Washington, Seattle ; Executive Committee : 
Chairman, J. A. Koch, Pittsburg College of Pharmacy, Pittsburg; 
F. P. Stroup, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Philadelphia; 
E. G. Eberle, Baylor University, College of Pharmacy, Dallas, 
Texas ; E. H. La Pierre, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy,Boston ; 
J. M. Good, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis. 



NEW ESSENTIAL OILS * 

Oil of Cinnamomum Tamala. — Besides other low-grade Cinna- 
momum-species, it is especially Cinnamomum Tamala (Nees et 
Eberm.), a tree of medium size, growing plentifully in Southern 
Asia, which yields " Mutterzimt," Cassia Lignea, or Woodcassia, 

*From Semi-Ann ual Report of Schimmel & Co., April, 19 10, pp. 122- 

124. 



304 



New Essential Oils. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1910. 



termed by the retail trade simply Cassia. The leaves of the tree 
are still used medicinally in the East Indies; in former years they 
were also met with in commerce (the narrow Folia Malabathri) 
but they are now obsolete. The leaves contain an essential oil of 
which we recently received a sample, which had been distilled by 
Mr. I. H. Burkill, of Calcutta. The oil was of a lemon-yellow 
colour, and had a clovelike, at the same time slightly peppery, odour. 
It possessed the following constants: d I5 ° 1,0257, a D -f- 16 37', n D2o° 
1,52596; phenol-content 78 per cent., soluble in 1,2 volumes and over 
of 70 per cent, alcohol. The phenols consisted of eugenol (m. p. 
of the benzoyl compound 69 ). When freed from phenols, the oil 
had the high optical rotation a D -\- 66° 40' and yielded a solid nitrite 
which, when recrystallised from ethyl acetate melted at 113 to 114 . 
It contained therefore d-a-phellandrene. In respect of its high 
eugenol content it is closely allied to the ordinary oil from Ceylon 
cinnamon leaves. 

Oil of Mentha silvestris. — An oil of Mentha silvestris L., pre- 
pared in Cyprus, was found to possess the following properties : 
di5° 0,9701, a D -j- 31 30', n D 2 o°'Ji ,49544, acid no. 2,4, ester no. 
20,9, ester no. after acetyl. 171,4, soluble in 3 vols, of 70 per cent, 
alcohol; (the diluted solution showed slight opalescence;) faintly 
mint-like odour; yellow colour. It is obvious that the saponifica- 
tion number of 171,4 after acetylation of the oil cannot in this case 
be indicative of the menthol content, which,, judging by this factor, 
should have been 54,8 per cent. ; for as a matter of fact the sample 
contained but little menthol. The mint-like odour was chiefly due 
to the presence of pulegone, of which the oil contained 40 per cent, 
(isolated with neutral sulphite of sodium). In addition to this a 
phenol (probably carvacrol) could be detected, from which it is to 
be supposed that this, also, would become esterified and would help 
to swell the acetylation value. Owing to the simultaneous occur- 
rence in it of menthol, pulegone and a phenol, the oil cannot be used 
either as peppermint oil or as European pennyroyal or origanum 
oil. It is differentiated from oil of peppermint by its much higher 
specific gravity and by its pronounced dextrorotatory power. We 
received the sample from the Imperial Institute in London. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, ipio 



INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS— THE DESIRABILITY OF 
DEVELOPING INTERNATIONAL UNIFORMITY 
IN NOMENCLATURE AND STRENGTH OF 
WIDELY USED MEDICINES* 

By M. L Wilbert. 
Hygienic Laboratory — U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

For many decades the better informed men in pharmacy as well 
as medicine have endeavored to create more widespread interest in 
the need for generally acceptable uniform names and standards of 
strength for medicinal preparations. 

This need for universal standards, first recognized in the early 
years of the nineteenth century, was more fully appreciated when 
steam and. electricity began to annihilate space and time so that the 
previously formidable obstacle of distance no longer sufficed to keep 
the people of different countries from intermingling. 

It was pointed out at a very early period that the lack of uni- 
formity in nomenclature and standards of strength for pharma- 
ceutical preparations constitutes a real source of danger to the 
traveller, but it was soon recognized that the direct danger to the 
individual is of much less import than the indirect effect on the 
progress of the sciences of medicine. 

This indirect effect has evidenced itself in many ways, not the 
least important of which has been the hindrance that the evident 
wariation in name and strength of pharmaceutical preparations has 
been to the development of a rational materia medica and the in- 

* Prepared for the Congress on Hygiene and Medicine, held in the City 
of Buenos Ayres, Argentine, May, 1910. 

(305) 



3o6 



International Standards. 



S Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1910. 



fluence it has had on the increase of proprietary medicaments with 
their attending misrepresentation and fraud. 

The growth of intercommunication and commerce which followed 
the Napoleonic wars early in the nineteenth century led to repeated 
attempts to secure greater uniformity in strength and nomenclature 
of medicaments. One of these earlier attempts is reflected by a 
conspectus of the several then existing pharmacopoeias, dispensa- 
tories and formularies of the world, compiled by A. J. L. Jourdan, 
and published in 1828. A second edition of this work, in two 
volumes, comprising a total of more than 1450 pages, was published 
in 1840. 

The first edition included a review of 35 official pharmacopoeias 
and 18 formularies while the second edition included 42 pharmaco- 
poeias and 31 formularies. 

Largely due to the initiative of Professor George DragendorfT, 
then just at the beginning of his eventful career, an International 
Pharmaceutical Congress was held at Brunswick, Germany, in 1865, 
to discuss the possibility of evolving greater uniformity in pharmaco- 
poeial requirements. This initial congress was attended by delegates 
from Germany, Russia, Austria, France, and Sweden. In discussing 
the practicability of evolving an international pharmacopoeia it was 
pointed out that uniformity in nomenclature and in the formulae 
of pharmacopoeial galenicals could readily be attained if at the 
periodical revision of the various pharmacopoeias such changes were 
seriously attempted. 

At the second congress, held in Paris in 1867, it was proposed 
to compile and publish a code that would serve as a basis for inter- 
national standards, and at the third congress, held in Vienna in 
September, 1869, it was announced that the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Paris had volunteered to compile a comparative epitome of 
national pharmacopoeias showing the differences existing at that 
time in regard to the nomenclature, composition and strength of 
galenical preparations. This compilation was to be submitted to the 
next international congress, and, it was expected, would form the 
basis for an agreement to serve as a guide in future revisions of the 
several national pharmacopoeias. 

Largely because of the Franco-German war the fourth inter- 
national congress was not held at the time specified and it was not 
until 3 years later, in 1874, that the congress met in St. Petersburg. 

The Society of Pharmacy of Paris presented the promised epit- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
July, 1910. J 



International Standards. 



307 



ome of the several national pharmacopoeias and also an outline of 
suggestions for further discussion. It was specifically pointed out 
that : " The international pharmacopoeia is not to supersede national 
pharmacopoeias but it is desirable that in the construction of the 
latter the fundamental principles of the international pharmacopoeia 
should be adopted." 

It was further agreed that the language of the proposed code 
should be Latin, that the metric system should be adopted in the 
formulae of the preparations, that the nomenclature be uniform, 
that galenical preparations, such as tinctures, extracts, etc., should 
be made as nearly uniform as possible, and that the maximum admis- 
sable amount of impurity in chemical preparations be stated. 

This admittedly excellent ideal was never developed and at the 
fifth International Pharmaceutical Congress, held in London, 1881, 
it was learned that the manuscript that had been prepared by the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Paris was inadvertently destroyed by fire 
and that nothing of practical value had been accomplished in the 
interval. 

Considerable impetus to the development of an international 
pharmacopoeia was given by the " Universal Pharmacopoe " by 
Bruno Hirsh. The first edition of this compilation, published in 
1887, included an epitome of all of the known national pharmaco- 
poeias. The second edition of the work, published in 1902, includes 
4450 separate articles and an index covering 46 three-column pages. 

Even a casual comparison of the compilation by Jourdan and the 
later one by Hirsh evidences the fact that the rapid dissemination 
of news and knowledge, the introduction of the metric system of 
weights and measures, the tendency to eliminate inert or useless 
materials from pharmacopoeias, and the more frequent intercom- 
munication between the people of widely separated countries have 
served to bring about a gradual approximation in the names and the 
strength of various medicaments. 

On the other hand many of the agencies which have been instru- 
mental in bringing about this approximation also tend to emphasize 
the still existing differences in the name and strength of widely 
used preparations. 

The overconservatism manifested by the stay-at-home element 
in medicine and pharmacy is largely responsible for the lack of 
progress or of practical results from the several International Con- 
gresses held previous to 1900. 



308 



International Standards. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
} July, 1910. 



As has been pointed out repeatedly these congresses were in- 
ternational only in name, they were never well attended and the 
discussions and resolutions were futile because of their being alto- 
gether too comprehensive. 

At the ninth International Pharmacopoeial Congress, held in 
Paris in 1900, Professor A. Tschirch, of Berne, reviewed the efforts 
that had been made to develop an agreement to secure greater 
uniformity in the strength and nomenclature of widely used medi- 
cines and pointed out that the several congresses had proven to be 
impotent because they lacked the official standing that was neces- 
sary to make their conclusions effective. 

He proposed that the ninth International Congress request the 
Belgian Government to arrange with other governments for a 
conference in Brussels, and to ask that all of the delegates appointed 
to attend such a conference have their proposals ready to lay before 
the meeting whenever this may be called. It was also suggested 
that the conference be restricted, to the discussion of the name and 
strength of widely used potent medicaments. 

The delegates appointed by their respective governments to 
attend this International Conference for the Unification of Pharma- 
copoeial Formulae for Potent Medicaments met in Brussels, Septem- 
ber 15, 1902. The conference included delegates from the United 
States and from 18 European countries. . 

After fully discussing a variety of propositions the conclusions 
were finally embodied in the form of a protocol designating the 
nomenclature, strength and method of preparing the several 
medicaments. 

This protocol was subscribed to by the delegates present and 
these signatures were subsequently ratified by the Diplomatic Repre- 
sentatives of the several governments, thus giving to this agreement 
the status of an international treaty. 

For men who are really interested in the progress of medicine, 
the unanimity with which the provisions of the Brussels protocol 
have been embodied in the several national pharmacopoeias has been 
a revelation as well as an inspiration. 

For nearly a century it had been asserted that international uni- 
formity in pharmaceutical preparations was impractical and that the 
several nations could never be induced to accept for inclusion in their 
pharmacopoeias the dictates of outside influences. The futility of 
these assertions is amply demonstrated by the fact that within a 



Am jiiiy, r i9 P io arm ' } International Standards. 309 

single decade the total compliances with the requirements of the 
Brussels protocol on the part of the leading pharmacopoeias of the 
world have been increased from less than 50 per cent, in 1902 to 
95 per cent, in 1910. 

While European pharmacopoeias, generally, have been brought 
well into compliance with the provisions of the Brussels protocol 
the national pharmacopoeias now official in North and South America 
mostly antedate the Brussels Conference and are therefore not in 
accord with the requirements. 

The variations in the strength of potent medicaments now exist- 
ing in the pharmacopoeias used in the several countries of North and 
South America are well illustrated by the appended table giving the 
requirements of the International Protocol and the comparative 
strength of the corresponding preparations in the several well known 
pharmacopoeias that are either officially recognized or widely con- 
sulted in American countries. 

Of the several pharmacopoeias used on this Continent the French 
Codex, the Spanish Pharmacopoeia, and the Pharmacopoeia of 
Mexico comply fully with the protocol of the Brussels Conference, 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States complies fairly well with the 
several requirements, while the Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain, of 
Argentine, of Venezuela, and of Chili antedate the Brussels Confer- 
ence and differ rather widely in many respects from the provisions 
of the protocol adopted at that time. 

One rather important variation manifested by the Pharmaco- 
poeias used in North America is due to the fact that English speaking 
pharmacists have been trained to measure rather than weigh pharma- 
ceutical preparations. As is well known the latter is the accustomed 
practice on the Continent of Europe and throughout South America, 
and it may be necessary for American and English pharmacists to 
change their mode of making preparations before the proposed inter- 
national standards can be fully complied with. 

The desirability of developing a uniform nomenclature on this 
hemisphere is well illustrated by table 2 showing the titles used in 
the several pharmacopoeias for 3 of the articles included in the 
Brussels protocol : Cocaine hydrochloride, Fowler's solution and 
fluidextract of ergot. 

One difficulty in the way of developing Pan-American uniformity 
in the nomenclature of pharmacopoeial substances is the fact that in 
Spanish- America Latin titles are considered as being of but second- 



3io 



International Standards. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1910. 



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July, 1910. 



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Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



International Standards. 



313 



ary importance. The Spanish name is usually given precedence, 
and in Mexico and Venezuela Spanish titles appear to be used almost 
exclusively. 

In conclusion it may be pointed out that the protocol adopted by 
the Brussels Conference has been proven to be reasonable in its 
requirements, the medicaments that are included, with few excep- 
tions, are widely used, and the nomenclature proposed, while elastic, 
is sufficiently uniform to be easily recognized. The several provisions 
have been generally adopted by the pharmacopoeias of continental 
Europe and it is to be hoped that they will be fully complied with 
in forthcoming revisions of the several American Pharmacopoeias. 

With the desirability of instituting international standards of 
strength and nomenclature generally recognized, with the practica- 
bility of their introduction fully demonstrated, and with the need 
for a world wide science of medicine fully established, it would surelv 
be a reflection on the scientific spirit and the progressiveness of 
American people if these several provisions were not included in 
each of our national pharmacopoeias. 

It is to be hoped, therefore, that the countries represented in 
the congress, assembled in the Metropolis of the South American 
Continent, will lend their influence to the further development of 
international uniformity in name and strength of widely used medi- 
cines and that the provisions of the Brussels protocol will be em- 
bodied in the pharmacopoeia of each American nation. 

table 1. 

Showing titles for Cocaine Hydrochloride, Solution of Potassium 
Arsenite, and Fluidextract of Ergot, proposed in Brussels Conference 
Protocol and those used in the several pharmacopoeias. 

COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE. 

P. I.— Cocainum hydrochloricum. 
U.S. P. — Cocainse hydrochloridum. 
Ph. Hisp.— Chlorurum cocainse. 
Ph. Fr. — Cocainum chlorhydricum. 
Ph. Germ. — Cocainum hydrochloricum. 
Ph. Mex. — Clorhidrato de cocama. 
Ph. Brit. — Cocainse hydrochloridum. 
Ph. Arg. — Cocainum hydrochloratum. 
Ph. Venz.— 

Ph. Chili. — Cocainum hydrochloricum, 

i 



314 



Analysis of Ointments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1910. 



SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM ARSENITE. 

P- I. — Arsenicalis liquor Fowleri seu Liquor arsenicalis Fowleri 
seu Kalii arsenicosi liquor. 

U.S. P. — Liquor potassii arsenitis. 

Ph. Hisp. — Solutum arsenitis potassici. 

Ph. Fr. — Solutio kalii arsenicosi. 

Ph. Germ. — Liquor kalii arsenicosi. 

Ph. Mex. — Solucion arsenical de Fowler. 

Ph. Brit. — Liquor arsenicalis. 

Ph. Arg. — Liquor kalii arsenicosi. 

Ph. Venz. — Arsenis potassicus aqua solutus. 

Ph. Chili. — Liquor Fowleri. 

FLUIDEXTRACT OF ERGOT. 

P. I. — Secalis cornuti extractum fluidum seu Extractum fluidum 
Secalis cornuti ; Ergoti extractum fluidum seu Extractum fluidum 
Ergoti. 

U.S. P. — Fluidextractum ergotse. 

Ph. Hisp. — Extractum aquosum secalis cornuti. 

Ph. Fr. — Extractum ergoti fluidum. 

Ph. Germ. — Extractum Secalis cornuti fluidum. 

Ph. Mex. — Extracto fluido de cuernecillo de centeno. 

Ph. Brit. — Extractum ergotae liquidurm 

Ph. Arg. — Extractum secalis cornuti fluidum. 

Ph. Venz. — Extracto fluido de Cornezuelo de centeno. 

Ph. Chili.— 



NOTES ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE 
ANALYSIS OF OINTMENTS AND SIMILAR 
PREPARATIONS. 

By C. Braubach. 

Laboratory of Fraser & Co., New York. 
The qualitative and quantitative determination of the constit- 
uents of an ointment (cream) used for medicinal or cosmetic pur- 
poses is usually intrusted to the analyst for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the formula and of duplicating the original. An investiga- 
tion concerning the correctness of a published formula of such a 
specialty is rarely the purpose of the analysis. The problem given 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ( 
July, 1910. f 



Analysis of Ointments. 



315 



in the first case is generally the easier one. Notwithstanding the 
difficulty encountered in detecting fat, oil, wax, etc., in a mixture 
and the frequent impossibility of their estimation, the analyst pos- 
sessing sufficient pharmacognostic knowledge may be able to combine 
the analytical data found with his knowledge of the materia medica 
to obtain a satisfactory result in duplicating the original, if this was 
the purpose in view. A correct qualitative and approximately 
quantitative determination of the principal constituents, medicinal 
or cosmetic, which do not belong to the excipient, viz., alkaloids, 
salts, sulphur, glycerin, etc., can be expected however from the 
analysis. The consistence of the excipient, if it should prove to be 
a mixture the constituents of which have been found, can be repro- 
duced if necessary by experiment when the iodine number, saponifi- 
cation number, melting point, specific gravity, etc., do not give any 
clue concerning the proportions. 

Details in reference to the ointment to be analyzed, stating its use 
and effect, antiseptic,- anaesthetic, for inflammatory conditions, etc., 
or if for cosmetic purpose, bleaching and whitening the complexion, 
massage, liver spots, etc., often give valuable information about the 
ingredients which might be expected as, for example, mercury bichlo- 
ride, certain alkaloids, hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid, camphor, 
etc. With this preliminary knowledge one is often able to readily 
detect the one or the other constituent. A careful study of any 
literature accompanying the ointment is also advised. 

A systematic arrangement how to proceed with the analysis which 
can be used for all cases naturally can not be given and must be 
worked out after making some preliminary and qualitative tests. 

The following procedure is suggested : 

1. Physical examination: color, odor, consistence, taste. 

2. Microscopic examination. 

3. Preliminary tests. 

4. Analysis, qualitative and quantitative. 

5. If indicated, preparation of a duplicate and comparison with 
the original. 

In order to> ascertain if an ointment is easily absorbed by the skin, 
its melting properties and stickiness, a little of the ointment may be 
rubbed in on the back of the hand, at the same time certain odors 
might be noticeable as, for example, the odor of cacao butter. 

Microscopic Examination. — Spread a small amount of the 
ointment, about the size of a match's head, on a slide, using the 



3 i6 



Analysis of Ointments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1910. 



edge of another slide to distribute it in a thin layer over the surface. 
Examine first with a magnification of about 250 then 500 diameters. 
Repeat this after drawing slide several times through a small flame 
to allow fat which might be present to melt. The presence of 
starch, powdered drugs, crystalline or amorphous bodies, fatty acid 
crystals, etc., can thus be readily detected. 

Preliminary Tests. — Submit a sample of the ointment in a test 
tube for about half an hour to the warmth of a steam bath. Water 
and glycerin when present will separate from fat. Salts an'd 
mineral matter may settle down or be suspended in the melted fat, 
for instance, lead carbonate, zinc oxide, boric acid, etc. 

Determine the solubility of the excipient in ether, chloroform, 
benzin, alcohol, etc. Any water present must be removed by 
drying before applying the solvent. Starch, powdered drugs, talcum 
and others can be so separated from a fat-base and weighed after 
completely removing base with the proper solvent. 

Ointments containing fats or fatty oils will give a greasy stain 
on paper which does not disappear on heating or exposure to' the air 
(difference from ointments having starch paste, mucilage of traga- 
canth, soap, etc., as basis). 

Reaction. — A strongly alkaline reaction may be due to sodium or 
potassium carbonate (for example in massage cream to be used 
for reduction). In this case shake a sample of the ointment in a 
test tube with hot diluted hydrochloric acid to see if there is effer- 
vescence. Zinc carbonate or calcium carbonate are frequently found 
in cosmetic creams. 

Moisture (water) including volatile substances (volatile oils). 
An accurately weighed sample of the ointment, one to two grammes, 
is heated in a flat platinum: dish at a temperature of 105 until 
weight is approximately constant, weighing at half-hour intervals. 
Too long continued drying must be avoided as fats are liable to 
oxidize with increase of weight. In the presence of a considerable 
amount of water it is recommended to mix the ointment in a plati- 
num dish with a weighed portion of washed and freshly ignited 
sea sand. Considerable water can be incorporated with a fat- 
excipient other than lanolin and eucerin by the addition of borax, 
potassium carbonate or alum. 

Ash.— This is preferably done quantitatively in order to save a 
second ignition for the quantitative analysis. Two to three grammes 
of the sample, which should be free from incorporated water, are 



Am. Jour. Phafm. I 
July, 1910. f 



Analysis of Ointments. 



317 



used for this purpose. A residue remaining may be used for quali- 
tative analysis. 

Qualitative Analysis. — Metals. — Three to five grammes of 
the ointment are reduced to ash in a porcelain crucible and the resi- 
due tested for metals in the usual way. It is a precautionary rule 
not to use a platinum crucible as the presence of lead (lead plaster, 
etc.) might damage the crucible. Mercury and its salts and arsenic, 
if they are present are volatilized, as are also certain salts of zinc and 
lead, which are more or less volatile. 

Reinsch's test for arsenic and mercury. About three grammes 
of the ointment are boiled gently for five minutes with 5 c.c. of con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid and 5 c.c. of water, having immersed 
previously a piece of clean bright copper foil. If the copper foil, 
after a lapse of five minutes, still presents the same appearance as it 
had before, no arsenic or mercury can be present. Should the 
copper foil, however, show a steel-gray deposit or appear lustrous- 
like silver, arsenic or mercury are apparently present. The copper 
foil is removed, washed with water, dried with filter paper and 
cautiously heated in a perfectly dry narrow glass tube, open on both 
ends. The sublimate will collect on the cooler portion of the tube. 
Arsenic is converted into arsenous acid, its tetrahedral or octahedral 
crystals are apparent under the microscope. A sublimate of mercury 
will be found to consist of very small globules. The hydrochloric 
acid used in this test must be free from arsenic. Oxidizing agents, 
such as nitrates, will interfere with the reaction. 

Another method to test for metals (except silver) and acids is 
as follows : Five grammes of the ointment are repeatedly shaken 
with hot diluted hydrochloric acid, filtered, after cooling, through 
a moistened filter and the filtrate tested. Part of the filtrate may be 
dried down on the water bath to see if anything be left behind. 

Alkaloids and Narcotic Extracts. — Alkaloids. — A sufficient 
quantity of the material is vigorously shaken with hot very 
dilute sulphuric acid, allowed to cool and filtered through a filter 
moistened with water. A portion of the filtrate is examined with 
two or three of the general reagents for the alkaloids, such as solu- 
tion of iodine, phosphomolybdic acid or Meyer's reagent. Should 
a turbidity or precipitate form, the presence of alkaloids is suspected. 
The acid, aqueous filtrate is slightly supersaturated in a separating 
funnel with ammonia and the ammoniacal liquid extracted by shak- 
ing with chloroform, the latter is allowed to separate, removed 



318 Analysis of Ointments. { Am jfcm m 



as far as possible, and the extraction repeated with another portion 
of chloroform. The chloroformic solutions are collected in a beaker 
and exposed to a gentle heat on the water bath until the chloroform 
is completely volatilized. Morphine is only very slightly soluble 
in chloroform ; it can be extracted with a mixture of equal volumes 
of ether and acetic ether. The alkaloid is identified by the usual 
method. 

Narcotic Extracts. — In the presence of narcotic extracts or if 
several alkaloids are suspected, also when considerable organic mat- 
ter soluble in the acidulated water is present, it is advisable to resort 
to Stas-Otto's method of separating the alkaloid. 

Mineral Oil, Paraffin, Vaselin, Ceresin. — Five grammes of the 
ointment are heated with 25 c.c. concentrated sulphuric acid at a 
temperature of 160 for fifteen minutes. The residue is intimately 
mixed with about 500 c.c. water. Vegetable or animal fats and oils, 
resin and wax are carbonized, any mineral oil, paraffin, vaselin, etc., 
present will separate on the surface of the water. 

Another method is based on their indifference to alkalies as they 
can not be saponified. A few grammes of the material (admixtures 
of water, starch, salts, etc., must be removed by drying and filtra- 
tion) are saponified on the water bath in an Erlenmeyer flask, closed 
with a small funnel, with a 4 per cent, alcoholic potash solution, shak- 
ing frequently to assist saponification. The mineral oil, paraffin or 
vaselin will be found floating in drops in the clear liquid. In the 
presence of beeswax the saponification should be carried out for at 
least one hour. 

Substances Soluble in Alcohol. — Certain constituents can be sepa- 
rated from an ointment base by extracting with hot alcohol, filtering 
when cool and evaporating the solvent. Small quantities of wax, 
fat, oil, vaselin, lanolin, etc., will be dissolved at the same time, but 
not sufficient to interfere with a fairly accurate estimation of the 
alcohol soluble constituent, provided the latter is present in not too 
small quantities. Fatty acids, however, are more readily soluble 
in alcohol than fats, oils, etc. This must be taken in consideration 
if, for example, stearic acid is found to be present. Substances 
soluble in alcohol and liable to be constituents of an ointment are : 
resin, turpentine, balsam of Peru, tar, castor oil, croton oil, etc. 
Glacial acetic acid in place of alcohol can be used with advantage 
as a solvent in some cases. After the alcohol or acetic acid has been 
driven off on the water bath, the material left behind usually can be 
recognized from its physical appearance. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July, 1910. J 



Analysis of Ointments. 



319 



Soap. — If an ointment^ is mixed in a separating funnel with 
about three times its volume of ether and shaken with water, the 
latter will take up the soap. On addition of diluted hydrochloric 
acid to the aqueous solution a turbidity and separation of the fatty 
acids will take place. Instead of mixing with ether the ointment 
may be agitated with hot water, filtered after standing for about 
one hour and acidulated with hydrochloric acid as before. 

Soaps insoluble in water (oleates, lead plaster) are decomposed 
on shaking with hot diluted hydrochloric acid, the latter dissolving 
the metal. 

Free Fatty Acids. — Stearic Acid. — These can be detected by 
treating the ointment with alcohol, filtering and adding an alcoholic 
solution of lead acetate. A white precipitate indicates the presence 
of a fatty acid. Resin and soap, however, give a similar reaction. 
One can also resort to the following test 1 for stearic acid : Melt a 
small quantity of the material in a porcelain dish, stir up the melted 
substance for a few moments with ammonia water and allow to 
cool. Remove the solidified mass from the surface, or filter through 
a wetted filter and acidulate the liquid with hydrochloric acid, when 
stearic acid will be precipitated. 

Stearic acid when heated with alkali carbonates on the water 
bath forms salts with effervescence, giving off C0 2 . 

Stearic acid has a high acid number, 200-210, its admixture with 
fats, oils and paraffin may be suspected on finding a high acid num- 
ber, when colophony, which also has a high acid number, is absent. 

Resinous Substances. — Colophony, turpentine, etc. (see under 
substances soluble in alcohol). The presence of colophony can be 
detected by the following method, which was originally given in a 
somewhat different form by Parry for the detection of colophony 
in shellac. 2 The colophony is isolated from the ointment by shaking 
a small amount of the latter with hot strong alcohol, separating the 
alcoholic solution after cooling by filtration and pouring the filtrate 
in water. The precipitate is collected on a filter, dried, triturated 
with petroleum ether and filtered. If no precipitate forms and the 
liquid has the appearance of an emulsion, it should be evaporated 
to dryness on the water bath and the recovered colophony triturated 
with petroleum ether as before. On shaking the filtrate with a very 
dilute copper acetate solution, the petroleum ether will be colored 
emerald green in the presence of colophony. 

Another color reaction for colophony has been given by Sans, 3 as 



320 



Analysis of Ointments. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1910. 



follows : On slightly heating in a test tube one to two c.c. neutral 
methyl sulphate with a little colophony, a rose red color 
is obtained which changes to violet and disappears on further 
heating. Neutral ethyl sulphate may be used for methyl sulphate. 
Resin, having a melting point of 90 to 130 C, will increase the 
melting point when added to fats as in cerates. A very character- 
istic odor can be observed on blowing out the flame of a burning 
ointment containing an appreciable amount of resin. 

Detection of Certain Fats and Rosin by the Odor of Their 
Acids. — About three grammes of the ointment are saponified with 
alcoholic potash solution and the alcohol evaporated on the water 
bath. The resulting soap is taken up with water and the aqueous 
solution acidulated with hydrochloric acid. Tallow gives the odor 
of mutton broth ; colophony and various other fats and resins also 
yield characteristic odors. 

Beeswax. — Should the odor fail to give a clue, the admixture of 
beeswax to an ointment may be suspected from the peculiar clouds 
formed in a solution in petroleum ether. Beeswax is only partially 
soluble in petroleum ether, whereas most of the fats, oils, paraffin, 
etc., are readily soluble in this solvent. It is important that water, 
volatile substances as carbolic acid, mineral constituents have been 
removed before applying this test. Resin, castor oil and other 
alcohol soluble substances must be removed by shaking the sample 
two to three times with hot alcohol, filtering off and drying the 
remaining excipient. If about 0.3 grammes of the so prepared 
ointment base are dissolved in 4 c.c. petroleum ether in a tes 1 . 
tube at a temperature of about 18 C. it will be found in the presence 
of beeswax that clouds, consisting of very small needles, are sus- 
pended in the solvent. Compare with a solution of a little wax in 
petroleum ether. To examine these needles under the microscope 
it is best to mix a drop of olive oil on a slide with a little of the 
petroleum ether containing the needles in suspension before cover- 
ing with cover glass. Unfiltered wax shows pollen under the 
microscope. 

Lanolin, — Lanolin is only very slightly saponified by an aqueous 
solution of potassium hydroxide ; it can be saponified, however, with 
an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide, though with difficulty, 
preferably under pressure. For its detection, provided it can be 
separated sufficiently from other admixtures (either by shaking out 
with chloroform or removing foreign substances by shaking with 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July, 1910. / 



Analysis of Ointments. 



321 



water, alcohol, melting, filtering and drying), the cholesterin reac- 
tion can be resorted to. (See Hager's Handb. der Pharm. Praxis, 
vol. 2, page 276.) 

Glycerin. — It may be detected by melting the ointment (see under 
preliminary tests) or shaking out with hot water, evaporating on the 
water bath, purifying if necessary by taking up residue with ether- 
alcohol (1+3) and driving off the solvent. It may be identified 
by its sweet taste. On igniting with potassium bisulphate the odor 
of acrolein will be noticed. 

Denige's tests are also useful. 4 The glycerin is oxidized to 
dioxyacetone by boiling with bromine water on the water bath, the 
product so obtained gives beautiful color reactions with thymol, 
resorcin, codein and ^-naphthol in the presence of concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The reaction takes place either at room temperature 
or on heating. Thymol produces a bordeaux red color changing 
to pink red, on diluting. Resorcin causes a blood red color changing 
to yellowish red or yellow on diluting with glacial acetic acid or 
sulphuric acid (spec. grav. 1.8). Codein gives a greenish blue and 
/?-naphthol an emerald green color with green fluorescence. If a 
solution of salicylic acid and potassium bromide is heated with 
dioxyacetone for two minutes on the water bath, a violet color is 
obtained ; the salicylic acid may be substituted by guaiacol, the color 
produced will be a deep blue. Dioxyacetone gives the hydrazine 
reaction with phenylhydrazine, acetic acid and sodium acetate, the 
crystals can be identified under the microscope. Equal volumes of 
dioxyacetone solution and Nessler's reagent or Fehling's solution 
produce on heating a precipitate of metallic mercury and cuprous 
oxide, respectively. 

Casein. — Frequently used in skin creams, is insoluble in water, 
alcohol and ether. It is soluble in dilute caustic alkali or alkaline 
carbonates also in diluted hydrochloric acid, containing less than 
0.1 per cent, of hydrochloric acid. 5 Casein consists of about 14 per 
cent, nitrogen. 

Borax and Boric Acid. — About five grammes of the ointment are 
melted in a flask and shaken with 10 to 15 c.c. warm water, acidu- 
lated with hydrochloric acid. The liquid is filtered off from fat or 
insoluble material when cold and tested with turmeric paper and 
ammonia. A negative reaction shows the absence of either borax 
or boric acid which, when added to an ointment, are present in 
nearly all cases in a quantity of not less than 0.5 per cent. Boric 



322 



Analysis of Ointments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( July, 1910. 



acid will give the reaction with turmeric paper when shaken out with 
hot water; borax will give the test on setting free the boric acid, 
using acidulated water for extraction. 

Quantitative Analysis. — Metals and Their Salts. — A simple 
and sufficiently accurate method to estimate certain metallic com- 
pounds, insoluble in fat-solvents, such as zinc oxide, carbonates of 
zinc, lead, calcium, and bismuth subnitrate when mixed with a fat 
excipient and no other substances also insoluble in the solvent are 
present, is as follows : A thoroughly dried and weighed sample of 
the ointment is mixed in a beaker with the proper solvent (see pre- 
liminary tests), the mixture transferred to a dried and weighed 
filter and the latter with the remaining substance washed with the 
solvent until all fat is removed. The filter with contents is allowed 
to dry at 100 to 105 ° C. until its weight remains constant. In cal- 
culating the percentage of the material thus obtained, the loss on dry- 
ing the ointment must of course be taken in consideration. 

For method of estimating metallic mercury in mercurial ointment 
see U.S.P. 

A procedure for the estimation of metals in organic substances 
has been given by Rothe. 6 It is based on the observation that 
organic compounds when digested for a sufficient time with a mix- 
ture of fuming nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
subsequent heating until vapors of sulphuric acid escape, are decom- 
posed on further heating with fuming nitric acid into carbon dioxide 
and water. To the material, which should be free from water, is 
added in a flask 10 to 15 c.c. fuming nitric acid and 2 c.c. concen- 
trated sulphuric acid for each gramme taken and the flask heated on 
a sand bath until a continuous generation of gas takes place, avoiding 
too high a temperature. Later on the temperature of the sand bath 
is increased to drive off the nitric acid and cause the sulphuric acid 
to develop vapors. To this end the flask is heated over the free 
flame, after the nitric acid has escaped, until the sulphuric acid boils 
briskly. After allowing to cool, 5 to 10 c.c. fuming nitric acid 
are added and the flask heated again on the sand bath to slight boil- 
ing until the liquid turns light, which will require from one- 
quarter to one-half hour. Finally the flask is heated once more over 
the free flame to a brisk boiling until heavy vapors of sulphuric acid 
are given off. If the liquid assumes a brown color the organic 
matter is not completely destroyed and the operation must be re- 
peated by the addition of another 5 c.c. of fuming nitric acid until 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
July, 1910. \ 



Analysis of Ointments. 



323 



the sulphuric acid does not turn dark on boiling. Since the compara- 
tively large amount of free sulphuric acid present may be objection- 
able during the final procedure, it can be driven off for the most part 
over a Bunsen burner without loss of metal. The last traces of the 
oxides of nitrogen are removed by diluting the residue with water 
and heating to the boiling point for a short time. The further 
treatment of the residue, now free from organic matter, is dependent 
on its chemical composition. 

Alkaloids and Narcotic Extracts. — A sufficient amount of the 
ointment, containing about 0.03 of the alkaloid, is subjected to 
Stas-Otto's method and the alkaloid so separated either weighed 
or titrated with standard acid using cochineal as indicator. The 
quantity of the alkaloid found, if due to a narcotic extract, will 
usually give an idea of the amount of the latter. 

Mineral Oil, Paraffin, Vaselin, Ceresin. — In admixtures with 
saponifiable fat, oil, etc. One to two grammes of the material 
are saponified on the water bath with an excess of a 4 per cent, 
alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. For details (see qual. 
analysis under mineral oil). Any volatilized alcohol should be re- 
placed to keep volume constant. After saponification the alcohol 
is driven off for the most part, the mixture transferred to a separat- 
ing funnel, made up with water to about 80 c.c. and thoroughly 
shaken with 50 c.c. of ether. The latter will dissolve the hydros- 
carbon, the aqueous layer retaining the soap. If the separation 
of the ethereal solution does not occur readily, a few c.c. of alcohol 
may be added to break up any emulsion by giving the liquid a slight 
rotary movement. The aqueous solution is removed and the ether 
in separator agitated with 10 c.c. of water to which a few drops 
of caustic alkali have been added. This is run off, the ether shaken 
with water, the latter removed and the ethereal solution collected 
in a tared flask. The aqueous liquid is twice treated in separator 
with fresh ether as before, each time washing the ether and adding 
it to the first portion. After reclaiming the ether by distillation, the 
flask containing the hydrocarbon is heated at ioo° C. for one hour 
and weighed. Beeswax and spermaceti yield on saponification 
myricyl and cetyl alcohol, respectively, which bodies are soluble 
more or less in ether. Cetyl alcohol can be separated from the 
hydrocarbon by treating the ether residue with strong alcohol, which 
will dissolve it. leaving the hydrocarbon behind. 7 

Substances Soluble in Alcohol. — Proceed as stated under quali- 



3^4 



Analysis of Ointments. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( July, 1910. 



tative analysis, using a weighed quantity of the ointment, shaking out 
twice with the solvent. Drive oft the latter on the water bath, dry 
in steam oven and weigh. 

Soap. — Soluble soap, for example castile soap, may be shaken 
out twice with hot water, filtered after cooling, the filtrate evaporated 
and the soap dried and weighed. Soaps insoluble in water, zinc 
stearate, lead plaster, etc., can be estimated with tolerable accuracy 
by quantitating the metal (see quantitative analysis under metals). 

Stearic Acid. — In the absence of other free fatty acids and 
alcohol soluble material, stearic acid may be estimated when in ad- 
mixture with oils by introducing a weighed sample into a flask, 
adding about 50 c.c. methyl alcohol and a few drops phenolphthalein. 
The flask is immersed in hot water, its contents thoroughly agitated 
and half normal caustic alkali added until after vigorous shaking 
the liquid retains a faint pink color. The alcoholic liquid is sepa- 
rated from the oil, the alcohol evaporated and the residue taken 
up with water. The aqueous solution is agitated with a little petro- 
leum spirit to remove any oil or fat, then separated and the stearic 
acid precipitated by the addition of diluted sulphuric acid. On shak- 
ing with ether, separating the ethereal solution and evaporating 
to dryness, the remaining stearic acid can be weighed. 

Resinous Substances. — Proceed as given under substances solu- 
ble in alcohol (qualitative analysis), using a weighed quantity of 
the ointment, shaking out twice with hot alcohol (20+10 c.c), 
cool on ice, filter, evaporate filtrate, dry and weigh. A fair approxi- 
mate estimation of colophony in admixtures with neutral fats or oils 
can be effected by mixing the ointment with a mixture of alcohol 
and ether and titrating with standard decinormal sodium hydroxide 
solution. Each c.c. of decinormal alkali represents 0.034 colophony, 
taking 165 as the average acid number of colophony. Free fatty 
acids (stearic acid) when present in quantity, will vitiate the re- 
sults. 9 This method may be used for estimating the proportions of 
colophony in a mixture with linseed oil used as bird or fly lime. 10 

Acid resin, such as colophony, can be separated from the neutral 
fats by boiling the substance with a strong solution of sodium 
bicarbonate or borax. After cooling, the aqueous liquid is separated 
from the fat and the resin precipitated from its solution by adding 
hydrochloric acid. 11 

Ql vcer i u —It may be approximately estimated after separating 
the fatty acids (saponification of the ointment with alcoholic potash 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



Analysis of Ointments. 



325 



and acidulating with hydrochloric acid ), supersaturating the liquid 
with sodium carbonate, evaporating, extracting with ether-alcohol 
(i+3) an d weighing the remaining glycerin after drying at 
90^5° c. 

Borax and Bone Acid. — Two to five grammes of the sample are 
rendered decidedly alkaline with sodium hydroxide in a platinum 
dish and heated on the water bath until free from water. The 
residue is carefully ignited, the ash taken up with 20 c.c. water and 
hydrochloric acid added drop by drop, until all is dissolved. The 
liquid is transferred to a 100 c.c. flask, 0.5 gramme of calcium 
chloride, a few drops of phenolphthalein and a 10 per cent, solution 
of caustic soda added until a permanent slight pink color is produced. 
Finally 25 c.c. of lime water are added and the volume made up 
to 100 c.c. The solution is well mixed and filtered through a drv 
filter. To 50 c.c. of the filtrate sufficient normal sulphuric acid is 
added until the pink color disappears, then methyl orange and the 
addition of the acid continued until the yellow is just changed to 
pink. A fifth normal solution of caustic soda is now added till the 
liquid assumes a yellow tinge, excess of soda to be avoided. The 
carbonic acid is expelled by boiling, the solution cooled, a little 
phenolphthalein and an equal volume of glycerin added and titrated 
with standard sodium hydroxide until a permanent pink color is 
obtained. 12 One c.c. of fifth normal soda solution represents 0.0124 
grammes crystallized boric acid or 0.0191 grammes borax (ioH 2 0). 
On titrating the boric acid 50 c.c. of glycerin should be present for 
each 0.1 gramme of the acid. 

Chemical Constants of Fats, Oils and IV axes. — Refractive index, 
iodine number, acid number and saponification number. In some 
cases it is advisable to resort to the determination of one or several 
of these constants, for example, as a proof of the presence of a 
certain fat, indicated by physical appearance or qualitative test, and 
the absence of other fats or oils. For instance, an excipient is found 
to be lanolin from its appearance and the cholesterin reactions, yet 
the analyst may not be sure that no other fat, possibly lard or tallow . 
is also present, particularly when alcohol or water soluble admixtures 
have been separated previously from the fat bases and its physical 
character somewhat altered. 

Total Nitrogen. — The determination of the nitrogen content is 
frequently indicated to either quantitate a constituent of the sample, 



326 



Analysis of Ointments. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1910. 



— casein, alkaloids, etc., or to show the absence of such bodies. A 
small nitrogen content, due to impurities in fats, oils or waxes, might, 
however, be met with. 

Melting Point. — At least 24 hours should have elapsed since the 
last melting, as melted fats require a certain time to acquire their 
normal melting point. Products obtained by melting together bees- 
wax, paraffin, stearic acid, etc., have a melting point lower than the 
mean of the ; r constituents. 13 The presence of an appreciable amount 
of carnauba wax (melts at 84 to 86° C.) or rosin (90 to 130 C.) 
in a fat base increases the melting point. The sample must of 
course be free from water, salts, mineral matter, glycerin, etc. 

Ash. — See under preliminary tests. 

Remarks. — As a general rule water or alcohol soluble constituents 
are extracted by treating the sample with the hot solvent, concen- 
trating the aqueous liquid or evaporating the alcohol, and testing 
in the usual way or identifying the residue from, its physical charac- 
ter. The water and alcohol insoluble constituents are separated 
from a fat basis by dissolving out the fat with ether or chloroform, 
filtering off the solution and identifying the residue on filter either 
chemically or microscopically. In the presence of water soluble 
and water insoluble substances, for example, boric acid and zinc 
oxide, the former are removed as before; the remaining fat contain- 
ing the water insoluble substance must be thoroughly dried before 
dissolving fat in solvent. Two water insoluble constituents of 
an ointment, for example, starch and zinc oxide, or starch and 
talcum, may be separated from each other after removing fat by 
using the proper solvent of one, viz., diluted acid for zinc oxide 
or incinerating starch, which will leave the talcum behind. 
Volatile substances as volatile oils, carbolic acid, etc., can be sepa- 
rated by distillation with live steam and their identification thus 
made easier. If a certain known odor of a volatile oil can not be 
identified by its name, the following method has been found practical 
but not very scientific. On looking over the index of the volatile 
oils in the dispensatory or other suitable pharmaceutical manual, 
one might strike suddenly the name of the oil in question or might 
be able to select a few for comparison with the original. 

The amount of fat basis in an ointment can be estimated by 
dissolving a weighed sample, which must be free from water, in 
chloroform, making up to a certain volume and evaporating an ali- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



State Control of Diseases. 



327 



quot part of the clear solution to dryness. Resin and other alcohol 
soluble substances, if present, are removed previously by shaking 
with this solvent. 

REFERENCES. 

1 Hager's Handb. der Pharmaz. Praxis. 

2 Pharmaz. Zeitung, 1908, 44, p. 436. 

3 Ann. Chim. anal, appl., 14, 140. 
i Compt. vendues, 148, 570-72. 

5 Allen, Commercial Org. Anal., vol. 4, p. 100. 

6 Mitt. Kgl. Material-Pruefungsamt, 1907, No. 3. 

7 Allen, Commercial Org. Anal., vol. 2, part 1, pp. 113, 114. 

8 Ibid., pp. 105, 106. 

9 Ibid., vol. 2, part 3, p. 165. 

10 Ibid., vol. 2, part 3, p. 165. 

11 Ibid., vol. 2, part 3, p. 147. 

12 Prov. Methods U. S. Dep. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 65, p. no. 

13 Allen, Commercial Org. Anal., vol. 2, part 2, p. 145. 



THE STATE CONTROL OF CONTAGIOUS AND 
INFECTIOUS DISEASES.* 

By Dr. Samuel G. Dixon, 
Commissioner of Health of Pennsylvania. 

" The State Control of Contagious and Infectious Diseases," 
the subject on which you have requested me to address you, em- 
braces two ideas, first the general control or supervision of infec- 
tions in every part of the state, whether civic or rural, and second 
their special, absolute control in the rural districts only. 

The former relates to incorporated municipalities, cities, boroughs 
and townships of the first-class which are autonomous in regard to 
sanitary administration, the second to those quasi-municipalities 
known as townships, which includes also villages. In the former the 
State assumes no control unless municipal control should become 
so imperfect or careless as to render the conditions a menace to 
other populations, in the latter the state has absolute control, organiz- 
ing the administration, formulating the regulations and appointing 
the officials and agents. It will be understood therefore that what I 

* A lecture before the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, delivered Fri- 
day, April 22, 1 910. 



328 



State Control of Diseases. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1910. 



have to say will apply principally to the rural districts of the 
commonwealth. 

Past Conditions. — Up to the year 1895 there had been no 
systematic law for the control of contagious and infectious diseases 
in this state. Every city and prominent borough had its own form 
of health government and formulated its own system of laws. 
In that year, however, representatives of several municipalities 
united with the former State Board of Health in drawing up a 
system of regulations for preventing the spread of such disease, 
which was enacted by the State Legislature and which was suffi- 
ciently comprehensive to entitle it to be denominated the " Penn- 
sylvania Sanitary Code for the Restriction of Communicable Dis- 
eases." This at once became legally effective for every incorporated 
municipality in the State, But except in the case of a few town- 
ships in which the school boards availed themselves of their right 
to organize as boards of health the whole vast domain outside of 
city and borough limits was in a state of chaos so far as any regular 
control of such diseases was concerned. 

Modern Legislation, — With the statesmanlike legislation of 
1905, however, giving new powers and appropriating increased 
means to the health authorities, order sprang out of chaos, and a 
new condition of things came into being. 

What was considered at that time a very liberal appropriation, 
three hundred thousand dollars, was given the department for 
the two years 1905 and 1906. So rapidly did the work grow, how- 
ever, that in 1907 the Legislature appropriated to the department 
two million dollars. Six hundred thousand of this was specifically 
set aside for the establishing of the State Sanatoria for Tubercu- 
losis and four hundred thousand for Dispensaries for Tuberculosis. 
Still the work continued to grow. The people gave it their hearty 
support and in 1909 the unprecedented appropriation of two million 
dollars for tuberculosis and one million dollars for general health 
work, was given the State Department of Health. 

Organization. — To-day the department is a well organized, 
fully equipped fighting force and its work along all lines of conserv- 
ing public health, in which it has been engaged, has met with 
gratifying success. 

Pennsylvania has an area of 44.985 square miles and contains 
30 cities, 849 boroughs. 67 counties and 1547 townships, a total of 
2426 separate and distinct municipalities, which to a certain extent 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July, 1910. } 



State Control of Diseases. 



329 



must be considered individually in all public health work. About 
three million of Pennsylvania's seven million population reside in 
rural districts. In cities, boroughs and in a few townships, namely 
those of the first class, provision has been made, as already said, 
by legislative enactment for the appointment of boards of health. 
Only by constant urging and untiring educational work, however, 
has the State Department of Health succeeded in getting many of 
these small boroughs to organize health boards. In over fifteen hun- 
dred townships absolutely no permanent health organization had 
been provided by law. This gives some idea of the broad field in 
which the state health authorities' work is found. 

In each of sixty-six counties of the State the department has now 
a thoroughly trained medical inspector assisted by a corps of town- 
ship health officers. There are altogether seven hundred of these 
health officers distributed throughout the state. To them the physi- 
cians report all cases of communicable diseases and the health officers 
promptly placard the premises and establish the necessary quaran- 
tine. Upon receiving notice from the physician of the termination 
of quarantine the health officer thoroughly disinfects the premises. 
As a proof of the results being obtained from educational work 
it has been gratifying to note the constantly increased number 
of requests from householders to have their homes disinfected after 
cases of tuberculosis. 

These health officers for the past two years also have been 
making regular inspections of the sanitary conditions of all schools 
in the rural districts, and the result has been a very marked improve- 
ment of such schools. 

Medical Inspection of School Children. — The department 
is putting in operation a system of medical inspection of the school 
children in the rural districts. This inspection is being made 
by skilled physicians. 

In view of the results already accomplished by medical inspec- 
tion of schools in some of the larger cities and municipalities 
throughout the country, we are safe in saying that the standard of 
health of the children in the country schools in Pennsylvania will 
be raised materially by this work, and that the spread of con- 
tagious and infectious diseases will be greatly curtailed. 

Reporting of Contagious and Infectious Diseases. — One of 
the first steps taken by the department was to arrange for the report- 
ing of all contagious diseases, as well as deaths from the same, 



330 State Control of Diseases. { Am ju™ r i9io arm ' 

to the central office. At the same time it was felt that the list of dis- 
eases required by state law to be reported was extremely defective. 
The following additional diseases were therefore made returnable : 

Anthrax, actinomycosis, glanders, trichiniasis, rabies, malarial 
fever, bubonic plague, measles, whooping-cough, tuberculosis, 
chickenpox, German measles, mumps, epidemic dysentery, tetanus, 
erysipelas, pneumonia, puerperal fever and trachoma. 

This makes nearly thrice the number previously required to be 
reported by the laws of the state. In each case however, there was 
a reason which appeared to the department good and sufficient for 
requiring that the department should be made aware of its presence, 
and the next Legislature incorporated them all into the law. 

An analysis of the specific character of each of the diseases which 
have been added to the report card will show that each and every 
one is justly entitled to be placed thereon, and that their importance 
is not to be denied. 

Anthrax, actinomycosis, glanders, trichiniasis and rabies are all 
known to be communicable to man from the domestic animals and 
to be difficult of cure, often fatal. 

Malarial fever can only be eradicated by screening every case 
from the Anopheles Maculipennis mosquito, while at the same time 
a vigorous warfare is waged against the insect itself. Bubonic 
plague is advancing upon us with no uncertain step and its mode 
of transmission is no longer a mystery. Every civilized country now 
makes tuberculosis reportable, while measles and whooping-cough, 
although scoffed at by the unthinking, cause each far more deaths 
than scarlet fever and smallpox combined. 

During the week ending Feb. 28, 19 10, among the deaths regis- 
tered at the General Register Office, Somerset House, London, were 
14 from measles, 4 from scarjet fever, 11 from diphtheria, 45 from 
whooping-cough, and 11 from diarrhoea, from smallpox o and from 
typhoid fever o. During the three weeks previous the deaths from 
whooping-cough were 57, 61 and 53 respectively. Thus, during a 
week in which the deaths from whooping-cough were below the 
average, that deadly disease, so little regarded not only by the 
public but by the medical profession and even by the majority of 
boards of health, out of the victims of the nine most dangerous 
communicable diseases was responsible for the deaths of more than 
one-half. 

Disinfection. — The control of contagious and infectious dis- 



Am. Jour. Pharm \ 
July, 1910. J 



State Control of Diseases. 



331 



eases cannot be accomplished without the systematic and free use 
of disinfectants. This is recognized in all legislation on the subject. 
The Act of Assembly of April 14, 1903, however, took a step in 
advance in providing that all schools and colleges in cities in this 
state shall be disinfected at intervals not exceeding two weeks in 
accordance with a modern method and system of disinfection, such 
method and system to be approved by the local board of health if 
there be one, otherwise by the state health authorities. 

Formaldehyde is a powerful disinfectant, and causes practically 
no injury to delicate fabrics or room furnishings and therefore is 
the principal disinfectant used by the state. 

In using formaldehyde gas for disinfection, the air of the room 
should be both warm and moist. The latter condition may be 
effected by suspending wet sheets about the room. 

An effective and economical method of generating this gas is by 
the addition of the official (U.S. P.) solution of formaldehyde to 
potassium permanganate. 

Eight (8) ounces, by weight (one measure) of commercial potas- 
sium permanganate crystals is required for each pint of a solution of 
formaldehyde (at least Z7 T A P er cent.) in disinfecting every 1000 
cubic feet of air space. 

Briefly, this method may be described as follows : 

First: Secure a tin, agate-lined or iron pail with a flaring 
top which has a capacity at least equal to ten times the quantity 
of disinfectants to be used. 

Second : Place the potassium permanganate crystals in the pail 
spreading them evenly over the bottom. 

Third : Set the pail containing the crystals in a pan, metal wash 
tub or boiler containing water, a brick or stove lid being placed 
under the pail. 

Fourth : Pour the formaldehyde solution from a dipper or some 
wide-mouthed vessel over the crystals of potassium permanganate. 

Fifth : Seal the door of exit including the key-hole and crevices 
about the door knob. This must be done quickly as 80 per cent, of 
gas is liberated during the first five minutes. 

Sixth : Leave the room closed for six hours. 

But observe this caution : It has been determined in the labora- 
tories of the department that the gas so liberated is slightly inflam- 
mable. The room should be warm and moist., but under no circum- 
stances should the chemicals be mixed and this form of disinfection 



332 



State Control of Diseases. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1910. 



performed in the presence of a live fire or flame in the room. A 
separate container should be used for every pint of formaldehyde 
solution and proportionate amount of potassium permanganate re- 
quired. It would be well to surround the vessel within which the 
container is placed, for a distance of at least three feet, with some 
absorptive material to receive any stray bubbles, thereby protecting 
the floor from any possibility of resulting stains. 

This cut shows the Pennsylvania State Department of Health's 
modification of the vessel designed by the Maine State Board of 
Health for use in liberating formaldehyde gas from a water solution, 
by means of potassium permanganate. 




Vessel for use in liberating formaldehyde gas from a water solution, by means of potassium 
permanganate. The larger funnel-shaped container measures 15 inches diameter at the top; 11 
inches at the bottom, the inside depth or height of the flaring part 5 inches, and the depth or 
height of the lower part 6 inches. The pan measures 15 inches diameter at the top, 11 inches at 
the bottom and has a straight height or depth of 5 inches. The dimensions of the vessel have 
been fixed by empirical trial as amnle for the diffusion of the gas. reducing the danger from igni- 
tion when in contact with a live flame to a minimum. The pan within which water is placed 
interlocks with the container proper, leaving sufficient space between the vessels for the circula- 
tion of water which protects the floor from heat generated by the chemical action. For conveni- 
ence in carrying, the pan is made to nest in the top of the container proper. Three pints of liquid 
formaldehyde and twenty-four ounces of potassium permanganate may be safely used in this 
vessel without danger of overflow. 

A cardinal point in disinfection is to attack the germ at the 
earliest possible moment after its escape from the body. Especially 
in all water-borne diseases, " Death in the bedpan " should be our 
slogan. And this leads me to call attention to the discovery in 
our laboratories of the presence of the germs of tuberculosis in 
sewage which will make it necessary to place that disease in the 
water-borne category, as a reasonable possibility. 

Prophylaxis. — Among prophylactics vaccination for smallpox 
is of course facile prince ps. 



Am " jX'i9i h o arm '} $ tate Control of Diseases. 333 

So far from relaxing our legal requirements in regard to this 
measure we must constantly and combinedly aim to reach the Ger- 
man standard. When this is reached all over the world, Jenner's 
prophesy will be realized and smallpox will be banished from the 
earth. 

Diphtheria antitoxin is a close second. Then follow the various 
serums and so-called vaccines, including the anti-rabic virus. 

For the mosquito-borne diseases, destruction of mosquito-breed- 
ing areas, mechanical screening, destruction of mosquitoes in houses 
by the employment of fumes of narcotic plants. 

For water-borne diseases nitration both of water and sewage 
with the addition of disinfectants in some exceptional cases. 

The only drugs to which the name of specific can be applied are 
mercury in syphilis and quinine in malaria ; but many of the serums 
are both prophylactic and specific, while certain of them have as yet 
only proven to be specifics. 

The circulars of the department for the management of the 
various contagious diseases contain full instructions for the proper 
use of disinfectants as required in the case of each disease. 

The Department of Health, therefore, urges upon all school direc- 
tors, trustees, principals and presidents of schools and colleges out- 
side of cities in this state the importance of protecting the health 
of their pupils and students, and of the entire community as well, 
by prompt and regular attention to this duty. 

As the law provides no fixed period for rural schools, the De- 
partment of Health recommends that the desks, wood work, shelves 
and floors of- school rooms, in addition to the customary scrubbing 
with soap or lye, be wiped at the end of each week with a cloth 
saturated with a 4 per cent, solution of liquor formaldehydi (U.S. P.). 

Slates and slate pencils, if used, should be wiped off with the 
same. Sunlight and fresh air should be freely admitted. 

At the end of each month, disinfection with formaldehyde gas 
should be practised. 

Dairy Inspection. — The communication of typhoid fever, scar- 
let fever and diphtheria through the medium of infected milk is a 
thoroughly well recognized fact. Hence it became necessary to go 
to the root of the evil and institute a system of careful dairy inspec- 
tion by state officers. 

Every community of any size in the State avails itself of the law 
to prevent the sale of impure or adulterated milk, but it is left to the 



334 



State Control of Diseases. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1910. 



State Department of Health to guard the centres where the milk 
is produced. Therefore, our township health . officers are regularly 
instructed to inspect the dairy farms in Pennsylvania. The total 
number of dairies inspected in 1908 was 17,618. Of these 2,442 
were found to be in a condition which entitled them to the highest 
commendation. Of the remainder many were comparatively clean 
and carefully conducted but failed in one or more of the eight 
particulars noted on the inspection card. 

For instance, on 480 farms, cattle were found to be drinking 
polluted water. In about 2500 dairies, the floors of the stables were 
in an extremely filthy condition. In about the same number the 
milkers did not wash their hands or the udders of the cows before 
milking, nor did they wear any clean protective covering to prevent 
dust and filth from their clothing falling in the milk. 

It has been gratifying to discover that so far from appearing 
antagonistic the dairymen have been generally most ready to co- 
operate with the agents of the department in the inspections and to 
afford every facility, appreciating that it was to their interest to 
comply with all the instructions furnished by us and thus secure the 
confidence of the public in the purity of their product. 

Stream Inspection. — Side by side with the work of general 
medical inspection, has gone the campaign for pure water. This 
has been conducted by a fully equipped sanitary engineering divi- 
sion. To stop the pollutions of the waters of the state and reclaim 
them as nearly as possible to their virgin purity — this is a work 
fraught with obstacles and yet so important to the health of our 
people that it invites our most earnest efforts. 

Five years ago the picture of stream pollution in Pennsylvania 
presented a sorry sight ; the individual householder constructing 
an overhanging privy and polluting the stream that finds its way 
past his property ; the small town defiling with raw sewage a stream 
of water that is expected to quench the thirst of villagers not far 
away ; the large municipalities discharging the contents of their ex- 
tensive sewers into the river that is the water supply for thousands 
and thousands of human beings down stream. This had been going 
on for generations. 

Since the organization of our Sanitary Engineering Division, 
18,945 private sources of stream pollution have been abated upon 
notice from the department, not to speak of the thousands more 
that have been stopped through the moral influence of this work. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



State Control of Diseases. 



335 



Sixty-seven modern sewerage disposal plants have been either built 
or are in the progress of construction as approved by the state. Two 
hundred and five other municipalities and private sewerage corpora- 
tions are preparing to submit plans for sewage treatment, for only 
on condition of their so doing have they been permitted to extend 
their sewerage systems. Already thirty-five modern water filtration 
plants have been approved by the state and are either built or being 
erected. 

The people are beginning to appreciate that sanitary methods of 
sewage disposal and water purification are not costly compared with 
the money outlay that typhoid fever demands of our State every 
year, not to speak of the awful harvest of misery, suffering and 
death that it reaps. 

In view of the work that has thus been done in cleaning up the 
streams of Pennsylvania, it is encouraging to note that 1908 showed 
a- decrease of 1088 deaths from typhoid, compared with 1907, in 
which year there were, also fewer deaths by 379 than in 1906. This 
is in the face of a rapidly increasing population, so that the actual 
decrease in point of numbers does not represent the full saving in 
lives. 

Distribution of Diphtheria Antitoxin. — I know of no work 
that the department has done which has been more gratifying to me 
personally than the saving of lives of little children by the free dis- 
tribution of diphtheria antitoxin among the poor of Pennsylvania. 

Since October, 1905, the Health Department has distributed 
49,443 packages of antitoxin. It has treated 19,929 sick people, 
mostly children, who, but for the state's intervention, would have 
been neglected. In the old days about 10,000 of these children 
would have died; as a matter of fact, only 1725 died. Nearly all 
those who died were children who< did not receive the antitoxin until 
the late stages of the disease. The detailed statistics of the depart- 
ment show that the earlier the sick child receives the antitoxin, the 
greater his chances of recovery. These facts should emphasize the 
pressing need, in all cases, not only of antitoxin treatment, but of this 
treatment at the earliest possible time. The department has also 
thoroughly tested the powers of antitoxin as an immunizing agent. 
Diphtheria, as every one knows, is one of the most virulently con- 
tagious diseases. It travels like lightning from the sick to the well. 
In the crowded homes of the poor, many of them ideal culture tubes 
for the growth of the microbes, its virulence is especially marked. 



336 



State Control of Diseases. 



j Am. Jour. Phartn. 
{ July, 1910. 



The department in three years has immunized with antitoxin 14,527 
persons, nearly all children, who had been exposed to the disease. 
Of these only 251 acquired it — a little more than one per cent. 
The State Department of Health's free distribution of antitoxin to 
the poor, therefore, has saved over 8000 lives at an average cost of 
seven dollars each and prevented contagion in several thousands of 
cases at an average cost of two dollars. 

I cannot too* earnestly acknowledge the cordial manner in which 
my colleagues of the medical profession have supported me in my 
efforts for the control of infection. At great personal inconvenience 
they have performed the not inconsiderable labor of reporting con- 
tagious diseases and it is gratifying to be able to state that the more 
intelligent and careful physicians are now setting a good example 
to their less scrupulous professional colleagues by using protective 
gowns in making examinations in cases of communicable disease and 
disinfecting their persons and especially their clinical thermometers, 
and, in the same way, doctors of dental surgery are cleansing and 
disinfecting their instruments and the separate handles of the same 
after use in each case. 

To you, gentlemen of the pharmaceutical profession, do we owe 
acknowledgments also for your readiness to act, entirely without 
compensation, as distributors of antitoxin, thus enabling the depart- 
ment to reach every poor sufferer in the state with the promptness 
which is so essential to the successful use of that agent. 

Control of Tuberculosis. — As has already "been stated the 
Legislature of 1907 gave the State Department of Health a total 
appropriation for tuberculosis of one million dollars and in 1909 
increased this appropriation to two million dollars. 

The present plan of the state governmental anti-tuberculosis work 
may be summarized under the following headings : 

First: The collection and tabulation of statistics relating to 
tuberculosis through official morbidity and mortality reports of each 
individual case. 

Second : The establishment of one or more sanatoria for the 
treatment of incipient cases, including infirmaries for advanced and 
hopeless cases. 

Third : The establishment of dispensaries in each county of the 
state for the care of cases which cannot avail themselves of sana- 
torium treatment, including home visitations and the study of occu- 
pational conditions. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July, 1910. ; 



State Control of Diseases. 



337 



Fourth : The maintenance of pathological laboratories for the 
free examination of sputum and tuberculous lesions and biological 
laboratories for the possible development of immunitive and cura- 
tive products. 

Fifth: The restriction of tuberculosis by the disinfection of 
rooms, buildings (private and public), conveyances and carriers, 
and by supervision and regulation over the general avenues of 
infection. 

Sixth: The dissemination of knowledge relative to the com- 
municability, care and prevention of tuberculosis. 

The collection and tabulation of statistics relating to tuberculosis 
is the first essential work in the campaign against this disease as it is 
in the war against all communicable diseases. The law of the 
commonwealth now requires that a physician shall report to the 
health authorities each and every case of tuberculosis occurring in 
his practice. 

Up to December 31, 1909, 2365 patients had been admitted to 
the Pennsylvania State South Mountain Sanatorium near Mont Alto. 
The present capacity is 720. This Spring, ground has been broken 
by the Department of Health for a second sanatorium on the beauti- 
ful tract of land at Cresson, which Andrew Carnegie so generously 
gave the commonwealth for that purpose. 

It is also a pleasure to be able to announce that Mrs. B. F. Jones, 
of Pittsburg, has expressed her interest in the sanatorium scheme 
by offering the department a commodious dwelling house and lot 
close by the tract given by Mr. Carnegie. This will enable us to com- 
mence the reception of patients at Cresson during the present Sum- 
mer without waiting for the completion of the larger buildings. 

Ground has also been purchased for the erection of a sanatorium 
at Hamburg among the beautiful hills of Berks County, which will 
be easy of access for the teeming populations of Philadelphia and 
the eastern counties. 

Tuberculosis Dispensaries. — Pennsylvania leads the entire 
country in the number of dispensaries it has established for the 
treatment of tuberculosis. One hundred and fourteen of these dis- 
pensaries have already been established at as many points in the 
state. Up to December, 1909, 21,227 poor tuberculous sufferers had 
received medical aid and the attention of trained nurses which 
these dispensaries provide. 

Each dispensary is in charge of a chief physician, from one to 



33§ 



State Control of Diseases. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1910. 



thirteen assistants, and one to five nurses according to the number of 
patients under treatment, and is open at convenient hours, day or 
evening, to accommodate the occupational demands of those who are 
able or who are compelled to work. The location has been deter- 
mined with a view of reaching the most populous centres. The 
great object of the dispensary is to reach each individual case of 
tuberculosis and by competent medical advice, treatment and super- 
vision ameliorate or entirely relieve the physical condition and at the 
same time to educate the people as to the communicable character of 
this disease, to the end that others may not become infected through 
ignorance or carelessness. The dispensary nurses are required to 
make visits to the homes of dispensary patients and advise as to the 
methods of personal hygiene and home sanitation ; instruct non- 
infected persons of the household as to the dangers, and how to 
avoid infection ; to spread the doctrine of fresh air, sunlight, rest, 
proper foods, temperate habits, and compliance with the instructions 
of the medical advisers ; and at the same time to discover unsus- 
pected cases. 

In all the larger dispensaries the " class system " has been in- 
augurated. Under this system classes are organized among the 
patients, each of which contains not over twenty-five members. The 
number of classes varies, being governed by the needs of the individ- 
ual dispensary. The classes meet at regular intervals, some weekly, 
but usually every two weeks. The members are instructed to take 
and record their own temperature, pulse and respiration. This they 
do as frequently as the class leader may direct. Not only do the 
patients record these particulars, but they are also instructed to 
make careful notes of their condition, feelings and actions. Memo- 
randum books are supplied for this purpose. 

At the class meetings patients are encouraged to converse among 
themselves and compare notes as to their experience. The note 
books are submitted to the inspection of the class leader, who care- 
fully reviews each one. Faults are pointed out, and misfortunes dis- 
cussed with a view of avoiding their repetition and minimizing 
unfavorable consequences. Often the ingenuity of one patient will 
be of great assistance in solving the difficult problems of another. 
Patients are weighed and the result commented upon. 

Indigent dispensary patients are supplied with nitrogenous food- 
stuffs in the shape of milk and eggs. In addition to food supplies 
the dispensaries furnish liberal quantities of paper napkins and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



State Control of Diseases. 



339 



bags, pressed paper sputum cups for use in tin forms and pocket 
cuspidors. 

Earnest effort is made through the dispensaries to educate the 
people in each community to a sense of the value of thorough room 
disinfection. The Department's Health Officers are instructed in 
the work of disinfection and supplied with the necessary equipment. 
A postal card sent to any health officer will secure his speedy atten- 
tion. Not only the dispensary physicians, but every practitioner 
in Pennsylvania, is supplied with a list of the names and addresses 
of the health officers located in his own and adjoining counties. 

The following, translated from the Report of Prof. F. Egger, 
the delegate from the Federal Council of Switzerland to the recent 
International Congress on Tuberculosis at Washington, is of interest 
as showing the impression made on an intelligent and cultivated 
foreign expert, by the part which our state is taking in the great 
world movement for the control of tuberculosis. Professor Egger 
says " Instructive as it would be to become acquainted with the 
excellent regulations of the States of Maryland, Massachusetts and 
others, we must content ourselves with sketching the measures 
adopted by the State of Pennsylvania, partly as we observed them 
personally and partly as they were presented in an admirable collec- 
tive exhibit accompanied by a catalog full of reliable information 
at Washington." After giving quite a full account both of the 
Mount Alto Sanatorium and the Dispensaries, he says : 

" If I have taken pains to depict the noble undertakings of 
America in the field of the contest against tuberculosis this has been 
done not only in candid admiration and recognition of their achieve- 
ments but also with the object of showing our country what energy 
and self-sacrificing public spirit can accomplish." 

If you have followed me in this somewhat prosy discourse you 
will have noted that the policy of the department in attempting 
the control of contagious and infectious diseases has been to lay the 
axe at the root of the tree, to embrace all, not only a few, communi- 
cable diseases, to insist on receiving information of every case, to 
make isolation and quarantine real and not perfunctory, although 
carefully modified as the nature of each disease may permit, to make 
disinfection thorough and complete, performed with real germicides, 
not simply bad smelling deodorants, and to use them where they 
will do the most good, to keep disease-breeding organisms out of 
our water and out of our milk as well as out of our air, to educate 



340 



State Control of Diseases. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



our people to the cardinal virtue of cleanliness, and to lead the 
ignorant and disaffected to appreciate that the state government, 
so far from desiring to oppress them, is their best friend, ever ready 
to protect, advise and help them in their illness and misfortunes. 

Convinced of the cardinal truth that the greatest defence against 
tuberculosis is a sturdy, vigorous human system which in turn can 
only be built up by an adequate supply of wholesome nourishing 
food, it undertakes to instruct the mothers of families in the selec- 
tion of foodstuffs so that the greatest amount of nutriment may be 
procured for the least expenditure of money, and how the food may 
be cooked in such a way as to be most easily digested and have its 
nutritious properties most thoroughly conserved. 

Thus through the physician and the nurse the state government 
comes very near to the unfortunate consumptive. Instead of being 
a cold and heartless abstraction, relentlessly working out its func- 
tion of ruling, regardless of the suffering which may follow, it 
enters in a very real way into his life. 

Heretofore, misled by the propaganda of the foreign anarchist, 
he has regarded the state with jealous suspicion as his natural 
enemy, whose principal object is to impose upon him oppressive 
laws and regulations, interfering with his personal liberty and taking 
his little all in exorbitant taxes. Now, to his surprise, he wakes up 
to find in his hour of trouble that the government is his thoughtful 
friend, ready to instruct him in better ways of living, how to get 
good wholesome food, and how to make his money go as far as 
possible in buying it, nay even when sickness has robbed him of his 
hard earned store, ready to furnish him the food best suited to 
restore him again to health and usefulness. It will be strange indeed 
if such treatment does not take the kinks out of his warped and 
twisted consciousness and lead him to become, instead of an anar- 
chist, a friend and supporter of the state. 



i 



Am "jiiy r mo arm ' } Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 341 



THE PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL 
ASSOCIATION. 



By Edgar F. Heffner, Secretary. 



It affords me a great deal of pleasure to have the honor of 
talking on the work and objects of our Association in this College, 
which has contributed more than any other institution toward the 
success of our state organization by furnishing many of the active 
workers, who have used the knowledge and training received here 
to aid in improving drug conditions, and to place the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association in first place in the ranks of the state 
organizations. 

The efficiency of our organization and the high character of the 
original material secured each year by our efficient chairman of the 
Committee on Papers and Queries, Professor LaWall, have time 
and time again brought- forth strong commendations from the Phar- 
maceutical Press, which should be very gratifying to our members. 

In point of actual dues-paying membership the Pennsylvania 
Association also leads, as we have nearly 1000 members who are in 
good standing, but in the number attending the meetings each year 
we are lamentably low, and are being put to shame by associations 
having half our membership. It is a crying shame that the work of 
our Association is only appreciated by one out of ten members to the 
point of his attending the meetings, and many think that the policy 
of holding the meetings at summer resorts each year for the past ten 
years is to blame and has been responsible for the low attendance. 

So I am here to-day as an advance guard of an " On to Phila- 
delphia " movement for 191 1, and to endeavor to enlist your aid in 
making this year's meeting the largest and best meeting we have 
yet held. 

Measures of vital importance to every retail druggist will be 
before our meeting, and in order that these measures may most 
nearly represent the sentiment of the best of our Association it is 
very essential that you attend the meeting and get as many of your 
friends and neighbors to go as you can. 

It would be quite a relief to the officers and committee-men 
to have the " Anvil Chorus," who as a rule do not attend the meet- 
ings, make a change and come to our meeting this year. The 



342 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association { Am 'j J ^y r \gio rm ' 

chances are that they would appreciate more the spirit that enters 
into our work, and become boosters instead of knockers. 

Mr. Apple's paper in our Proceedings for last year impressed 
me greatly as being in part a solution of our difficulty in getting 
members to attend. In his paper . he strongly urged the advisability 
of meeting next year at Philadelphia. 

It is a fact that nearly 400 of our members are located in this 
city and probably 200 more within a convenient distance, over half of 
whom would attend the meetings. More of our inland members 
would attend a meeting here than at a summer resort, as it would 
give them a chance to purchase stock, and besides a large city at 
any time of the year appeals more to us " country fellows " and our 
wives. So for the good of the cause I ask you to attend this year's 
meeting and boom Philadelphia as a meeting place for 191 1. 

Our Executive Committee have during the past week sent out a 
circular letter to each retail druggist in the State setting forth 
strongly the advantage and reasons why they should become 
members. 

This work has been supplemented by a letter to each member 
sent out by Mr. William E. Lee, chairman of the Membership Com- 
mittee, asking each one to do his share toward securing the applica- 
tions of those they know who are not now members. These appeals 
should certainly produce good results and will if you make a personal 
application of them and get busy. 

Practically all of the laws regulating pharmacy in this State 
have been secured by or with the direction and assistance of our 
Association and are mile posts on the road of our progress toward 
our ultimate goal, " The restriction of the dispensing and sale of 
medicine to regularly educated Druggists and Pharmacists." 

As a further step in that direction a draft of a law modelled after 
the New York and Ohio laws will be submitted to our Legislative 
Committee for consideration and approval in time to be presented 
to this year's meeting. 

There is a considerable demand in the interior of our State for 
a law restricting the sale of medicines by grocers and peddlers. The 
unjust competition of these unqualified persons is an injustice to the 
pharmacist, who has spent at least four years to qualify himself and 
who is held to strict account for what he sells, while these people 
sell poisons and dangerous drugs with impunity and no regard for 
the law. 



Am \j J uiJ r 'i9io arm ' } Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 343 



Any wholesaler doing a country-store business will tell you that 
more laudanum is sold by country grocery stores than by drug- 
stores, and it is as a rule sold indiscriminately without any attempt 
to comply with the law. 

This proposed law will restrict the sale of medicines (except 
proprietaries) in all cities of the first, second or third class, to regis- 
tered pharmacists, provide for the registration of all country stores 
desiring to sell medicines in original packages, and will prohibit 
the issuing of a certificate to any store situated within one mile of 
a properly manned drug store. It will also place a. prohibitive yearly 
license of $240 on all wagon and house-to-house medicine peddlers, 
street hawkers, etc. 

We will never have a more favorable time to push a law of this 
kind, as the present cocaine agitation and the unusually receptive 
condition of the public toward restricting the sale of drugs which 
has resulted, can be used to good advantage. 

It is probable that the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board 
will ask our Association to endorse an amendment to the present 
Cocaine Law making the penalty more severe and providing for an 
appropriation large enough to vigorously enforce the act all over the 
State. As you are well aware the present campaign against the 
cocaine evil in this city will about exhaust the financial resources 
of the Board, and the State should certainly make ample provision 
for the enforcement of law r s for the public good instead of compelling 
the Board to use the examination fees collected from applicants for 
registration, which should be used only for enforcing the present 
pharmacy and registration laws. 

At the last meeting of the State Association a committee was 
elected, with ex-President Walton as chairman, to draft a model 
Anti-Narcotic Law, and submit it to the Association for approval at 
this year's meeting. This Committee at the present time are 
awaiting the action of Congress, two bills of a similar nature having 
been introduced but not acted on up to this time. 

It is my personal opinion that independent of the action of 
Congress this Association should endeavor to obtain a law placing 
stringent restrictions on the sale of morphine, codeine, and prep- 
arations containing these alkaloids in quantities sufficient to enable 
them to be used as a narcotic. 

The evils resulting from the present careless sale of these nar- 
cotics are more widespread and vastly more terrible than the evils 



344 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association i ' Am - T J ? nr ;JfJ ann - 

resulting from the use of cocaine, as there are 100 victims of these 
drugs to one of cocaine. 

Cocaine habitues are only found in isolated spots, mostly in the 
larger cities, whereas every little village or town is daily adding to 
the large army of those who are " Walking in the valley of the 
shadow of Death " by way of the opium route. 

In our city, which I find no worse than other cities in the State, 
there are no users of cocaine at all, but over twenty-five regular 
users of morphine and opium, and in our county, containing about 
25,000 people, I could not find one case of cocaine habit but found 
100 would be a low estimate of the number of regular users of 
narcotic drugs. 

I do not think the proportion in the larger cities is any less, so 
in your city alone it would be safe to estimate that there are over 
8000 victims of the morphine habit and in the State more than 
25,000. 

Students of the social problem claim that a large proportion of 
prostitutes are victims of narcotic drugs, and there is no doubt but 
that a great many have fallen from respectable womanhood to the 
lowest depths through the use of morphine and opium. 

Our Association should go on record not only as favoring such 
a law, but as using every means to secure a Law which will limit 
the use of these dangerous drugs to legitimate purposes. 

A better and fairer law can be drawn by our Association than by 
persons knowing nothing of the actual conditions, and as a law will 
be passed eventually it would be only a matter of business wisdom 
for us to lead instead of being whipped into line. 

What this may mean to us can be shown by a single example. 
The insistance of President Wallace as chairman of the Legislative 
Committee on the insertion in the Drugs Law of the Label exemp- 
tion clause, and the declaration only (not percentage) of the pres- 
ence of the specified drugs saved every druggist in the State the 
immediate expenditure of from $10 to $25 for new labels, and also 
from the danger of violating the law in not giving exact percentages 
which in some cases would be hard to figure out. 

In conclusion I extend to you all on behalf of the State Associa- 
tion a cordial invitation to come to Buena Vista on June 28, 29 and 
30. You will enjoy your vacation in Pennsylvania's most beautiful 
and delightful mountain region at a time of the year when all nature 
is at her best, and in addition your presence and interest will aid 
in the work for the advancement of Pennsylvania pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1910. 



Book Reviews. 



345 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

A CORRECTION. 

To the Editor American Journal of Pharmacy: 

Please note that there is a typographical error in the last issue of 
your Journal. Instead of " sodium arsenate," on page 204, line 35, 
it should read " sodium arsenite." 

Very truly yours, 
May 14, 1910. Elias Elvove. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Theorie der Gewinnung und Trennung des Atherischen 
Ole durch Destillation. (Grundziige einer allgemeine Destil- 
lationslehre) von C. von Rechenberg. Mit zahlreichen Abbildun- 
gen und Tabellen. Bearbeitet im Auftrage der Firma Schimmel & 
Co. in Miltitz bei Leipzig. Selbstverlag von Schimmel & Co. 
Miltitz bei Leipzig. (Fur den Buchhandel: L. Staackmann, Leip- 
zig), 1900. 

The present work is a comprehensive presentation of the theo- 
retical principles involved in the distillation of ethereal oils and 
the separation of the various constituents through this process. 
It may in addition be regarded as a handbook on the fundamental 
principles of distillation and furnishes besides a valuable contribu- 
tion to phyto-chemistry as well as applied chemistry. In the preface 
it is gratifying to note also that the second edition of the work on 
" Ethereal Oils," by Gildemeister and Hoffmann, is being prepared 
by Dr. E. Gildemeister and that this will cover two volumes, the 
first volume of which will probably be published before the end of 
the present year. 

There is probably no other class of substances employed in medi- 
cines and in the arts which are so extensively used, and which at the 
same time are commercially of such varying quality and of which 
the users have so little knowledge, generally speaking, as the essen- 
tial oils. We are greatly indebted to the firm of Schimmel & Co. 
for their pains in supplying valuable and authentic information for 
the benefit of the trade, as well as assistance of chemists ; and for 
their generous employment of scientific members of their staff 
and also special chemists in correlating the results obtained in the 



346 



Book Reviews. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X July, 1910. 



routine manufacture of essential oils on a large scale as well as for 
their special scientific investigations on new essential oils. The 
example thus furnished is one that may well be emulated, as already 
stated in a previous reference to the publications of this firm 
(Journal, vol. 76, 1904, p. 214), for after all the manufacturer 
of medicines and like products must be guided by the same ideals 
as to the purity and efficiency of his products and in the discovery 
of new and valuable substances, as the practioners of medicine and 
the teachers in medicine and pharmacy, if the practice and the theory 
are to go hand in hand. In other words, the manufacturer of 
medicines and pharmaceutical products can no longer afford to think 
alone of the commercial gains on his products, but must at the same 
time be imbued with a motive similar to that which impels the teach- 
ers and practitioners in the professions named to devote their lives 
to their chosen work with but secondary concern as to the pecuniary 
rewards. 

The present volume, which is by von Rechenberg, might well be 
employed as a text-book by organic chemists, as it treats of the 
scientific principles involved in distillation processes in a manner 
which is illuminating and indeed inspiring. That this is not over- 
stated is seen in the mere mention of the contents of the fourteen 
chapters of which the book is comprised: (1) Practice of distillation, 
involving a study of the action of steam in plant and oil distilla- 
tion; (2) Dalton's law of diffusion; (3) distillation of mixtures of 
insoluble fluids ; (4) distillation under reduced or increased pres- 
sure; (5) distillation at high temperatures; (6) the chemical-physi- 
cal changes preceding and incident to plant-distillation; (7) special 
examples of distillation, as of lavendar flowers in Southern France, 
the distillation of herbs in Spain, cajuput distillation in Ceram, cassia 
leaves in Southern China, the distillation of coniferous plants in 
Switzerland, the distillation of cananga flowers in Java, of rose petals 
in Bulgaria and linaloe wood in Mexico; (8) the influence of 
molecular association and dissociation in the process of distillation ; 
(9) the influence of higher temperatures with and without pressure 
upon individual substances; (10) a chapter in general upon solu- 
tions; (11) the distillation of mixtures bordering on more or less 
soluble constituents; (12) the distillation of homogeneous mixtures 
at temperatures less than the boiling point; (13) the distillation of 
homogeneous mixtures not having a constant boiling point; (14) 
the distillation of labile addition compounds, and the distillation of 
homogeneous mixtures with maximum boiling points. H. K. 



Am j J u°iy!'i9io. rm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 347 
PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

SPECIAL LECTURES, I909-I9IO. 

Modern Methods of Food Manufacture was the subject of 
the ninth lecture of the series. The lecture was delivered on Friday, 
February n, at 3.30 p.m., by Mr. L. S. Dow, of the Heinz Preserv- 
ing Co., Pittsburg, Pa., and was illustrated by means of lantern 
slides. Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, in introducing the speaker re- 
marked upon the special interest of this topic to the food analyst 
and also on the interest which the public is beginning to manifest 
in the subject of pure and wholesome foods. 

The lecturer dwelt more especially on the practice of food pre- 
serving. He enumerated the various methods and agents used in the 
preserving art, tracing their use in some cases back to pre-historic 
times. In discussing the older and newer theories regarding putre- 
factive and fermentative changes in food products, he spoke in part 
as follows : 

" Modern food preserving in its broader adaptation may be said 
to have had its origin in the discovery by the Frenchman, Appert, 
in 1804, that an article of food first heated, then hermetically sealed 
and sterilized, would keep practically as long as the seal was intact, 
without the use of chemical assistance. 

" In Appert's time and indeed, until recent years, it was generally 
thought that the things essential to the preservation of food in this 
manner were the exclusion of air and the application of gentle heat 
to cause a fusion of the principal constituents and ferments, in such 
a manner that the power of the ferments would be destroyed. 

" One year later, de Heine, then in England, patented a process 
by which he claimed that food could be preserved by completely ex- 
hausting the air with an air pump. All attempts at this, however, 
seem to have been unsuccessful, until a process patented by Wer- 
theimer in 1839 came to be used. This provided that the food to be 
preserved should be placed in tin or metal cans, the interstices being 
filled with water, juices or other fluid, and the lid securely sealed. 
The cans were then set in water and boiled, the air being expelled 
through small holes pierced in the lids. When the food was suffi- 
ciently cooked and the air entirely driven out, the holes were filled 
with solder, completing the process. Food thus treated would re- 
main in a perfect state almost indefinitely. Xo very great improve- 



34§ Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ^y^ 9 P io arm * 

ment has since been made upon that method and no change at all 
in the principle. And, while the theory of these men differed from 
that accepted by modern science, the same means were used and the 
same results obtained as to-day; the process here described being 
used in all large canning factories in America, as well as the coun- 
tries abroad, and in principle at least, practised in every household 
in which fruits and vegetables are preserved. 

" It is through the investigations of later scientists however — 
particularly, of Pasteur — that the food preserver has been shown 
that it is not the oxygen of the air which causes fermentation and 
putrefaction, but bacteria and other microscopic organisms." 

The subject of food adulteration received a share of attention and 
that of chemical preservatives was considered at some length. With 
regard to the latter, Mr. Dow said, " The first objection to their use, 
and I believe the most glaring abuse that exists to-day, lies in their 
employment for the purpose of preserving partly spoiled and ill— 
cared-for vegetables and fruits." He claimed that every product 
of fruits and vegetables with which he was familiar could be success- 
fully made in a commercial way without artificial preservatives, and 
that this was evidenced by the fact that the entire product of at least 
fifty, and probably more, leading American food preservers, is en- 
tirely free from these substances. Speaking specifically of benzoate 
of soda the lecturer contended that so long as a doubt exists as to its 
harmlessness or harmfulness, the people rather than the manufac- 
turers should be given the benefit of that doubt. After calling 
attention to the use of this chemical as a preservative for cannery 
waste, which is worked up into ketchups and soups, and for other 
similar purposes, the lecturer stated that he had no hesitation in 
saying " that the principal use of benzoate of soda and like sub- 
stances in modern food manufacture, is either to permit the use of 
a lower grade of material, or carelessness in process." 

In concluding his address Mr. Dow said that sterilization is the 
chief reliance of the modern food preserver, and that in the case of 
fruits and vegetables in which the color or taste would be affected by 
a comparatively high temperature intermittent sterilization at low 
temperature is employed. F- Y. 



^ m jSy'i9w arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 349 

APRIL PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, April 19, at 3 o'clock, Henry C. 
Blair presiding. 

Mr. Edgar F. Heffner, of Lock Haven, Pa., secretary of the 
Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Association, presented a paper 
calling attention to the work of that Association and setting forth 
some of its present aims, particularly along legislative lines, which 
will be published in a later number of this Journal. In introducing 
Mr. Heffner the chairman spoke of the efficiency of his work as 
secretary of the Association and remarked upon the promptness 
with which the annual volume of Proceedings had appeared. 

The paper elicited a prolonged discussion which centred mainly 
on the, proposed State Antinarcotic Law, a subject made doubly 
interesting by reason of the crusade being waged at present in 
Philadelphia by the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board for the 
eradication of the cocaine evil. Among those participating in the 
discussion were Wm. E. Lee, chairman of the Pa. Ph. A. Member- 
ship Committee, L. L. Walton, chairman of the Committee appointed 
by the Association to draft a model Antinarcotic Law, Henry 
Kraemer, Theodore Campbell, a member of the Pennsylvania State 
Legislature, Otto W. Osterlund, C. B. Lowe, C. A. Weidemann, 
E. M. Boring, and Messrs. Heffner and Blair. 

Mr. Walton stated that his committee had not as yet drafted the 
proposed law, as they had been waiting for Congress to frame a 
national law with the object of making the Pennsylvania State Law 
conform to it. He said that they had asked the opinions of drug- 
gists in all parts of the State as to the character of such a law, and 
he then read extracts from the acts of the following states : Massa- 
chusetts, Virginia, New Jersey, Michigan, Florida, Idaho, Alabama, 
Wyoming and Wisconsin. According to The Apothecary (April, 
1910, p. 14) the provisions of the new Massachusetts Narcotics Law, 
as finally enacted, are as follows : 

Under this law it is now unlawful for any person to sell, furnish, give 
away or deliver any opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, or preparations thereof, 
or any salt or compound of the foregoing substances, except upon the written 
prescription or order of a lawfully authorized practitioner of medicine, den- 
tistry or veterinary medicine, which prescription must bear the name of the 
person giving it; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply 
to sales made by any manufacturer, wholesale or retail druggist, to other 



350 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am j^i 9 P ia rm ' 

manufacturer, wholesale or retail druggists ; nor to sales made to hospitals, 
colleges, scientific or public institutions, or to physicians, dentists or veterinary 
surgeons ; nor to the sale of cough remedies and other domestic and pro- 
prietary preparations ; provided that such preparations are sold in good faith 
as medicines, and not for the purpose of evading the provisions of this act, 
if such preparations do not contain more than two and one-half grains of 
opium, or one-third of a grain of morphine, or one- fourth of a grain of heroin, 
or one grain of codeine or their salts in one fluidounce ; or if a solid prepara- 
tion, in one avoirdupois ounce, excepting liniments and ointments which 
are prepared for external use only; nor to preparations containing opium or 
any of its salts, which are sold in good faith, for diarrhcea, cholera or 
neuralgia ; nor to powder of ipecac and opium, commonly known as Dover's 
powders ; nor to compound medicinal tablets, pills or powders containing 
not over one-twentieth of a grain of morphine, or one-twelfth of a grain 
of heroin or one-fourth of a grain of codeine, or any of their salts to each 
pill, powder or tablet; provided, that such preparations are sold in good faith 
as medicines and not for the purpose of evading the provisions of the act. 

Mr. Walton further remarked that personally he was in favor 
of reasonable legislation, that he believed that the legitimate uses of 
opium and morphine should be considered and that in enacting an 
antinarcotic law no necessary impediments should be placed in the 
way of such use. He said that the handling of habitues presented 
a difficult problem, as to prohibit entirely the use of the drugs to 
which they were addicted, would no doubt end in collapse and possi- 
bly death in some instances. Mr. Walton added that he had written 
a prominent New York firm asking for the record of their sales of 
cocaine, and that the firm's reply was that they were not required 
by law to keep a record of sales of this drug outside the State of 
New York. 

Professor Kraemer said that the Pennsylvania cocaine law 
appeared to be very effective and that it ought to be a comparatively 
easy matter to introduce a clause providing for the similar regulation 
of the sale of morphine and its derivatives. He pointed out that in 
framing legislation of this kind the work of local, state and national 
organizations should be co-ordinated, and expressed the opinion that 
an interstate law bearing on the sale of poisonous drugs will prob- 
ably be framed ere long, as this is a matter in which some of the 
Government departments have much interest. 

Regarding the dose of morphine used by habitues, Mr. Lee stated 
that an instance had come to his notice where 15 grains were used 
daily, and Mr. Blair stated that he had understood that the taking 
of 1 drachm daily was not unusual. 



Am 'A°iyri9io arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 351 

Mr. Campbell stated that he had never sold morphine to habitues, 
and that he had had no opportunity of ascertaining the amount of 
the drug used by them. He was of the opinion that there would be 
no difficulty in getting the Pennsylvania State Legislature to pass a 
law regulating the sale of morphine and codeine so long as it did 
not apply to household remedies containing them, for immediately 
the question would arise as to what the people in the outlying dis- 
tricts would do. Mr. Campbell felt that there were a good many 
loopholes and " good faiths " in the Massachusetts law, and thought 
that the proposed Pennsylvania draft should not have these. 

Mr. Osterlund coincided with this latter view, and stated that 
having been acting as a juror recently, he found that lawyers have 
no trouble in getting around the " good faith " clauses. He stated 
that the laws in the western states appeared to have fewer of these. 

Dr. Lowe spoke of one drug store where a profit of $60 a day 
was made from the sale of cocaine. He discussed the treatment of 
habitues, and said that one could hardly imagine the tortures of 
habitues when deprived of the drug, and referred to one case where 
13 grains were taken at a dose and another instance where the daily 
dose was Yz ounce. 

Dr. Weidemann said that he favored one feature of the proposed 
antinarcotic law, which Mr. Walton mentioned, namely, the drafting 
of the law in such a manner as to take into consideration the ques- 
tion of habitues. In this connection he mentioned the case of a 
dressmaker who he said had taken 2 fluidounces of the tincture of 
opium every day for the past forty years, and he felt that it would 
be wrong to deprive such an one of the drug. On the other hand, he 
said that something should be done, and that it was better to take 
measures to prevent the formation of the habit than to try to cure 
habitues. 

Mr. Walton remarked at this point, that while the Massachusetts 
law has too many loopholes, it is still an example of what can be 
done. He said that there is only one way to accomplish the end 
sought, and that is by restricting the sale of morphine and this class 
of drugs to prescriptions, and then asked if any of those present 
thought that this could be accomplished. 

Mr. Heffner spoke of the case of a young girl who used a pint 
of laudanum a week, and stated that she had recently been taken 
to a hospital for treatment by the administration of gradually de- 
creasing doses of the drug, and that the result would be reported. 



352 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am i u ^ r i 9 i P harm - 

Mr. Blair, referring to Mr. Walton's question as to whether 
Pennsylvania ought to have a stringent morphine law, said that in 
his store, which is a very old one and owned successively by his 
grandfather, his father and himself, no morphine had been sold 
over the counter for three generations, and that at the present time 
he does not sell laudanum over the counter. He gave it as his 
opinion that morphine should not be sold to habitues, and said that 
he would favor a stringent law provided that it could be enforced. 
He said that there were eight habitues of the drug in his block, one 
of them being a total wreck, but that none of them ever came into 
his store for the drug. 

Following the discussion of Mr. Heffner's paper Professor 
Kraemer called attention to the circular letter which had been sent 
out by Dr. Reid Hunt, chairman of the Committee on U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia of the American Medical Association, asking for opinions 
regarding the function and scope of the Pharmacopoeia and as to 
the general principles which should govern admissions and deletions. 
Those taking part in the discussion of the questions formulated in 
the circular were Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr., Dr. George D. Rosen- 
garten, F. M. Apple, Professor Kraemer and Mr. Blair. 

Methods for increasing the attendance at the annual meetings of 
the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association were discussed by 
Messrs. Lee, Blair, Campbell, Boring, Lowe, Osterlund and Weide- 
mann. 

At the close of the discussion, Professor Kraemer called atten- 
tion to a growing plant of Sarracenia vario which had been sent 
from Tampa, Fla., by Hamilton Russell, P.D., and to one of a fossil 
fern obtained from the coal mines of Shenandoah, Pa., and presented 
by Roy Hughes, a student of the College. 

A vote of thanks was tendered the speakers of the afternoon and 
the donors of the specimens. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tern. 



^•juiy^ioT'} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 353 

MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

A report to the Carnegie Foundation for the advancement of teach- 
ing, by Abraham Flexner, with an introduction by Henry S. Prit- 
chett, President of the Foundation, New York, 19 10. 

This volume of 346 pages is to be had, practically for the asking, 
and should be read, studied, and inwardly digested by every physi- 
cian, every pharmacist, and every educated layman in these United 
States. 

Part I consists of 180 pages divided into 14 chapters, and pre- 
sents a survey of the history of medical education in this country, 
and a comprehensive discussion of the various problems that are 
involved in the present day effort to advance the requirements as 
well as the scope of medical education. 

Part II contains a detailed report of the observations made in 
the course of a systematic inspection of the medical schools of the 
United States and Canada. This portion of the report is alphabeti- 
cally arranged by states and provinces and includes, among other 
information, statistics relating to the population of the several states, 
the number of physicians and the ratio of physicians to inhabitants. 

The report also discusses the more important local features and 
records in detail, the requirements, resources and facilities of the 
several schools. 

An appendix contains a table showing the number of professors 
and other instructors in the faculty, the enrolment, fee income, and 
the budget of the several schools by states. 

Finally, a rather complete index of 8 double column pages facili- 
tates reference to any one particular feature or institution that is 
discussed. 

No book published in recent years is destined to have a more far- 
reaching influence on the development of the educational institutions 
of our country, and therefore on the progress and wellbeing of the 
people themselves, as this volume which depicts in terse but always 
readable language the development or lack of development of the 
widely varying institutions more or less loosely classed as medical 
schools. 

The President of the Foundation, in the introduction, points out 
that "one of the problems of the future is to educate the public 
itself to appreciate the fact that very seldom, under existing con- 
ditions, does a patient receive the best aid which it is possible to give 



354 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am j^ r i 9 iS arm - 

him in the present state of medicine, and that this is due mainly 
to the fact that a vast army of men is admitted to the practice of 
medicine who are untrained in sciences fundamental to the pro- 
fession and quite without a sufficient experience with disease." 

As an illustration of the inadequate nature of medical training, 
at the present time, it is pointed out that nearly one-half of the 150 
medical schools in this country have an annual income of less than 
10,000 dollars, while by far the greater number of schools attempt to 
limit their expenses to the fees received from students. 

The existence of so many weak or inefficient medical schools 
would indicate a lack of professional patriotism on the part of those 
who were instrumental in their founding while the fact that at the 
present time the number of weak schools is actually being reduced, 
despite the monetary loss that is necessarily involved, is perhaps the 
most significant indication of progress in matters medical. 

It should be noted that, indirectly, this book is the most severe 
arraignment of pharmacy, its ideals and its achievements that one 
would care to see. Looking ahead there is no mistaking the evi- 
dence that it is an indication of what we as pharmacists must 
measure up to, if we wish to continue to take an active part in 
developing the sciences of medicine and it most assuredly constitutes 
a warning that should not be ignored. 

Some day, and that perhaps not in the far off future, the spirit, 
ideals and facilities of our pharmaceutical schools will be investi- 
gated and commented upon much in the same way as are the 
resources and possibilities of the medical schools in this volume. 

So long as pharmacy essays to be an integral part of medicine 
it must live up to and comply with the requirements that are being- 
made of those engaged in the practice of medicine itself, and pharma- 
ceutical schools dare not lag far behind the requirements that are 
being made of medical colleges. 

To the American Medical Association the active members of 
which have done and are now doing such yeoman service in calling 
attention to the overproduction of uneducated and ill-trained medi- 
cal practitioners, this volume is a tribute that no amount of dis- 
paragement by otherwise interested individuals can counteract. 

As noted above, however, every pharmacist who is interested in 
the progress of the sciences of medicine or in the public welfare 
should read and ponder over this report for himself. 

The book may be obtained by enclosing 17 cents for postage with 
a request to: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching, 576 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

M. I. WlLBERT. 




Tuberous Root of Ipomcea Horsfallice , Hooker 
About one-half actual length 



THE AMERICANS 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

AUGUST, 1 910 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE TUBEROUS ROOT 
OF IPOMCEA HORS FALLLE, HOOKER. 

By Frederick B. Power and Harold Rogerson. 
A Contribution from the Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories, London. 

In the Spring of 1909 one of us was kindly presented by Mr. 
E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., Curator of the [Museum of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society of Great Britain, with a large tuberous root which 
had been received from the West Indies, and was evidently the 
product of a species of I po intra. It had been sent to Mr. Holmes 
by Messrs. Westmacott & Son, of Manchester, England, who had 
likewise favored him with the following information concerning 
it. " It grows wild, and is not cultivated for any purpose. This 
specimen was gathered in the woods of Maypen, Clarendon Dis- 
trict, Jamaica, by our client, Col. Barlow, of Bury, who states that 
it is used for starch making, although it produces a yellow product, 
and that it is also used for food in some instances." 

The root in question was a very large one, and, as it could 
not conveniently be preserved in its entire, fresh state, it was 
thought that it might be utilized for a chemical examination, so 
far at least as the amount of material would permit. Some addi- 
tional interest was imparted to the subject by the fact that the 
present authors had recently made a complete chemical study of 
the stems of Ipomcea purpurea, Roth, 1 and also of the official jalap, 2 
from Ipomcea Purga, Hayne (Exogonhim Purga, Benth). 

In order to ascertain the botanical source of the root referred 



1 This Journal, 1908, 80, pp. 251-286. 

2 Tourn, Amer. Chem. Soc, 1910, 32, pp. 80-113. 

(355) 



356 



Ipomcea Horsfallice. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1910. 



to, Mr. Holmes had obtained from Jamaica, through the kindness 
of Col. Barlow, specimens of the flowering plant which produced 
it, and these were found to agree completely with the Ipomcea Hors- 
f allies, as described by Sir W. J. Hooker, who established the species 
(compare Botanical Magazine, N. S., Vol. viii, tab. 3315. Ind. or.). 
Although the Ipomcea Horsf allies is described as an East Indian spe- 
cies, there would appear to be no doubt respecting the botanical iden- 
tity of the plant received from Jamaica, where it must have been 
introduced. The remarks of Sir W. J. Hooker (loc. cit.) concerning 
the plant to which he had given the above-mentioned name may be 
deemed of sufficient interest to record in this connection. 

In so extensive a genus as the present, and where many of the species 
are necessarily very imperfectly described, it behooves us to constitute new 
ones with great caution; and it is not until a careful comparison of the 
present individual, unquestionably one of the most beautiful, with all the 
descriptions to which I have had access, and with a most extensive collection 
of the genus in my herbarium, that I have considered it to be new, and 
have given it the name of the lady to whose kindness I am indebted for 
the drawing. The seeds were received by Charles Horsfall, Esq., either 
from Africa or from the East Indies, and raised by his very skilful gardener, 
Mr. Henry Evans, at Everton, where the plants produced their lovely blos- 
soms in great profusion during the months of December and January 
(1833-4), a season when so gay a visitor is particularly welcome to the 
stove. Mr. Evans informs me that he has it under the name of I. pen- 
taphylla; but the species so called by Jaquin has hairy leaves, and is in 
other respects quite a different plant, while the /. " pentaphylla of Cavanilles 
(/. Cavanillesii, Roemer et Schultes) is still more at variance with our 
species. /. H or sf allies, in its inflorescence and blossoms, bears the closest 
affinity with /. paniculata, Br. {Convolvulus, L.), but their foliage is so 
' different that the two plants can never be confounded : the former having 
compound and quinate leaves, while those of the latter are simply lobed. 

EXPERIMENTAL. 

The tuberous root of Ipomcea Horsfallice, Hooker, which formed 
the subject of the brief investigation here described, is represented 
in the plate accompanying this paper. It was light brown in color, 
with darker colored spots, and showed in places an exudation of 
fclack resin. The length of the root was 0.38 metre, its circumfer- 
ence at the largest part 0.37 metre, and it weighed 2395 grammes. 
The presence of an abundance of starch was evident when a section 
of the root, moistened with iodine, was observed under the micro- 
scope. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
August, 1910. | 



Ipomcea Horsfallice. 



357 



The root was sliced, and then dried in a water-oven, when it 
weighed 408 grammes, the loss of weight in drying having thus 
been 1987 grammes, or nearly 83 per cent. The dried material 
was ground to a fine powder, when it amounted to 385 grammes. 
It was then brought into a large Soxhlet apparatus, and thoroughly 
extracted with hot alcohol, the greater portion of the alcohol being 
subsequently removed, and the resulting extract distilled in a cur- 
rent of steam. The distillate was found to contain only traces of 
formic and butyric acids. 

After the above-described treatment, the contents of the distil- 
lation flask consisted of a dark red, aqueous liquid, together with a 
small amount of resinous material. The liquid was filtered, and 
the resin repeatedly washed with hot water, after which the resin 
was dissolved in a little alcohol, the solution evaporated to dryness, 
and the residue dried at ioo° C. The amount of resin obtained 
was 9.6 grammes, thus corresponding to 2.5 per cent, of the 
weight of dried, or 0.4 per cent, of the weight of the entire fresh 
root. 

The resin formed a dark brown, spongy mass, which became 
somewhat sticky on exposure to the air. It was found to be almost 
completely soluble in ether. 

Optical Rotation of the Crude Resin. 

The optical rotatory power of the convolvulaceous resins has been 
considered to afford some indication of their identity or purity. 3 
As this factor has previously been determined for several such 
resins, including those of Ipomcea purpurea, Roth, and jalap by the 
present authors, 2 it was deemed of interest to make this determina- 
tion with the resin under examination. For this purpose 1.0 gramme 
of the crude resin was dissolved in absolute alcohol, and the solution 
treated with successive small quantities of animal charcoal until it 
was nearly deprived of color. The rotation of this liquid in a 2 dcm. 
tube was — o°54', and the amount of substance contained in 10 
c.c. of the liquid, after drying at 105-10 C, was 0.1584 gramme, 
whence [a] n — 28.4 . It may be noted that this degree of optical 

1 Compare Guigues, Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., [6], 22, 241, and 
CJicm. Centralblatt, 1907, Bd. I, p. 309. Also Bull soc. chim. [4], 3, 872, (1908). 

2 This Journal, 1908, 80, p. 253, and Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1910, 
32, P- 85. 



358 



Ipomcca Horsfallicc. 



/Am. Jour. Phami. 
\ August, 1910. 



activity is considerably lower than that of either of the above- 
mentioned resins, and appears to approximate most nearly to that 
of the resin from Ipomcea orizabensis, Ledanois, which has been 
recorded by Guigues (loc. cit.) as varying- from — 23.30' to — 25 . 

Extraction of the Resin with Various Solvents. 

A small portion of the resin (1.0 gramme) was reserved for a 
physiological test, and the remainder (7.6 grammes) dissolved in 
alcohol, the solution being brought onto prepared sawdust, and 
the mixture thoroughly dried. It was then successively extracted 
with light petroleum, ether, and alcohol, when the following amounts 
of extract, dried at ioo° C, were obtained: 

Petroleum (b. p. 40-60 C.) extracted 4.92 grammes, or 64.7 per cent. 
Ether extracted 1.90 grammes, or 25.0 per cent. 

Alcohol extracted 0.60 grammes, or 8.0 per cent. 

Total 7.42 grammes, or 97.7 per cent. 

Petroleum Extract. — This was a soft, brown resin. It was 
heated in a reflux apparatus with an alcoholic solution of potas- 
sium hydroxide for several hours, after which the alcohol was re- 
moved, water added, and the alkaline mixture extracted with ether. 
The ethereal liquid was dried, and the solvent evaporated, when a 
small quantity of solid material was obtained. This yielded a little 
of a crystalline substance, which melted at i32-i33° C, and gave 
the color reactions oi the phytosterols. 

The alkaline liquid which had been extracted with ether was 
acidified, and again extracted with this solvent, the ethereal liquid 
being dried and evaporated. A small amount of acid was thus 
obtained, which was distilled under diminished ' pressure, when it 
partially solidified. The oily portion was unsaturated, since it 
absorbed bromine in chloroform solution. The solid portion was 
recrystallized from dilute acetic acid, when it melted at 56-58 C. 
It was thus evident that the original product consisted of a mixture 
of acids, but the amount was too small to permit of their further 
separation. 

Ether Extract. — This extract, like the preceding one, was a 
soft, brown resin. On redissolving it in ether a very small amount 
of a sparingly soluble substance separated, which was collected. 
This was found to give a color reaction similar to that yielded by 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1910. j 



Ipomcca Horsfallicc. 



359 



the phytosterols, and it probably consisted of one of the dihydric 
alcohols, such as ipuranol and ipurganol, which have previously 
been isolated by us from convolvulaceous resins (loc. cit.) and other 
sources. The exceedingly small amount of this substance rendered 
it impossible to identify it. 

The ethereal liquid was subsequently shaken successively with 
solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide, but only 
resinous material was thus removed, and on finally evaporating the 
ether only a trace of yellow resin remained. 

Alcohol Extract. — This extract, which was very small in amount, 
resembled the two' preceding ones, and even after prolonged drying 
it could not be reduced to a powder. Its alcoholic solution was 
treated with baryta, and allowed to stand in a warm place for 
twelve hours, after which the alcohol was removed, water added, 
and the barium precipitated by means of sulphuric acid. The filtered 
aqueous liquid did not reduce Fehling's solution until after heating 
with a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid, thus indicating that at 
least a portion of the alcoholic extract of the resin was glucosidic. 

Examination of the Aqueous Liquid. 

The aqueous liquid, as above indicated, represented that portion 
of the alcoholic extract of the root which was soluble in water, and 
from which the small amount of resinous material had been removed. 
It was first shaken with ether, and on adding to the ethereal liquid 
a little aqueous alkali the latter solution showed a blue fluorescence. 
This was probably due to the presence of traces of /3-methylassculetin, 
C 9 H g (CHo)0 4 , a substance which we have previously shown (loc. 
cit.) to be a constituent of jalap resin. 

After extracting the aqueous liquid with ether, it was treated 
with a solution of basic lead acetate, which produced a light brown 
precipitate. This was collected, washed with water, and then sus- 
pended in water and decomposed by hydrogen sulphide. On filter- 
ing the mixture a liquid was obtained which gave a slight brown 
coloration with ferric chloride, but it yielded nothing definite. The 
filtrate from the lead subacetate precipitate was treated with hydro- 
gen sulphide for the removal of the excess of lead, and again filtered. 
On concentrating this liquid a dark colored syrup was obtained, 
which contained a quantity of sugar, since it readily yielded 
J-phenylglucosazone, melting at 213-214 C. 



360 



Standardization of Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Phami. 
\ August, 1010. 



In order to ascertain whether the resin obtained from the root of 
Ipomoea Horsfallicu, Hooker, possesses any physiological activity, a 
test was kindly conducted for us by Dr. H. H. Dale, Director of 
the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories. One gramme 
of the resin was administered to a small dog, but no purgation was 
produced, nor could any other effect be observed. 

It is evident from the results of the preceding investigation that 
the root of Ipomoea Horsf allies, Hooker, does not possess any con- 
stituent which would render it of medicinal value, for even the very 
small proportion of resin which it contains appears to be devoid of 
any marked physiological action. 

In conclusion we desire to express our thanks to Mr. E. M. 
Holmes, F.L.S., for the great pains he has taken to secure the botan- 
ical identification of the material supplied to us. 



THE BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION OF DRUGS * 

By Robert A. Hatcher and J. G. Brody. 
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical College. 

This comprehensive title was chosen by one of us some months 
ago with the intention of presenting brief outlines of a number of 
methods of biological standardization which retail pharmacists would 
find available. 

Since then we have been devoting most of the time at our dis- 
posal for the purpose to the study of one group of drugs and we 
shall therefore limit the scope of the paper to a single method, 
and a consideration of some of the drugs for which the method 
is adapted. 

Crawford (Am. J. Pharm., vol. 80, 1908, p. 321) has given an 
excellent review of a number of the more important methods of 
biological assay. He says: " The -group of digitalis, strophanthus, 
and squill is the most important one which we as physicians have 
to use, and it urgently demands standardizing." He quotes Naunyn 
as saying that he would not care to be a physician without digitalis. 
He also quotes Dixon as saying : " For my part I unhesitatingly 

* Read in the Scientific Section of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, at Richmond, Va., May 2-7, 1910. 



Am. Jour . Pharm. ) 
August , 1910. J 



Standardisation of Drugs. 



361 



express the belief that many hundreds of patients die annually 
from digitalis and allies not possessing the virtues required of 
them." To the foregoing we would add that we are equally con- 
vinced that the want of precise methods of dosage is responsible for 
many cases of poisoning with digitalis, and it is with this group of 
drugs that we have been engaged for the most part. 

We are aware that many will raise the objection that the details 
of biologic assays are of little more than theoretical importance to the 
retail pharmacist because he is unable to conduct these operations. 
We believe that the progressive pharmacist must be prepared to 
make the simple biologic tests at least, if he is to pretend to keep 
pace with the progress of his profession, and it is our purpose to out- 
line the technic of our method, which is so simple that it may 
be mastered by the retail pharmacist, and conducted with the appara- 
tus which he has at hand. 

H. C. Wood, Jr., has recently sought to convey the impression 
that it is hopeless to expect any degree of precision by means of the 
test on animals even when it is conducted by the trained pharmacolo- 
gist. Wood says : " And first I shall speak of its limitations. We 
sometimes read of the physiological test being used as a control of 
the chemical assay. To attempt to corroborate the findings of the 
chemist by a test on the living animal is about as sensible as it would 
be for a navigator to regulate his chronometer by an Ingersoll watch ; 
the relative accuracy of the chemical and physiological assay is about 
the same as that of the $200 chronometer and the dollar watch." 

To this statement we wish to enter certain exceptions. 

Method. — The method of standardization which we have chosen 
for the digitalis group and some other drugs, consists in determining 
the minimal fatal dose per kg. of cat when the drug is injected slowly 
into the femoral vein, the standard chosen for the digitalis group 
being the cat unit. 

The cat unit may be defined most accurately perhaps, as the 
amount of crystalline ouabain 1 which is fatal within about ninety 
minutes to a kilogramme of cat when the drug is injected slowly 
and almost continuously into the femoral vein. A cat unit is equal 
to almost precisely 0.1 mg. of crystalline ouabain, or one ten- 
millionth of the weight of the animal. 

1 The older term ouabain is to be preferred to that, of crystalline strophan- 
thin which has lead to much confusion. 



362 



Standardisation of Drugs.. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1910. 



We would prefer this definition of the cat unit rather than that 
which would embrace any digitalis body required to produce a simi- 
lar effect within the same period of time when used in this way. 
The reasons for this will be apparent from the discussion of the 
method. 

When crystalline ouabain, amorphous strophanthin, or a prepara- 
tion of strophanthus is to be tested, it is only necessary to inject the 
solution from a syringe or burette into the femoral vein until the 
animal begins to show toxic symptoms. The injection is then inter- 
rupted, or continued more slowly until the unmistakable signs of 
approaching death are seen. These signs are so typical that one is 
rarely mistaken concerning them. They consist in irregularity of 
the heart, difficult respiration, convulsions, and frequently a peculiar 
cry, after which recovery is extremely rare. If death does not occur 
in a few minutes the injection is continued with extreme caution. 

Other members of the digitalis group may be tested in the same 
way, but the results will be somewhat too high as a rule, and in that 
case the necessary correction, usually amounting to about 20 per 
cent., may be made, or the assay may be made more accurately 
by a modification of the technic. Somewhat more uniform results 
are obtained if about 75 per cent, of the total amount of the digitalis 
bodv is injected in the first fifteen minutes and the remainder in 
the following hour. These results will still be too high, and we 
have therefore devised a modification of the method of estimating 
some of the other digitalis bodies which gives results which we be- 
lieve to be nearly as accurate as those obtained with crystalline 
ouabain itself. 

It might be better to explain the reason for this modification 
first, but for convenience the discussion will be given later. 

lust as the analytical chemist may find it desirable to determine 
the alkalinity of a liquid by adding an excess of acid and titrating 
back with an alkali, so we have been able to obtain more accurate 
results in some cases when we inject a measured amount of the digi- 
talis body (tincture or infusion of digitalis, or digitoxin) in the 
first period of about ten minutes, and after an interval of twenty 
minutes continue the injection, substituting a solution of crystalline 
ouabain for that of the digitalis body under examination until the 
death of the animal, or until the toxic symptoms appear-. Naturally, 
we assured ourselves that ouabain was capable of replacing the other 
digitalis bodies before we adopted this method. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. / 
August, 1910. | 



Standardization of Drugs. 



363 



The difference between the amount of crystalline ouabain actually 
used to complete the assay and 0.1 mg. per kg. of animal (the 
amount which would have been required in the absence of the digi- 
talis body), represents the activity of the digitalis used. 

The following example will illustrate the mode of computing the 
activity of the digitalis body tested : A tincture representing 70 mgs. 
of digitalis per kg. of cat was injected into the femoral vein and 
after twenty minutes the injection of a solution of ouabain was 
begun. The animal died with the typical symptoms of digitalis poi- 
soning when 0.0142 mg. of the crystalline ouabain per kg. had been 
injected. The difference between 0.0142 mg. and 0.1 mg. (which 
would have been required had the ouabain been used alone) is 
0.0858 mg. or 85.8 per cent, of a cat unit, hence 70 mgs. of digitalis 
equals 85.8 per cent, of a cat unit, and 81.6 mgs. of the digitalis 
equals one cat unit. A duplicate experiment gave 81.8 mgs. of digi- 
talis. That the results obtained by the modified technic are more 
accurate than those with the continuous injection of the digitalis 
alone is shown by a comparison of the results of the following experi- 
ments intended to fix the minimal lethal dose of digitalis by the 
vein with those given in Table III. 

2 / 24/'io. Male cat, Wt. 3.65 kgs. 

10.30 a. m. Injected 0.085 Gm. digitalis per kg. by vein at once. 
10.45 A - M - Emesis. Cat lived over 7 hours, but died during 
the night. 
4/9/' 10. Female cat, Wt. 2.02 kgs. 

1 1.4.0 a.m. Injected 0.080 Gm. per kg. by vein at once. 
12.02 a.m. Emesis. (Repeated emesis.) 
4/ii/'io. Cat weighs 1.68 kgs., having lost 0.34 kg. in weight. 

9.42 a.m. Injected 0.075 Gm. digitalis per kg. by vein at once. 
9.58 A.M. Death occurred. (Cumulation.) 

We have tested the following substances by intravenous injection 
into the cat : Crystalline ouabain, amorphous strophanthin, strophan- 
thus seed, tincture of strophanthus, digitalis, tincture of digitalis, 
infusion of digitalis, digitoxin, digitalinum verum, digitalein, adon- 
idin, digalen, amorphous digitoxin so-called, digipuratum, all be- 
longing to the digitalis group, and German digitalin which does act 



364 



Standardization of Drugs. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1910. 



like digitalis when injected in this way, since it consists largely 
of digitonin which causes a sharp fall in the blood-pressure when 
injected into the vein. We examined digitonin and sparteine also, 
neither of them giving the digitalis action. Strychnine gave fairly 
uniform results, but the method requires careful control. Nicotine, 
physostigmine, and aconitine did not give concordant results in the 
experiments we made, and we have not been able to determine 
whether it is possible to modify the technic so as to make it available 
for those bodies or not. 

table 1. 

Equivalents in mgs. per cat unit of various digitalis bodies. 



Ouabain, cryst 0.10 

Stroph. amorph. B. and S 0.13 1 

Stroph. amorph. Merck 0.17 

Digitoxin, cryst 0.30 

Digitoxin, am. so-called 1.20 

Digitalinum ver. Kil 1.50 

Stroph. hisp 1.50 

Digitalein 2.90 

Adonidin 3.00 

Stroph. Kombe 3.00 

Digitalin, German 4-°° 

Digitalis, German 82.00 

Digitalis, Eng 92.00 



The estimations in the table were made by the continuous injec- 
tion of the various bodies mentioned except in the case of digitoxin 
and the digitalis leaf, and it is quite possible that corrections will 
have to be made for some of these when crystalline ouabain is 
used to complete the injection. Attention is called to the similarity 
of the results reported to those obtained by Worth Hale in comparing 
crystalline digitoxin with the amorphous so-called (7. Am. Med. 
Assn., v. 54, p. 35), but we believe that the method reported here 
has the advantage of greater accuracy and ease with which it may be 
followed, and of great economy in time. 

1 This amorphous strophanthin of Boehringer and Sons sold in sterile 
tubes apparently is more active than other specimens of their amorphous 
strophanthin or that of Merck which we have examined at different times. 



Am (n^"s[;i P 9io m1 '} Standardization of Drugs. 365 



TABLE II. 

Mgs. dig. per ' Mgs. Mgs. 

cat unit. Dig. -J- ouabain. 
A. 75.2 49 + 0.0351 

A. 73.5 49 + 0-0333 

B. 81.8 35 + 0.0572 

C. 81.6 70 + 0.0142 

D. 92.3 60 + 0.0350 

D. 102.6 60 + 0.0414 

E. 96.1 80 + 0.0168 

The figures in the first column show the number of milligrammes 
of digitalis computed to equal 1 cat unit ; those in the second and 
third columns indicate the digitalis and ouabain actually used. 



TABLE III. 

Mgs. digitalis 
per cat unit. 



A. Ger. (old) tr. . . 96.6 

A 91.0 

A 97-o 

A 122.0 

B. Ger. (new) tr 96.0 

B. Ger. (new) tr 98.7 

C. Ger. (new) inf 96.6 

C. 1 Ger. (new) inf , 98.0 

C. Ger. (new) inf 103.0 

D. 2 Eng. (new) tr 113.7 

D. 2 Eng. (new) tr i*3-7 

D. Eng. (new) inf 1 15.0 

D. Eng. (new) inf 122.0 

D. Eng (new) inf 110.0 

D. Eng. (new) inf 106.0 



The values in Table III were obtained by the injection of digi- 
talis alone (c.f. Table II). A. represents a tincture obtained from 
leaf ground for percolation by Gilpin. Langdon & Co.. in Oct.. 1906. 
B. was from a specimen obtained from the same firm in April, 1910, 
and was said to have been obtained as recentlv as possible. D. was 
from an English leaf obtained at the same time as the German just 



366 



Standardization of Drugs. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1910. 



mentioned. It was said to be from a carefully collected and treated 
cultivated leaf. 

C. 1 had had 100 nigs, of the same per rectum 3 hours previously. 

D. 2 were labelled Mixt. A. and B. 3 and the strength of these 
were unknown to the operator, Dr. Brody. In the first of these two 
experiments 2.73 c.c. per kg. were used, the cat weighed 1.65 kgs., 
hence 4.5 c.c. were injected; in the second 3.18 c.c. per kg. were used 
for a cat weighing 2.22 kg., a total of 7.05 c.c. The first solution 
represents 125 mg. in 3 c.c, and 3.5 c.c. of the second represents a 
like amount. 

Four estimations of digitalinum verum were made. 1.50; 1.52; 
1.56, and 1.80 mgs. respectively were found to be equal to 1 cat unit. 

Digitalinum verum and digitoxin being insoluble in water, alco- 
holic solutions were employed. 

Four estimations of digitalein were also made, the equivalents 
of a cat unit being 2.89; 2.90; 2.98, and 4.50 mgs. respectively. 
Digitalein being very soluble in water, is used conveniently in this 
way. 

Two lactating animals were given large amounts of strophanthus 
in one case, and digitalis in the other. The first took 217 mgs. 
of digitalis per kg. of weight, which is more than twice the amount 
of this specimen usually required and the second took two and 
one-third times as much strophanthus as other cats of the same 
weight. These are the only two instances in which an animal re- 
quired anything like so much of these two drugs. We are unable 
to state whether this is a coincidence or whether lactating animals 
are habitually tolerant toward the drugs of this group. We hope to 
be able to decide this point in the near future. 

Three experiments were made with impure adonidin. The first 
animal received more than 6 mgs. of the drug per kg. of weight. 
We had little idea of the activity of the specimen and injected it 
much more rapidly than in the second and third experiments, hence 
the excess over that actually required was much greater. This ex- 
periment should be disregarded in the calculations. The second 
and third animals received 2.86 and 3.12 mgs. per kg. respectively. 

The results obtained with German digitalin require an explana- 
tion. German digitalin is wholly unsuited for estimation by intra- 
venous injection, its true digitalis action being much less than that 
indicated by the figures in the table, death being due mainly to the 



Am. Juur. Pliarm. 1 
August, 1910. j" 



Standardization of Drugs. 



367 



digitonin of which it is chiefly composed. German digitalin prob- 
ably has no place in digitalis therapy. 

When the official preparations of digitalis, such as the tincture, 
are diluted with water a precipitate occurs, indicated by a faint 
opalescence, and in our earlier experiments we were unable to get 
uniform results when these diluted liquids were injected over a period 
of an hour or more. The injection of a large amount of alcohol is 
not permissible, and the use of concentrated preparations precludes 
the same degree of accuracy that is possible with the more dilute 
liquids. These objections are overcome, in part, by the combined 
method, in which ouabain is used to complete the estimation. 

AYe have never seen any embarrassment of the respiration be- 
yond some increase in the rate until the heart stopped. The immedi- 
ate signs of asphyxia with excessive efforts at respiration showed 
that the respiratory centre was still intact. Furthermore, those 
drugs which kill by paralysis of the respiratory centre, usually give 
very variable results when used in this way. Strychnine is an ex- 
ception, but there are many factors involved in the rapid action of 
strychnine, and it is quite possible that the sudden death following 
the intravenous injection is not due to its direct effects on the res- 
piratory centre alone. The fact that the heart stops after all 
of the digitalis bodies before the respiration is seriously impaired 
is the strongest answer we can make to the contention of Edmunds 
and Hale (Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin, No. 48, 1908), that 
methods which employ as a standard the minimum lethal dose for 
the higher animals are not applicable to the physiological assay of 
the digitalis series. 

It is hardly necessary to state that it is a matter of vital im- 
portance that a standard shall be found for all the digitalis bodies in 
which the relative activity of the different members on the human 
heart may be expressed. 

Hale found between 7 and 8 mgs. of digitoxin per kg. of frog, 
and 600 mgs. of digipuratum per kg. (/. Am. Med. Assn., v. 54, 
p. 129) necessary to cause systolic standstill in an hour. This is 
sixteen times the amount of digitoxin, and eight times the amount 
of digipuratum, required per kilo for the cat's heart in our experi- 
ments. On the other hand, w r e have found less than twice as much 
strophanthus is required per kilo of frog as for the cat. 

The following figures expressed in milligrammes per kg. of 
frog were obtained by Famulener and .Lyons (Proc. Am. Ph. Assn., 



3 68 



Standardisation of Drugs. 



( Am. Jour. Pharui. 
\ August, 1910. 



1902, p. 415). Digitalis leaf, 675; digitoxin, 8.7; strophanthus (5 
per cent, tincture), 5.625 ; strophanthin, 0.5 (c.f. Table I) ; adonidin, 
4. They state in their conclusions : Determinations of the relative 
strengths of different samples of the same drug may be made with 
precision sufficient for practical purposes by physiological experi- 
ments on animals, but, as might be expected, the relative medicinal 
strength of different drugs cannot be correctly inferred from the 
observation of a single symptom produced in an animal like the frog. 
They found differences of less than ten per cent, in duplicate 
experiments. 

A further disadvantage in the use of the frog is due to the 
differences in the rate of absorption of the different digitalis bodies. 
Even such closely related bodies as amorphous and crystalline 
strophanthin differing markedly in this respect. Famulener and 
Lyons have also called attention to this objection. 

We have attempted to compare the results which those authors 
obtained when working with the frog with those obtained bv our- 
selves with the cat, but the differences are evidently due to differ- 
ences in the animals and not to the limits of error. 

Focke (Pharm. Zeitung, vol. 54, Xo. 68) says that after 
further consideration of the subject he believes that it is not feasible 
to accustom physicians to thinking and calculating the strength 
of digitalis preparations in frog units. 

There are many reasons for believing that the action of the digi- 
talis bodies on the cat's heart is a better index than that on the 
frog's of their effect on the human heart. Man absorbs strophan- 
thin much as the cat and dog do, and the effects are much the same. 
Koppe's experiment in which 2 mgs. of digitoxin taken in dilute 
alcohol caused serious symptoms, shows the possibility of rapid 
absorption and unusual action; on the other hand, we know of in- 
stances in which 2 mgs. of crystalline ouabain have been adminis- 
tered intravenously without causing ill effects, though that is 25 per 
cent, of the theoretically fatal dose. 

The cat is the least resistant to strophanthin and ouabain of all 
the animals which we have examined, but the rat and mouse alone, 
so far as our experience goes, are very resistant. There are marked 
differences in the subcutaneous and intravenous doses for the rabbit 
and some other animals, but not for the cat and the dog. 

The various digitalis bodies are the subject of clinical investiga- 
tion at the present time in certain of the hospitals in New York, 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 

August, 1910. J 



Standardization of Drugs. 



369 



with the object of comparing their quantitative therapeutic action in 
connection with the results on the cat's heart, as shown by the ex- 
periments which we are conducting. 

Naturally, minimal doses are being employed, but the compara- 
tive activity of crystalline ouabain and strophanthin even in the 
doses which have been recommended, seem to explain why positively 
brilliant results have followed occasionally the intravenous use of 
these substances. 

We believe that the cat unit offers an easy means of computing 
the therapeutic dose of the various digitalis bodies when these are 
to be administered intramuscularly or by vein, but the rate of 
absorption from the alimentary canal must be determined before the 
oral use of these can furnish us reliable results. 

That cumulation does occur with certain of these substances must 
be admitted, or, what amounts to nearly the same thing, the drug is 
not excreted or destroyed so readily in some cases as in others. 

Strophanthin and ouabain may be repeated more frequently 
than digitalis, our incomplete investigations leading us to< believe 
that the action of digitalis is far more persistent than is generally 
supposed. 

We believe the outlook is more encouraging now than it has 
been at any time in the past for putting the therapeutics of digitalis 
upon a rational basis, but it must be admitted that we have no 
means at present of securing any degree of uniformity of action 
after the oral administration of these bodies, though it is not hopeless 
to look for one which will be absorbed readily from the alimentary 
canal, and we are endeavoring to find such a member of the group. 

DISCUSSION. 

The Choice of the Animal. — There are several reasons. which in- 
fluenced us to use the cat. These are in the order of their im- 
portance: Accuracy afforded, facility with which they may be ob- 
tained, ease with which they may be handled (contrary to common 
opinion), cheapness, and the fact that their use does not affect 
the sensibilities of the sentimental portion of the community to the 
same extent that the employment of the dog does. 

The Use of Ouabain to Complete the Reaction after Digitalis. — 
It is commonly stated that digitalis acts slowly, thus Sollmann, Text- 
book of Pharmacology, 2nd ed., p. 488, says : " The action of the 
digitalis group is peculiar, in that it cannot be secured at once, unless 



370 



Standardisation of Drugs. 



j Am. Jour. Pharni. 
1 August, 1910. 



toxic doses are given intravenously. If this is done, the animal 
goes through all the stages; but even in this case, several hours 
are required until death occurs, no matter how much of the drug 
is given." 

1 he latter part of this statement does not apply to the cat, nor 
does it apply to strophanthin so far as I am aware, nevertheless, 
it is true that moderate 1 doses of digitalis act much more slowly 
on the cat's heart than crystalline ouabain does, hence the interval 
that occurs between the injection of the minimal fatal dose and the 
death of the animal is longer with digitalis than it is with ouabain, 
and a greater excess of the digitalis will be injected during that 
interval. If approximately fifty per cent, of the fatal dose of 
digitalis is injected into the vein and twenty minutes are allowed 
to elapse and the injection is then continued using one part of 
crystalline ouabain in one hundred thousand parts of physiological 
salt solution, the end reaction is almost as sharp as with ouabain 
alone, the interval appearing to suffice for the digitalis to exert 
almost its full action on the heart. 

The extraordinary uniformity 2 of the action obtainable with 
ouabain and other digitalis bodies on the cat's heart calls for some 
comment. We have been inclined to think that this might be ex- 
plained by the absence of racial peculiarities, due to the nocturnal 
habits of the cat whereby cross breeding is almost universal. We 
are endeavoring to explain this uniformity, and while we believe 
there is a deeper significance than the one just suggested, we are 
not prepared to go deeply into a discussion of this phase of the 
question at present. 

The fact that crystalline ouabain is capable of replacing amor- 
phous strophanthin, as well as the digitalis bodies found in the leaf, 

1 Massive doses of digitalis may cause death in 6o seconds, or about 
half the time required by the largest doses of crystalline ouabain. We believe 
that this extraordinary rapidity of action of digitalis is attributable largely 
to digitalein, which also acts rapidly. 

2 Since writing the preceding statement, which was based on a very 
large number of experiments covering a period of several years, we have 
found a number of cats which tolerated doses up to nearly fifty per cent, 
more than that stated. We are unable as yet to explain this. As previously 
stated, the only ones which succumb to doses below the standard are the 
excessively fat. The later observations do not prevent the use of this 
method of standardization, but a somewhat larger number of observations 
are necessary than would be otherwise. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1910. j 



Standardization of Drugs. 



37i 



so far as the direct action on the heart is concerned, lends support 
to the suggestion made by Schmiedeberg many years ago that all 
the members of the digitalis group depend on a similar nucleus for 
their action. 

The use of this method of biological assaying and its remarkable 
accuracy have lead us into the investigation of some problems which 
we wish to mention at this time, though they have no immediate 
connection with the subject of the paper. We are employing it to 
show the degree of absorption which occurs after the oral adminis- 
tration of the various members of this group. The results show that 
absorption is exceedingly irregular with all of them which we have 
tested. By this means we have also found that the tincture of 
digitalis represents the activity of the leaf fully, the marc left after 
the preparation of the tincture from a specimen of the German 
digitalis in one case, and from the English in another, being inert. 
The same may be said of the infusion, at least a one per cent, 
infusion showed the same activity as the tincture diluted to the same 
strength, and, as just stated, this fully represented the leaf. We 
have also found in one case that a carefully prepared tincture of 
strophanthus, made according to the Pharmacopceial process, repre- 
sented only about two-thirds of the total activity of the seed, despite 
the fact that percolation had been continued for one week. The 
greater part of the strophanthin which is extracted is removed 
during the first part of the percolation, a part of the strophanthin, 
or some related body, being removed slowly by percolation. The 
total active principles of the seed may be removed completely, so 
far as we have been able to determine, by infusing the finely pow- 
dered seed for one hour on a boiling water bath. 1 

The foregoing suggests a number of ways in which the biologic 
test may be utilized by the retail pharmacist. 

Several interesting points are raised by the results with strophan- 
thus recorded in Table I. A specimen of Strophanthus hispidus was 

1 Since this paper was read at Richmond we have tested a tincture of 
strophanthus made by the Pharmacopceial process and found that it did not 
represent the seed fully, but the marc yielded no active principle to boiling 
water. Another tincture prepared from the same specimen of seed after 
removing the fixed oil did represent the seed fully, 1 c.c. being equal to more 
than 60 cat units. This suggests that the active principle may undergo some 
change even during percolation or infusion. 

It will be remembered that there is no difficulty in exhausting digitalis 
either by percolation or infusing the powdered leaf. 



372 



Standardization of Drugs. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm 
{ August, 1910. 



examined and the tincture and the infusion gave concordant results 
indicating that 3.5 mgs equalled 1 cat unit. A specimen of the 
Kombe showed exactly half the activity of the hispidus, 7 mgs. 
being found to be equal to a cat unit, a tincture and an infusion 
being likewise examined. Subsequently an authentic specimen of 
each, obtained from Professor Rusby, was examined, the seed being 
finely powdered and exhausted by heating on a boiling water bath 
for an hour. The ratio of activity of the infusions was the same 
as that just mentioned, but both infusions w T ere much stronger than 
we had anticipated they would be, and 1.5 mg. of the hispidus and 
3 mgs. of the Kombe were found to be equal to a cat unit. The 
activity of this specimen of hispidus corresponds to about 12 per 
cent, of Merck's amorphous strophanthin — an activity that has been 
hitherto unsuspected, we believe. 

Conclusions. — The cat affords a simple method of standardizing 
the drugs of the digitalis group. This method is available for the 
retail pharmacist who will devote as much care to the process as is 
required in the chemical assay of opium. 

The cat affords a means of comparing the activity of the several 
digitalis bodies on the human heart. This is not possible on the 
frog by present methods. 

With some of the digitalis bodies, notably digitoxin, the minimal 
lethal dose for the cat by the vein is determined more conveniently 
by injecting about one-half of the lethal dose into the vein, and 
after an interval of about twenty minutes, injecting crystalline oua- 
bain (so-called crystalline strophanthin) until the animal dies. 

Crystalline ouabain is capable of replacing any of the digitalis 
bodies which we have tested so far as the direct action on the heart 
is concerned, that is, one-half of the fatal dose of any of these 
digitalis bodies and one-half of the fatal dose of crystalline ouabain 
will cause death in a short time if they be injected into the femoral 
vein in the manner described. 

The absorption of digitalis and of strophanthus from the alimen- 
tary canal is extremely variable, that of strophanthus is far more 
variable than that of digitalis, for this reason the activity of these 
drugs cannot be fixed by means of the oral administration. 

Cumulation occurs with digitalis to such a degree that no conclu- 
sions can be drawn regarding activity from the effects on animals 
which have been used previously for digitalis, unless many weeks 
have elapsed since the previous use. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
August, 1910. j 



Rack for Separatory Funnels. 



373 



A RACK FOR HOLDING SEPARATORY FUNNELS.* 
By J. G. Roberts. 

Recognizing the need of a simple and inexpensive separatory 
funnel holder, the apparatus shown in the accompanying illustration 
was designed. It is simple in construction and can be made by an 




Rack for separatory funnels. 



amateur carpenter. It consists of a base 15 in. square. In the 
Centre is fastened an upright rod 22 in. high, and to this rod, which 



* Presented before the Scientific Section of American Pharmaceutical 
Association at Richmond, Va. 



374 Pharmacy and Public Health Service. j Am ^ u J ™^ f 9 ^ rm - 

passes through the middle of them, are fastened the arms which hold 
the funnels. 

The arms are the same length as the base and in the case of the 
two upper ones are 43/2 in. wide. The space between the supports 
is arranged so that the stem of one separator extends about one inch 
into the other. The openings to contain the separatory funnels are 
' 2y 2 in. in diameter, and are wide enough to permit the bowl of the 
separator to extend about i~y 2 in. below the base of the support: 
A piece, V 2 in. wide, is cut out in front of the support to enable the 
separator to be more readily replaced. The lowest support is the 
same length as the upper ones but is only 3 in. wide. It contains 
holes 1% in. in diameter for small funnels, in which the last shake- 
out is filtered into beakers or dishes. 

By means of this apparatus it is possible to start an alkaloidal 
assay in the upper separator, continue through the various shake- 
outs, and finally filter it directly into the beakers or dishes. Where 
a drug is to be extracted, Gordin percolators can be supported above 
the separator and the drug percolated directly into it. 

Analytical Department, Smith, Kline & French Co. 



PHARMACY AND THE U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH AND 
MARINE-HOSPITAL SERVICE.* 

Despite the fact that for upwards of a decade representatives! of 
the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service have regularly at- 
tended the meetings of the American Pharmaceutical Association- 
there appears to exist, even among pharmacists, a lack of apprecia- 
tion of the varied and far-reaching efforts to protect the health of the 
American people that are now being made by the several divisions 
of this service. 

The Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, as now organ- 

* The U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. At the 
recent meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, in Richmond, 
M. I. Wilbert one of the representatives of the Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service, .in presenting the felicitations of the Surgeon General of 
that Service, offered for publication the appended description of the several 
activities of the present public health service, and called attention to the 
desirability of having pharmacists better informed regarding the work now 
being done, under the auspices of the service, for the protection of the public 
health. 



A Au J g°ust i9io m ' } Pharmacy and Public Health Service. 375 

ized, is a bureau of the U. S. Treasury Department, and had its 
origin, as the "Marine-Hospital Service/' in 1798. This service 
was reorganized in 1870 and in 1902 its duties were materially aug- 
mented and its name changed to " Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service." The varied activities of the service are in a 
measure reflected by the titles of the administrative divisions which 
include : Marine hospitals and relief, domestic quarantine, foreign 
and insular quarantine, sanitary reports and statistics, and scientific 
research, 

More detailed information regarding the activities of these sev- 
eral divisions is to be obtained from the service publications, which 
are classified under five heads: (1) Annual Reports, (2) Weekly 
Public Health Reports, (3) Public Health Pamphlets and 
Brochures, (4) Bulletins of the Yellow Fever Institute, and (5) 
Bulletins of the Hygienic Laboratory. 

The importance of the work done in connection with quarantine 
service at domestic ports, is evidenced by the fact that during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, no less than 8266 vessels were 
inspected and 520 were disinfected as a precaution against yellow 
fever or plague. Foreign quarantine work includes investigations 
into the sanitary history of vessels destined for ports in the United 
States, the inspection of vessels, crews and passengers, and the 
fumigation or disinfection of ships when necessary. 

The Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics of the Public 
Health and Marine-Hospital Service collects information regarding 
the existence and prevalence of quarantinable diseases and the 
nature and effect of sanitary measures adopted by other countries. 

Much of the scientific research work done in connection with the 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service is carried on in the 
Hygienic Laboratory. The original building of this laboratory, 
located at 25th and E Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C, was occu- 
pied in 1903, and the more recent extension was completed in 1909. 
It is a brick and sandstone structure, 230 feet long, two stories in 
height, with basement and attic, and contains 41 rooms. 

The personnel of the Hygienic Laboratory, at the close of the 
last fiscal year, comprised a total of 55 persons : A director, an assist- 
ant director, 3 chiefs of divisions, 8 commissioned medical officers, 2 
pharmacists, 11 technical assistants, an artist, and 28 attendants. 
To facilitate the pursuance of the scientific work, the laboratory is 



376 Pharmacy and Public Health Service. / An ?- Jov "'*£* rm - 

Kj/ J \ August, 1910. 

divided into divisions more or less distinct and independent of each 
other. These divisions include 

1. Division of Pathology and Bacteriology, 

2. Division of Zoology, 

3. Division of Pharmacology, and, 

4. Division of Chemistry. 

The work that has been done in connection with the several 
divisions of the Hygienic Laboratory has attracted widespread 
attention and is generally recognized as being of great scientific 
value. 

As a practical illustration of the appreciation of this work by 
individual citizens, it is but necessary to call attention to the recent 
gift of $1,000,000 by Mr. John D. Rockefeller for the purpose of 
eradicating hookworm disease from the Southern State's. This gift 
is not alone a recognition of the scientific character of the work done 
in the Hygienic Laboratory, but is also a tribute to the ability and 
worth of the Chief of the Division of Zoology, who was the first 
to call attention to the now widely recognized prevalence of hook- 
worm disease in the Southern States. 

In addition to hookworm disease the Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service, largely in or under the auspices of the Hygienic 
Laboratory, has carried on extensive investigations on the causative 
factors and the possible prevention of tuberculosis, yellow fever, 
plague, leprosy, typhoid fever, pellagra, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, 
and other infectious and contagious diseases. 

The Hygienic Laboratory is by law entrusted with the supervi- 
sion of the manufacture and sale of sera, vaccines, and similar prod- 
ucts, and the Division of Bacteriology has evolved and perfected 
standards for antidiphtheritic serum and for antitetanic serum that 
have been accepted without question by the manufacturers of these 
products and have been favorably commented upon and endorsed by 
bacteriologists and scientists generally. 

The Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service has been re- 
peatedly accused of not giving to pharmacy the recognition that it 
rightfully deserves in public health work. That this accusation is 
unfounded and is, in fact, based on a misconception of what phar- 
macy itself is, or should be, is evidenced by the work now done in 
connection with the Division of Pharmacology of the Hygienic 
Laboratory. 

Even at the present time this division of the Hygienic Laboratory 



Am Au J oai U st'iio im '} Pharmacy and Public Health Service. 377 

is exceeded in size and importance only by the Division of Bacteri- 
ology and Pathology, and the scientific work that has been done 
under the direction of its chief, Dr. Reid Hunt, is widely recognized 
as being of distinct scientific value. This work is particularly inter- 
esting in that it is of prophetic import; being representative of the 
future of pharmacy and indicative of the work that can be and very 
properly should be, done by the professional pharmacist if he is to 
continue as the accepted authority on information relating to drugs 
and medicines. 

Much of the work that has been done up to the present time 
relates more or less directly to the materials included in the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States. 

One of the earlier bulletins emanating from the Division of 
Pharmacology, included a discussion of the changes in the U.S. P. 
VIII, particularly the nature and properties of the new remedies 
that were included in that book. 

More recent bulletins deal largely with compilations of com- 
ments on the Pharmacopoeia of the United States and the National 
Formulary. These compilations are being prepared at the request 
of the Board of Trustees of the U.S. P. Convention, and, it is ex- 
pected, will be of material assistance in the forthcoming revision 
of the U.S.P. 

While much routine work is done in connection with the ex- 
amination of chemicals and pharmaceutical supplies, the possibility 
of making original investigations is not lost sight of and the hours 
devoted to such investigations are by no means limited to the work- 
ing hours prescribed by the Government regulations. 

The publications emanating from the Division include communi- 
cations on the study of the various suprarenal preparations, the 
standardization of preparations of the thyroid gland, the toxicity 
of acetanilid mixtures, the variability of and methods of standard- 
izing preparations of digitalis, the solubility of pharmacopceial com- 
pounds, the melting points of chemical substances, and the applica- 
tion of the U.S.P. analytical methods to the purity rubric]^ 

Even this meagre record should suffice to convince the most 
skeptical that in at least one of the Government Medical Services. 
"Pharmacy,-" Pharmacia Vera/' has received proper recognition and 
that the work now being done in the Division of Pharmacology of 
the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service is destined to open 
up for true pharmacy a field of activity that is as yet but imperfectly 
occupied. 



378 



Correspondence. 



{Am. Jour. Pharru. 
t August, 1910. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

the pharmaceutical syllabus national committee. 

Dear Sir: 

At a regular meeting- of the National Committee held Thursday 
evening, May 5, 1910, at Richmond, Va., careful consideration was 
given the question of the completion and revision of the Pharma- 
ceutical Syllabus. 

The very favorable reception accorded this work, and the una- 
nimity of opinion touching its importance, inspired the Committee to 
enter at once upon the task of harmonizing certain details and of 
adjusting other differences. 

It was decided to ask the assistance of the boards of pharmacy 
and the faculties of the schools at the earliest practicable moment so 
as to have the study under way before the schools close for the 
summer vacation. 

Therefore, without waiting for the completion of our reorganiza- 
tion, we are bringing this action to the attention of the secretaries 
of the faculty of each school of pharmacy and of each board of 
pharmacy. 

Kindly secure criticisms and suggestions that may improve the 
syllabus from your point of view and report the same to the Secre- 
tary of the National Committee at the earliest practicable moment. 
In the interests of pharmaceutical education. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Willis G. -Gregory, Chairman, 
Henry L: Taylor, Secretary. 

Albany, N. Y., May 16, 1910. 

THE PHARMACEUTICAL SYLLABUS. 

Reorganization. — The first edition was published February 18, 
1910. The Committee of 21 thereupon entered on a discussion of 
the question of its completion and revision. 

The New York State Board of Pharmacy, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee, gracefully consented to its efTacement from 
the leadership in this important movement by copyrighting the 
syllabus in the name of the National Committee. This action ma- 
terially increases the responsibility of the National Committee by 



Am. Jour. Phann.") 
August, _1910. j 



Correspondence. 



379 



placing on it the task of continuing the work and of issuing a revised 
edition. 

To conserve the truest interests of pharmacy and thus to deserve 
the support of those national organizations most closely representing 
those interests, it was felt that the Committee should be reorganized 
so as to have a vital relation and be directly representative of the 
three great national bodies most deeply interested in the progress 
of pharmacy. On formal motion, it was 

Voted to recommend that this responsibility be assumed by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, through its Section on Edu- 
cation and Legislation, the American Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties, and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. 

These recommendations were made by the Chairman of the sub- 
committees at the Richmond meeting. As a result the American 
Pharmaceutical Association amended its By-Laws by increasing the 
number of Committees by one — " a committee on the Pharmaceutical 
Syllabus of seven members " — and provided for the appointing of 
members to the same by the President of the Association as follows : 
" One member shall be appointed for seven years and one for six, 
five, four, three, two and one years respectively ; each vacancy 
occurring from the expiration of term shall be filled for a term of 
seven years ; other vacancies shall be filled at the annual meetings 
of the Association for the unexpired terms. This committee shall 
report to the Association through the Section on Education and 
Legislation; shall be members of the National Committee on the 
Pharmaceutical Syllabus, and shall recommend to the Association 
its proportionate share of the current expenses." 

The American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties provided 
a new By-Law to the same effect and provided for its proportionate 
share of the current expenses. 

The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy amended its 
By-Laws in harmony with the same action of the other associations 
and provided for its proportion of the expenses. 

Both the Conference of Faculties and the Boards' Association 
formally adopted the syllabus as a guide for future examinations, 
during the syllabus period. 

Representatives were nominated and elected from the three 
associations pursuant to the amended By-Laws, and on Thursday 
evening, May 5, 1910, on formal call, the National Committee was 



3 8o 



Correspondence. 



f Aw. Jour. Pharm. 
( August, 1910. 



reorganized by the election of Willis G. Gregory, Chairman, and 
Henry L. Taylor, Secretary. 

The Chairman was authorized to appoint the members of the 
various sub-committees and to make the work most efficient has 
given to each member a first and second choice as to assignment. 

On formal motion, it was 

Voted that for the purposes of special meetings called by the 
Chair, the quorum be seven. 

Voted to ask the assistance of the boards of pharmacy and the 
faculties of the schools of pharmacy in the task of harmonizing 
certain details and of adjusting other differences with a view to the 
completion and revision of the syllabus in the near future. 

Voted that each sub-division, as soon as appointed, take up the 
revision of its respective portion of the syllabus and report the same 
to the Secretary not later than October i, 1910. 

The Secretary was instructed to prepare suitable stationery and 
to preserve the certificate of copyright. 

The National Committee. — The organizations they represent, the 
period of time for which appointed at the Richmond meeting, and 
their addresses that will secure quickest mail delivery. 

American Pharmaceutical Association. — Willis G. Gregory, 
C. S. N. Hallberg, E. G. Eberle, Harry B. Mason, Charles Caspari, 
Jr., George M. Beringer, Henry L. Taylor. 

Boards of Pharmacy. — Ernest O. Engstrom, Samuel L. Hilton, 
Charles Gietner, Charles T. Heller, David F. Jones, Clarence O. 
Bigelow, Ernest Berger. 

American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. — 
James H. Beal, Henry H. Rusby, J. O. Schlotterbeck, Julius A. 
Koch, William C. Anderson, Clement B. Lowe, Henry V. Arny. 



Am. Jour. Pharm > 
August, 1910. J 



Book Reviews. 



38i 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis. Fourth Edition. 
Volumes I and II. Edited by Henry Leffmann and W. A. Davis. 
Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1012 Walnut St. 1909, 
1910. 

Allen's commercial organic analysis is so well known to all those 
who are engaged in the assaying and examination of the various 
organic chemicals and products employed in the arts, manufactures, 
and in medicine, that the mere mention of a new edition is sure to 
be welcome news. Volume I deals with the alcohols, carbohydrates, 
yeast esters, aldehydes and vegetable acids, while in Volume II 
are given the fixed oils, fats and waxes, soap, glycerol and wool fat. 
The editors, who are also well known analysts, have been assisted by 
13 contributors who are specialists in their respective fields. The 
text has been completely re-written and a very large amount of new 
matter has been added. 

The present edition is an ideal laboratory manual in that 
" much descriptive matter now fully treated in text-books on chemis- 
try and technology has been omitted " and with the aid of a large 
number of specialists, " each entrusted with the task of bringing 
a particular section up to date," there has been produced what is 
essentially a practical work on the properties and methods of analysis 
of organic substances. 

There has been some re-arrangement in the distribution of some 
of the topics. The examination of malt has been transferred to the 
section on " Malt Liquors," where it belongs. The subject of 
Cellulose Nitrates has been transferred to the section on " Smokeless 
Explosives." The chemistry- of explosives will be published in a 
separate volume to be published later. 

The introduction, including methods of conducting organic 
analysis, has been written by Wm. A. Davis. The chapters on 
" Alcohols " and " Wines and Potable Spirits " were prepared by 
G. C. Jones. The article on " Malt and Malt Liquors " was pre- 
pared by Julian L. Baker. Emil Schliching wrote the monograph 
on " Yeast, Pure Culture Yeasts and Compressed Yeast." The 
chapters on "The Neutral Alcoholic Derivatives," "The Acid Deriva- 
tives of Alcohols " and " Soap " were prepared by Henry Leffmann. 



3 82 



Book Reviews. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( August, 1910. 



E. Frankland Armstrong wrote the monographs on " Sugars " and 
" Starch and its Isomers." The portion on " Paper and Paper- 
Making Materials " is the work of R. W. Sindall. The monographs 
dealing with " Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes " and the one on 
" Lard " were written by C. Ainsworth Mitchell. A chapter on 
" Special Characters and Methods " in the analysis of the fixed 
vegetable and animal fats is the work of Leonard Archbutt. The 
analysis of " Butter Fat " received the special attention of Cecil 
Revis and E. R. Bolton. C. A. Klein wrote the chapter dealing with 
" Linseed Oil." W. Robertson is the author of the chapter on 
" Higher Fatty Acids." " Glycerol " is considered in a special chap- 
ter by W. A. Davis. The chapter on " Cholesterols " is written by 
John A. Gardner. And Augustus H. Gill wrote the monograph on 
" Wool-Fat and Cloth Oils." 

The work of each of the contributors has been well done. The 
editorial work and proof-reading by the editors is of exceptional 
quality. The printing and mechanical part of the work are excel- 
lent. It is not too much t*> say that these volumes of the new edition 
will be found indispensable to all analysts and students of organic 
substances. H. K. 

Introduction to the Analysis of Drugs and Medicines. 
An elementary handbook for the beginner. By Burt E. Nelson. 
12 mo., ix-f- 384 pages. Illustrated. New York, John Wiley & 
Sons, 1910. Cloth, $3.00 net. 

This work is, as stated by the author, of an elementary character 
and is intended as a handbook in determining the proximate analysis 
of drugs, medicinal chemicals and mixtures. It is expected to be 
useful to the student or analyst who has not specialized in drug 
chemistry. There are eleven chapters as follows : ( 1 ) Introduction ; 
(2) Apparatus and Operations; (3) Ultimate Inorganic Analysis; 
(4) Ultimate Organic Analysis; (5) Determination of Molecular 
Weights, Common Radicles and Chemical Formulae; (6 Principles 
and Methods of Drug Analysis; (7) Analysis of Medicines Gener- 
ally; (8) The Principles of Microscopical Drug Analysis; (9) Sys- 
tematic Microscopic Drug Analysis; (10) Assays of Chemicals, 
Crude Drugs and Pharmaceutical Preparations; (11) Pharmaco- 
logical Methods. There are in addition 12 tables: (1) Systematic 
table of organic drug constituents and medicinal chemicals; (2) ele- 
mentary organic analyses of medicinal chemicals, arranged in order 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "> 
August, 1910. J 



Book Reviews. 



383 



of their carbon content; (3) melting-points of commonly occurring 
medicinal chemicals and their derivatives; (4) boiling-point tables; 
(5) alcohol tables; (6) table of constants of fats and oils; (7) table 
of volatile oils; (8) glycerin tables; (9) resins, gum resins and 
balsams; (10) physiological action of some common drugs; (11) 
table of elements; (12) commonly used metric and English equiva- 
lents. 

The work contains a large amount of valuable information which, 
however, is likely to be of more value to the trained analyst than 
the beginner. H. K. 

Squire's Pharmacopceias of the London Hospitals. J. & A. 
Churchill, 7 Gt. Marlborough St., London, W. F'cap 8vo. Pages 
496. Price $5. Net. 

This work contains a comparison of thirty of the pharmacopceias 
of the London hospitals. The idea of the book is to present its 
readers with a selection of formulae, framed by heads of the medical 
profession attached to the various hospitals. The first edition of 
the London Hospitals' Pharmacopoeia was published by the late 
Peter Squire in 1863, so that for nearly half a century this little 
book has been a recognized work of reference to the medical profes- 
sion. It was an extension of the comparison of the three Pharma- 
copoeias of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, from, which the first 
edition of Squire's Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia was 
evolved. Another of the reasons for producing the first edition 
was the idea that a publication of a comparison in this form, might 
suggest to the different hospital authorities, when preparing the new 
edition of their respective pharmacopceias, whether it would not be 
advisable to modify many of their formulas so as to assimilate them 
to those of a like nature in the British Pharmacopoeia and thus to 
simplify and reduce the number of compound drugs. 

The seventh edition was published in 1900, and it is a noteworthy 
fact that in the subsequent 10 years no less than 26 of the London 
hospitals have produced new editions. So numerous and extensive 
have been the alterations in the formulae that this eighth edition had 
to be practically rewritten. At the same time many new formulae 
have been introduced. The work will be found valuable to mem- 
bers of the medical profession, as it represents select methods of 
prescribing very many drugs, and forms a practical compendium of 



384 



Michael Carteighe. 



t Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1910. 



prescriptions framed by the leading authorities in the profession. 

It will also be found extremely useful by dispensers, not only for 
the reasons given above, but because it will enable the dispenser often 
to understand and interpret the wishes of the prescriber, and afford 
him a ready reference to the recognized formulae used in the various 
hospitals. It should prove a valuable counter adjunct. 

Many of the sections are of more than ordinary interest, such 
as — Collunaria, Gargarisma, Guttae, Injectiones, Lotio, Mistura, 
Nebula, Pasta, etc. The comparisons of peptonized foods and nu- 
trient enemata are worthy of special attention, as they represent 
a very careful comparison and elaboration of the formulae given in 
the various hospitals in which these subjects are dealt with. 

A leaflet descriptive of the book, which reproduces typical speci- 
men pages, and which briefly reviews its aims and objects, will be 
forwarded gratis to those applying for it, to — Squire & Sons, Chem- 
ists on the Establishment of His Majesty, The King, 413 Oxford 
Street, London, W. 

OBITUARY. 

Michael Carteighe.* 

It is with profound regret that we have to record the death of 
Michael Carteighe, which occurred at an early hour on the morning 
of May 30, 1 9 10. Although those who knew him intimately were 
not wholly unprepared for the intelligence which it is our painful 
duty to communicate, the news will come as a shock to that large 
circle of acquaintances who in later years had known him only as a 
member of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society. That circle 
embraced the whole of the pharmaceutical body at home, as well as 

* Those of us who attended the Chicago meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, in 1893, well remember the striking personality 
of Michael Carteighe, then president of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain and the bearer from that society of the Hanbury Medal to 
Prof. John M. Maisch, to whom it was awarded that year. The accom- 
panying presentation address is published in the Proceedings of 1893, pp. 
29-31. The writer also well recalls the presence of both Mr. Carteighe and 
Mr. Martindale on account of their participation in the discussions of the 
A. Ph. A. and those of the International Pharmaceutical Congress. Mr. 
Carteighe was an honorary member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
having been elected in 1889. — Editor. 



Arn. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1910. J 



Michael Carteighe. 



385 



a large number of pharmacists in the Colonies and foreign countries, 
and men of science of all nationalities. Michael Carteighe was a 
scion of a County Cork family, though born in Lancashire in 1841. 




MICHAEL CARTEIGHE. 



He came to London at an early age, and received his preliminary 
scholastic training at a Clapham school. Later he served his ap- 
prenticeship to pharmacy with Mr. Radermacher, of New Cavendish 
Street, London, after which he became connected with University 



3 86 



Michael Carteighe. 



/Am, Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1910. 



College, Gower Street, first as a student and later as a Demonstrator 
in Chemistry, working- under Professor Williamson. There he took 
part in many important chemical and physical researches, one of the 
most notable being an investigation of the electrical conductivity 
of alloys, wherein he was associated with Drs. Matthiessen and 
Holzmann ; the results of this work were embodied in a paper which 
was read before the Royal Society, and served as the basis of much 
subsequent work on the same subject. It seemed at this period 
as though the erstwhile pharmaceutical apprentice would be attracted 
permanently to a scientific career, but Fate intervened, and it was 
considered desirable that he should become fully qualified as a 
pharmacist, and join his elder brother in the conduct of the business 
with which the name of Carteighe has ever since been associated. 
Accordingly, the year 1862 found Michael Carteighe duly entered as 
a student at the Pharmaceutical Society's School of Pharmacy. 
He Dossed the Minor Examination on April 15, 1863, and three 
months later he passed the Major Examination. His success at the 
School gave promise of a successful and useful career — a promise 
which has been amply fulfilled. To say that he won the medal for 
chemistrv and pharmacy, the medal for botany and materia medica, 
and the Pereira medal, would be to give but an inadequate idea of his 
scholastic achievements. A proper estimate of his work was formed 
by Redwood, who, as Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy, in 
reporting- the result of the competition in these subjects, stated that 
he took 800 marks as representing- the highest value of the answers, 
and that one student had obtained 7^ and another 710. The former 
was Michael Carteighe ; the latter Charles Umney. Professor Bent- 
lev was enn allv complimentary. He said that of Michael Carteighe 
h e ro«M trulv sav he was an ornament to his teachers and to the 
qrVio^l in which he was educated, and he felt sure that he would 
distHcHiish himself in his future career. The value of his answers 
at the written examination was at least equal to that he had ever 
met with in any institution, and in the viva voce examination he had 
taken the highest value allotted to the answers. But something 
more striking was still to happen. At the close of the prize distribu- 
tion Mr. Carteighe surprised the gathering: by asking permission to 
sav a few words in reference to the Pereira medal, and before the 
President had recovered from his surprise the young medalist pro- 
ceeded to point out the weak points in the examination from which 
he had successfully emerged. This incident, trivial in itself, throws 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1910. J 



Michael Carteighe. 



387 



an interesting sidelight on the character of this young student. In 
Carteighe's case it was not mere pushfulness that led him to forsake 
the beaten tracks of precedents; he felt that reform was needed, 
that this was the best opportunity for saying so, and he had the 
courage to take the opportunity. Before passing from this brief 
glimpse at Carteighe as a pupil, a word should be said as to his 
conduct as an apprentice. Mr. Radermacher, his old master, testifies 
to his punctual habits, his attention to instructions, his avidity for 
knowledge, and his anxiety to make the best use of his time. So 
from the beginning Michael Carteighe gave indications that much 
was expected of him, and in this he has not disappointed his old 
master, who has lived to witness the achievements of his apprentice, 
and is happily still with us. 

In the year following the award of the Pereira medal, Mr. Car- 
teighe was elected an auditor of the Pharmaceutical Society, and 
thus began an official connection with the Society which lasted 
without interruption up- to the time of his death. Indeed, he at- 
tended the meeting of the Council on May 4 last and the meeting 
of the Library, Museum, School and House Committee on May 11. 
It was at the end of the year 1863 that he joined the firm of Dinne- 
ford and Co., of Bond Street, which was then carried on by his 
brother, John Carteighe and John Edward Stuart. The business 
became one of the best known in London, and here the energetic 
young pharmacist found scope for the application of much knowl- 
edge gained while at the School of Pharmacy. Three years later — 
in 1866 — he became a member of the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, as also a member of the Board of Examiners, but in 1869 
a change was made in the By-laws which precluded anyone from 
filling the duties of Councillor and Examiner at the same time, and 
he withdrew from the Council, in order to serve the Society as an 
examiner. It was not until 1881 that he returned to the Council, 
but in this interval of eleven years he was closely associated with 
the Society, and performed many important and useful offices. He 
was the chief organizer of the first annual dinner of the members 
of the Society, which was held at the Crystal Palace in 1872, and he 
acted as Local Secretary to the London meeting of the British Phar- 
maceutical Conference in 1874. In the same year he gave evidence 
before a Select Committee of the House of Commons on the frivolous 
prosecutions which had been instituted under the Sale of Food and 



388 



Michael Carteighe. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1910. 



Drugs Act, 1872. In 1880 and 1882 he was an honorary General 
Secretary of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, of which body 
he was Vice-President from 1883 to 1896. He was English Secre- 
tary of the Fifth International Pharmaceutical Congress, which was 
held in London in 1881, and at which he read a paper on " Pharma- 
copoeia Revision," discussing therein the small share pharmacists 
had in the work. He came back to the Council of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society in 1881, and in the following year was elected Presi- 
dent, an office which he held uninterruptedly for a period of fourteen 
years. 

That Mr. Carteighe was well equipped for the performance of 
the duties which the office of President involves has already been 
shown in the foregoing brief sketch of his career up to the time of 
his election as official head of the Society. But, in order that we 
may the better appreciate how well fitted he was to guide the des- 
tinies of the Society, it is necessary to go back to the year 1866, 
when he first became a member of the Council. That was at a time 
when the sale of poisons was under no legal restraint, and at a time 
when negotiations to secure legislation to place the practice of phar- 
macy on a regular basis began to come within the scope of practical 
politics. Carteighe was then a young man — he was, in fact, only 
twenty-five years old — and had only just been admitted to the coun- 
sels of the Society. Notwithstanding this, however, he was the 
confidant and adviser of Sandford, the then President, with whom 
he was in constant communication with reference to the pending 
legislation. The important part he played will never be divulged, 
for it was for the most part played behind the scenes, but this much 
we do know, that Mr. Carteighe did his utmost to prevent the inser- 
tion in the Bill of the words which became known as the Widow's 
Clause. He recognized that the position of chemists and druggists 
would be assailable if those words were inserted, so long as they 
remained. That his advice was right we learnt to our discomfort 
by the House of Lords decision in 1881, when, alas, it was too late 
for the knowledge to be of use. We are betraying no confidences 
in referring to these negotiations, for Mr. Carteighe himself, speak- 
ing at Manchester in 1895, pointed out that the 1880 judgment 
was due to the fact that in the Pharmacy Act of 1868 they had in- 
serted a clause which differed from every other part of the Act. It 
began by asserting the necessity — for the safety of the public — 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1910. f 



Michael Carteighe. 



389 



that every person who dispensed poisons should be qualified and 
registered and then immediately set to work to undo that by saying 
that, in the event of the death of a registered person, the qualification 
which was vested in his person should pass to executors, or his 
widow and children, provided a registered assistant were kept. The 
report of Mr. Carteighe's remarks on that occasion was as follows : 
" The insertion of that clause was a grave mistake. He and another 
member of the Council tried to exclude it from the draft Bill, but 
were unsuccessful. The Bill created on the one hand a sort of 
statutory professional title, which was to be purely personal in its 
character, and, on the other hand, tacked on to it something which 
simply applied to the conduct of a mere business which went like 
machinery. If chemists and druggists really believed that it was 
right and proper that their widows, administrators, or executors 
should have power to carry on business in the way now provided, it 
was hopeless and illogical to ask any legislature to deal with com- 
pany traders." 

By a singular coincidence the year in which Mr. Carteighe re- 
turned to the Council was the memorable year in which the House 
of Lords judgment confirmed the view which he had unsuccessfully 
endeavored to impress upon his colleagues in the years immediately 
preceding the legislation of 1868 — to wit, that the position of chem- 
ists and druggists would be assailable always as long as the Widow's 
Clause remained. Under these circumstances it is natural to assume 
that Mr. Carteighe and his colleagues realized that the duty of the 
Society lay in the direction of removing the anomaly thus revealed. 
Several methods of obtaining this end suggested themselves. In the 
first place, there was the legislative method, and shortly after the 
decision the Council drafted a Bill to amend the Pharmacy Act of 
1868. The Bill, commonly known as the " Omnibus Bill," contained 
sixteen clauses, one of which would have limited the period during 
which executors or trustees could carry on the business of a deceased 
chemist. The Bill would also have restricted the compounding of 
medical prescriptions to registered chemists, and have made em- 
ployers liable for the acts of their assistants ; while it was proposed 
that all duly registered persons should be exempted from serving 
on juries and inquests. It also provided that " in Section 12 of the 
Pharmacy Act, 1852, and also in Section 15 of the Pharmacy Act, 
1868, the word ' person ' shall include corporate bodies." This Bill 



390 



Michael Carteighe. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( August, 1910. 



was never introduced into Parliament, for the reason that the Coun- 
cil's Parliamentary advisers showed conclusively that there was no 
prospect of proceeding with it successfully. Another Bill was 
drafted shortly afterwards, but never introduced, in which it was pro- 
vided that in Section 12 of the Pharmacy Act, 1862, and in Section 
15 of the Pharmacy Act, 1868, " words importing the masculine 
gender shall include the feminine gender, and words importing the 
singular shall include corporate bodies and the plural." In 1883, 
the second year of Mr. Carteighe's presidency, another Bill was 
drafted on similar lines ; it contained twenty-three clauses, and 
shared the fate of its predecessors for a similar reason. So far as 
any attempt at legislation was concerned, matters were then allowed 
to remain in abeyance until 1887; when the measure of four clauses, 
which is usually known as the " Curriculum Bill," was produced, 
with the underlying idea that improvement of the status of the 
pharmacists by educational means was probably the best way of re- 
moving existing difficulties. That Bill was introduced into the 
House of Commons, and might have passed the second reading, but 
unfortunately none of those in charge of the measure were present 
when the opportunity presented itself for proceeding with the Bill. 
A fourth attempt was made in 1888, when a Bill was drafted in 
which it was again sought to secure powers to establish a curriculum. 
That Bill was introduced into the House of Lords by the Earl of 
Milltown; it passed through the Upper House, but did not get be- 
yond its intitial stage in the House of Commons. Another Bill deal- 
ing with education and the establishment of a curriculum was 
drafted in 1889, but it was not proceeded with owing to lack of sup- 
port and the prevalence of the idea that it was not worth while to 
trouble Parliament about pharmaceutical education alone. A sixth 
Bill, promoted by the Council in 1890, contained a clause dealing 
with the proposed curriculum, and another restricting the dispensing 
of medicines to registered chemists. This was the measure on 
behalf of which Mr. Michael Carteighe endeavored to arouse en- 
thusiasm by addressing meetings of chemists and druggists in 
various parts of Great Britain. He failed, however, to obtain any 
material support, and the Bill was not introduced into Parliament. 
A seventh Bill, on similar lines to that of the previous year, was 
drafted in 1891 and introduced into Parliament, but it was not for- 
tunate enough to secure a second reading. Three years later another 



m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1910. j 



Michael Carteighe. 



391 



Bill was proposed, with the two-fold object of admitting Associates 
of the Pharmaceutical Society to full membership and altering the 
procedure in connection with the retirement of members of Council. 
It was not proceeded with — again on account of lack of support — 
nor was a later Bill, drafted in 1895, which dealt with the same 
subjects and, in addition, proposed to restrict the compounding of 
medicines to chemists. That measure would also have given the 
Council power to erase names from the Register of Chemists and 
Druggists for infamous conduct in a professional respect, as well 
as to impose an annual fee for registration. Four years later, a 
Bill drafted with similar objects to that of 1894 received the Royal 
Assent, during the presidency of Mr. Walter Hills. 

The Bills drafted during Mr. Carteighe' s presidency by no means 
represented the whole of the work entailed in the endeavor to over- 
come the unfortunate difficulties which were shown by the judgment 
of 1880 to exist. It seemed hopeless to secure legislation to effect 
the desired purpose, and the Council turned its attention to the possi- 
bilities of litigation. The Council was engaged for a long period 
in the discussion of methods for dealing in the Law Courts with the 
defects revealed by the decision, the hope of arriving at a satisfactory 
remedy having doubtless been raised by some of the dicta of Lord 
Justice Blackburn. One of the results of these discussions was the 
institution of proceedings against the Leith Depot, Limited, but the 
Society was unsuccessful, the High Court of Justiciary holding that 
the shareholders of a limited company are not personally liable under 
Section 15 of the Pharmacy Act, 1868. 

Litigation and attempted legislation having failed, it remained 
for Air. Carteighe to proceed .with his own particular policy, the 
policy of improved education, with which his name will always 
be associated. No doubt there are many, even among Michael Car- 
teighe's admirers, who still fail to see that his aspiration towards 
the higher education of pharmacists was engendered by a desire 
eventually to overcome the difficulties arising out of company trad- 
ing. This was the case, however ; he recognized before anyone else 
that until pharmacists were fitted by education to take their place 
among the professional classes, they would never obtain the privi- 
leges of those classes, and he set to work to bring the members of 
the craft to think as he thought. In this he was not wholly success- 
ful. Briefly put, Mr. Carteighe's idea was to raise the status of the 



392 



Michael Carteighe. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1910. 



chemist and druggist, and thus place the Council in a position to ask 
Parliament for powers to erase from the Register the names of per- 
sons guilty of unprofessional conduct. In those days it would have 
been considered, without doubt, that a registered person who acted 
as cover to an unregistered person or a company would have been 
guilty of unprofessional conduct, but unfortunately the members of 
the craft had not the gift of seeing sufficiently far ahead, and so the 
policy in its fullest sense never matured. Nevertheless, his educa- 
tional policy was not wasted, and to-day British pharmacists are 
reaping the benefit of it. Mr. Carteighe realized the force and the 
wisdom of the policy of the founders of the Society, namely, that the 
foundation of effective organization was education in its widest 
sense, and the major portion of his efforts were devoted to securing 
for the Society a status among recognized technical and scientific 
institutions of the country. He was successful in bringing the 
Society to the notice of a number of distinguished men, whose good- 
will and co-operation were calculated to be of immense significance 
to a chartered Society. Among these may be mentioned the late 
Sir Michael Foster, Professor Dewar, Sir H. W. Acland, Sir Dyce 
Duckworth, Sir Henry Roscoe, Sir G. Sieveking, Sir Richard 
Quain, Sir Lauder Brunton, and Sir J. S. Burden-Sanderson. This 
was part and parcel of his policy to obtain recognition for the 
Society, by bodies whose influence would be of the utmost value. 

Besides the Leith Depot case already referred to, the outstanding 
features of the legal work of the Society during Mr. Carteighe's 
period of office was a long series of important decisions. Thus it 
was shown by a judgment of the Queen's Bench Division that the 
use of the title " Shipping Druggists " by an unqualified person and 
a qualified person in association is an offence by the former. The 
word " Seller " within the meaning of Section 15 of the Act of 1868 
was defined as the person who actually effects the sale. Proprie- 
tary preparations containing poison were shown, in the Piper case, 
not to be within the exemption of Section 16 (1868) relating to 
" Patent Medicines." It was held that the sale of a preparation con- 
taining poison is a sale of a poison. " Open shop " for the sale of 
poison was defined as a place where a poison may be purchased by 
the public. The use of the title " Chemist " was shown to be an 
offence in Scotland even when such title is associated with modify- 
ing words, and the words " Patent Medicines " in Section 16 of the 



Am. Jour. Pbaixti. t 
August, 1910. J 



Michael Carteighe. 



393 



Act of 1868 were defined as medicines being the subject of Letters 
Patent in force. In the Piper case, as already mentioned, it was 
decided by the High Court in 1893 that proprietary medicines con- 
taining poison are not within the exemption of Section 16 relating 
to patent medicines. The Society found, however, that grants of 
Letters Patent for medicines containing poisons had been applied 
for with the object of evading the provisions of the Pharmacy 
Act, and although the Pharmaceutical Society had not the power to 
oppose the granting of such patents, Mr. Carteighe and the Council 
came to the conclusion that it was its duty to procure the revocation 
of such Letters Patent. The first case undertaken was in reference 
to a patent " for an improvement in cough mixtures," the patentee 
claiming " a preparation of hedge hyssop in conjunction with one or 
more ingredients therein described." Among the ingredients were 
morphine and chloroform, and on the Society's application an order 
for revocation was made. This case was followed by others, the So- 
ciety almost invariably meeting with success in the campaign it had 
undertaken. This is a feature of Mr. Carteighe's period of office 
which most people may have forgotten, and is recalled to show how 
he endeavored in every possible way to perform the duties which he 
felt the Society owed to the public. 

In The Pharmaceutical Journal Michael Carteighe took a very 
deep and constant interest. He was a frequent contributor to its 
pages during the period when the Journal was under the control of 
an Editorial Committee, and innumerable unsigned articles from his 
pen have appeared in these columns. It is interesting to note, by 
the way, that his first communication to the Journal was in 1862, 
when he directed attention to the fact that a weekly subscription had 
been commenced by the Associates and Students attending the lec- 
tures of the Society for the benefit of the Lancashire operatives who 
were suffering so severely from the failure of the cotton supply, and 
asking for subscriptions. The Pharmaceutical Journal was riot the 
only publication of the Society in which he took a profound interest. 
His share in the production of the British Pharmaceutical Codex 
will probably be regarded, in the years to come, as being not the least 
important work of the strenuous life which he so largely devoted to 
the service of the Pharmaceutical Society and its School, for the 
good of pharmacy in general. Though the idea of the production 
by the Society of an authoritative formulary appears to have sug- 



394 



Michael Carteighe. 



/Am. Jour. Pharra. 
} August, 1910. 



gested itself to Mr. Carteighe at an early period of his pharma- 
ceutical career, many years elapsed before an opportunity of testing 
the practicability of any scheme based on that idea presented itself. 
Private interests blocked the way of progress, and there was a stern 
fight to wage against inertia, prejudice, and jealousy. Chance, how- 
ever, provided the needed opportunity in the year 1903, when the 
judgment in the case of Farmer v. Glyn-Jones created a difficulty 
which, it seemed, could best be met by the publication, under the 
auspices of the Pharmaceutical Society, of a chemists' formulary 
of approved remedies. At the Council meeting in August of that 
year Mr. Carteighe proposed that a Compendium of Medicines in 
general use should be published by authority of the Council. It was 
pointed out by Mr. Carteighe that, apart from the British Pharmaco- 
poeia and the "Unofficial Formulary" of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, there was no authoritative work dealing with that enor- 
mous class of medicines known as domestic remedies. Moreover, 
it was urged, medical men and chemists and druggists knew less 
about the compounding of medicines than even they did, and the 
British Pharmacopoeia was no guide to them. It was also insisted 
by Mr. Carteighe that medical men had not the time to learn how 
to prescribe properly, much less to learn how to compound medicines, 
nor was there any authoritative work on unofficial medicines to 
which they could refer for illustrations of what they ought to pre- 
scribe. Mr. Carteighe's motion was carried, a Committee appointed, 
the work set in hand, and the Codex published in October, 1907. 
It should be noted that the Council decided that the Codex should 
not consist solely of recipes for medicines, which, in accordance with 
the decision of the Inland Revenue with reference to the judgment 
already referred to, would become liable to medicine stamp duty after 
January 1, 1904. That was a special difficulty which required 
special treatment, and for that purpose " The Pharmaceutical Journal 
Formulary " was compiled, and it is important to note that it was 
mainly due to Mr. Carteighe's influence that this work was produced, 
as well as the Codex. 

Apart from the anonymous articles already referred to, Mr. Car- 
teighe did not contribute many scientific papers to pharmacy, the 
best known being the one he read at the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference at Exeter in 1869 on " Syrup of Iodide of Iron," and an 
article written for The Pharmaceutical Journal in March, 1871, on 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1910. j 



Michael Carteighe. 



395 



" Syrup of Phosphate of Iron and other Syrups containing Phos- 
phoric Acid." At Bristol, in 1873, he delivered a lecture, which was 
illustrated with experiments, on " The Diffusion and Occlusion of 
Gases/' a lecture which showed his mastery of a difficult branch 
of physics. But it was his addresses on pharmaceutical politics by 
which the greater number of pharmacists will remember him. Some 
of his most brilliant efforts were made extemporaneously on occa- 
sions when no reporters were present to place his utterances on rec- 
ord. In speech he was a model of lucidity; he not only knew his 
subject thoroughly, but had the gift of presenting essential facts in 
such a way that his hearers not only understood what he intended, 
but carried away with them what he intended they should remember. 
His speeches expounded the policy which he consistently and per- 
sistently followed. He ever kept in view the main fact that Parlia- 
mentary and public recognition can never be accorded to the com- 
mercial side of the business of the chemist and druggist, and that 
protection of the professional side must be won by the exhibition 
of special fitness in the individuals who claim to work for the public 
safety. Hence the promotion of sounder education and technical 
training, the institution of research work, and the perfection of 
the machinery of examination, which must be forever identified 
with Mr. Carteighe's name. And hence, too, the metamorphosis 
in the School and its equipment, the foundation of the Research 
Laboratory, the development of the Journal, the Museum, and the 
Library, which earned for him the sobriquet of the " spendthrift 
President." But who shall say that the money was squandered? 
Surely not his successors, who have been enabled to harvest in many 
of the fields he has ploughed! 

In 1893 he went to America with a number of members of the 
Council of the Society of Arts, which for the time being was con- 
stituted a Royal Commission for the organization of the British 
section at the Chicago World's Fair. Among Mr. Carteighe's col- 
leagues on that occasion were Sir Richard Webster, the present 
Lord Alverstone (Lord Chief Justice of England), Mr. J. Fletcher 
Moulton, now Lord Justice Moulton, and other distinguished per- 
sonages. While in Chicago he attended the forty-first meeting of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, where he had a very 
cordial reception and addressed the members present, being intro- 
duced to the meeting by Professor Remington as a " gentleman who 



39 6 



Michael Carteighe. 



J Am. Jour. Pharni. 
\ August, 1910. 



is known all over the world in pharmaceutical circles." In this con- 
nection it is recorded that a most touching incident occurred when 
the President of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain an- 
nounced to the meeting that he was the bearer of the Hanbury Gold 
Medal which had been awarded to Professor Maisch for distin- 
guished services and for original research in the natural history 
and chemistry of drugs. Though Professor Maisch was unable to 
be present at the meeting, this testimonial fortunately reached him 
while he was in full possession of his faculties, although suitering 
severely. His face, wasted by the long-continued pain to which he 
had been subjected, lit up with a smile of pleasure when he received 
it, but a few short days before his earthly existence closed. 

In 1907 Air. Carteighe left his Bond Street premises, and severed 
his long connection with the practice of pharmacy; this was a 
great wrench to him, an uprooting from old associations, which is 
at all times painful, and was particularly so to one of his tempera- 
ment. Nevertheless, he continued to conduct his business affairs 
as usual, and attended the meetings of the Council of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society with his accustomed regularity until the summer of 
1908, when illness overcame him for a time, and left in its train 
the loss of the precious sense of sight, at iirst partially only, though 
later he heard us, but saw nothing. This great affliction was in a 
measure alleviated for a time by some improvement in Mr. Car- 
teighe's general health ; he continued to devote much attention to 
things that had formerly interested him and to allow his sense of 
benevolence to run riot, and in January last he returned to his work 
at 17 Bloomsbury Square. From that date until the end was very 
near he attended every meeting of the Council or Committees, aston- 
ishing everyone by his amazing display of energy and the acuteness 
of his intellect. Here, surely, we have the greatest example of his 
unfailing courage. Those around him saw — and sorrowed. He 
was invariably cheerful, though dependent upon the inflections of 
the voices of those around him to tell him what formerly he was 
wont to learn largely from their faces. He coupled with a coura- 
geous spirit an inexhaustible fund of benevolence, and to what extent 
it ran will never be told. When the cause of pharmacy required it, 
his time and purse were alike at its service, and he gave liberally 
from both. He was never too busy to help ; he never turned anyone 
away empty. 



Am AS;t P i9?o m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 397 

The hopelessness of recounting in a single article a tithe of his 
services to pharmacy must be apparent to everyone who has fol- 
lowed Mr. Carteighe's career. He was devoted to the Pharmaceuti- 
cal Society; his life was given unstintingly to its services. More 
especially is it a difficult task to appraise at its true value the charac- 
ter of one with whom it has been a privilege to labor. Perhaps the 
true keynote was struck in a character sketch of Mr. Carteighe by 
" An Old Admirer " which appeared in The Pharmaceutical Journal 
some five years ago. The writer said : " Mr. Carteighe will be 
known in history not so much for what he accomplished as for what 
he made possible of accomplishment. He had that attribute of the 
great man of which Landor speaks — the intellect which puts in 
motion the intellects of others. He was no rash innovator in poli- 
tics, for he agreed that experimentalists, though perhaps the best 
philosophers, are always the worst politicians. With Diogenes in 
the ' Imaginary Conversations,' he inclined rather to teach chemists 
their duties, so they might know their interests. Opportunist to 
the finger-tips, he never took a mean advantage of the weakness of 
an opponent; vigorous to the verge of brutality, his tenderness to 
the sick or necessitous is unbounded; Homeric in his mirth, no 
nature ever responded more sympathetically to the grief of others. 
In short, a Man, with a rare combination of manly attributes and the 
concomitant faults common to erring mortals." We take leave of 
him with feelings of intense sadness and a sense of our irreparable 
loss. Much was expected of him ; he was endowed with great 
physical and mental gifts, and out of his store he gave his very 
best to pharmacy. — Pharm. Jour., June 4, 1910, pp. 699-702. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

QUARTERLY MEETING, JUNE 27, I9IO. 

The quarterly meeting of the college was held in the library, at 
4 p.m., the President, Howard B. French, presiding. Fourteen mem- 
bers were present. The minutes of the annual meeting held March 
28th, were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trus- 
tees for April 5th, May 17th and 24th were read by the Registrar, 
Jacob S. Beetem, and after several minor corrections, were approved. 

Prof. C. B. Lowe, for the Committee on Membership, reported 



398 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { *h&rm. 

the changes in membership during the year, and made some sug- 
gestions regarding additional members. 

Prof. S. P. Sadtler, for the Committee on Necrology, reported 
the names of deceased members as follows : Louis G. Bauer, M.D., 
died May 5, 1910, and he joined the college in 1869. David Jame- 
son, died April 28,, 1910, and he joined the college in 1871. David 
W. Ross, died May 17th, 1910, and he joined the college in 1879. 
George M. Beringer, Chairman, for the Committee on Centenary and 
Historical Committee, reported verbally that the Committees were 
keeping in view details of the work and would report progress. 

Prof. S. P. Sadtler, for the Committee on Revision of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, reported verbally that a very full report of 
the proceedings of the convention had been published in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy for June, 19 10, pages 267-282, and he 
would mention but a few items. The college was, as usual, much in 
evidence in matters pharmaceutical. Sixteen of the graduates of 
the college were on the new Committee on Revision. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer presented to the college a group picture of 
the late Committee on Revision, and a reproduction of a bronze- 
portrait tablet of the late Charles Rice, now in the New York Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. The thanks of the college were tendered the 
donor. 

George M. Beringer, for the delegates to New Jersey Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, reported that the meeting was held at Cape May, 
N. J., June 14-17. This was the fortieth annual meeting of the old- 
est state pharmaceutical association in America. Mr. Edward A. 
Sayre, of Newark, presented an excellent historical address, describ- 
ing a number of the important events in its history, and reviewing 
some of the problems and papers discussed during this period. 
Some seven or eight other papers were presented dealing with phar- 
maceutical subjects. A communication from the women's organiza- 
tion of the National Association of Retail Druggists directed atten- 
tion to the distasteful methods of advertising certain wares sold 
by druggists. Resolutions were adopted strongly endorsing the 
attitude of the association, pledging the support of the members to 
suppress all forms of improper advertisements. 

A special committee was appointed to draft a new pharmacy law 
to include a prerequisite clause, a proper definition of rural dis- 
tricts, and a revised schedule of poisons. The next meeting of the 
association will be held at Asbury Park. 



Am Au™* i \9w m ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



399 



O. W. Osterlund, for the delegates to the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, held at Richmond, Va., reported verbally that 
the meeting was largely attended. About three hundred members 
were in attendance, and a very instructive and enjoyable meeting 
was held. One of the very pleasant incidents of the meeting was 
a dinner of twenty-nine of the graduates of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, who were in attendance. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer added that as a very full report of the 
meeting was published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
June, 1 910, pages 282-294, he would only mention the pleasure it 
gave him to be present at the dinner of the graduates of the college. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer proposed the names of four gentlemen for 
honorary membership which, according to rule, were deferred to the 
next meeting of the college in September for action. 

The President announced the following appointments : 

Historical Committee (re-appointed) : George M. Beringer, 
Henry Kraemer, W. H. Poley, Jacob M. Baer, and C. A. Weide- 
mann. 

Committee on Necrology : Henry Kraemer, S. P. Sadtler, and 
C. A. Weidemann. 

Committee on Nominations : Joseph W. England, William E. 
Lee, William Mclntyre, Charles H. La Wall, and H. C. Blair. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer presented letters from two of our fellow- 
members for preservation in the historical collection — one from 
Feliciano Paterno, now a student at Berlin, and one from Manuel 
Zamora, a pharmacist in Manila. 

The college went into executive session at 5.20 p.m. and remained 
in session till 5.45 p.m., after which it adjourned. 

MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

April 5. Nineteen members were present. George M. Berin- 
ger was elected Chairman, and Walter A. Rumsey, Vice Chairman. 
Jacob S. Beetem was re-elected Registrar. A communication from 
the Secretary of the college was read, giving the names of the 
officers and members of the Board of Trustees elected at the annual 
meeting of the college. The Committee on Library reported that 
they had engaged Mr. Mitchell Bernstein, Class of 1909, to act 
as temporary Librarian, his duties beginning on April 15th. Com- 
mittee on Property reported that they authorized the purchase of a 



400 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^"'iSio 1111 ' 

vacuum cleaner for use of the college. Professor Sadtler referred 
to the work done in the library by Professor F. P. Stroup, who had 
devoted much time to the rearrangement of the library during the 
past few months, and moved that a vote of thanks be extended to 
him. Mr. French, in seconding the motion, expressed his apprecia- 
tion of Professor St roup's work. The motion was unanimously 
carried. The Committee on Appropriations presented their report, 
submitting the estimated amounts that would be needed for the 
ensuing year. Committee on Announcement moved that the matter 
of considering the merger of the Bulletin with the Alumni Report 
be referred to the Committee of Three, so ordered. The Chair ap- 
pointed S. P. Sadtler, Joseph W. England, W. A. Rumsey. 

The Special Committee on Athletics, which had been considering 
the advisability of establishing a Department of Physical Culture, 
made a lengthy report. After some discussion, and amendment, 
the report was adopted. The Department will be under the control 
of a Physical Director (preferably one having -a medical degree) 
who will examine the students to determine the amount of physical 
exercise each one may require. Three members of the Board of 
Trustees, to be called the Sub-Committee on Physical Culture, will 
have charge and account for all funds appropriated for this De- 
partment. 

The usual annual contribution was made to the Intercollegiate 
Department of the Young Men's Christian Association. Eta Chap- 
ter of Kappa Psi Fraternity requested the college to act as Trustee 
for such funds as they might raise for the purpose of securing a 
fraternity house. The Treasurer of the college was authorized to 
act as Trustee for their funds. A request for duplicate diplomas 
was received from Eugene Jacobs, '88, and H. O. Baer, '01, the 
originals having been destroyed. The request was granted, under 
the usual conditions. It was reported that the Wiegand Scholar- 
ship Fund amounted to $3212.45. C. Mahlon Kline was elected to 
active membership. 

May 3d. Owing to the absence of a large number of the Board 
attending the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
no quorum was present, therefore, an adjournment was had, until 
May 17th. 

May 17th. Sixteen members were present. The Treasurer pre- 
sented his annual report. The Committee on Examinations reported 
the names of 105 candidates for the degree of Doctor in Pharmacy, 



A TAu J cS'i9io rm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 401 

they having complied with all the requirements necessary for grad- 
uation; a ballot was taken,' and they were duly passed, and it was 
directed that the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy be conferred upon 
them. The names of 15 candidates for the degree of Pharmaceutical 
Chemist were passed upon, and it was directed that the degree of 
Pharmaceutical Chemist be conferred upon them. The Chairman 
announced the names of those who were to present the prizes at the 
coming commencement. The Committee on Instruction presented 
the annual reports from the Faculty. Abstracts of their recommen- 
dations are given as follows : 

Department of Pharmacy. Instruction in operative pharmacy 
was increased 40 per cent, during the year, and it is proposed to still 
further extend laboratory instruction, and arrangements were made 
to materially increase the facilities of the laboratories. 

Department of Chemistry. It was recommended that during the 
first seven weeks of the course, that a fairly full outline of elemen- 
tary physics be taken up, so as to better prepare the students for their 
chemical course. It was also recommended that an associate Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry be established, so as to relieve the present Pro- 
fessor (Samuel P. Sadtler) from some of his onerous duties, and 
Professor Freeman F. Stroup was appointed to the position. 

Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy. The past college 
year in this Department has been one of the most satisfactory in the 
experience of the professor in charge. The third-year class has 
taken up the study of non-pharmacopceial drugs — especially those 
used in the formulas of the National Formulary. Great benefit has 
been derived from the botanical garden and the recently constructed 
greenhouse. The Jacobs-Maisch Botany prize has stimulated in- 
terest in the study of field botany. 

The Committee on Examinations submitted a number of recom- 
mendations, which were disposed of as follows : The National For- 
mulary together with the United States Pharmacopoeia be designated 
as text-books in the several Departments of Instruction.. 

The thanks of the Board was tendered to the Lecturers in the 
Special Course held during the winter. Various other recommen- 
dations of the Committee on Instruction were referred to appropriate 
Committees. 

Committee on Library reported that the work rearranging the 
library was progressing satisfactorily, under the care of the Acting 
Librarian. 

Mr. H. B. Taylor presented to the college a copper mortar and 



402 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. S^™- 

iron pestle over 100 years old, for which the thanks of the college 
were tendered the donor. A duplicate diploma was directed to be 
issued to W. A. Kulp, under the usual conditions. 

May 24. Fourteen members present. Committee on Instruction 
presented a supplemental report. The resignation of E. L. New- 
comb, Instructor in Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy, 
was accepted and the thanks of the Board was voted him for his 
faithful services. Professor Newcomb has accepted an appoint- 
ment in another educational institution. 

The recommendation that the results of mid-year and final ex- 
aminations be sent to the parent or guardian of students, on request, 
was adopted. 

The new roster was adopted, subject to such changes as the com- 
mittee might direct. C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

MAY PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The last of the series of Pharmaceutical Meetings for 1909-' 10 
was held on Tuesday afternoon, May 24, at 3 o'clock. Mr. M. T. 
Wilbert, of the Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, D. C, presided. 

The meeting was devoted entirely to the presentation of abstracts 
of their theses by some of the members of the graduating class of 
1910. Specimens illustrating the results of their work were also 
shown. There was considerable discussion and the meeting proved 
to be of interest to all who attended. 

The following students participated in the meeting: Peter Am- 
sterdam, Samuel H. Bartholomew, Vastine A. Keister, Wallace E. 
Klopp, S. D. Lamb, Charles N. Lang, Donald A. McMillen, P. C. 
H. Webb. 

As Professor Kraemer had previously stated that he desired to 
be relieved of the details and responsibilities of the work connected 
with the meetings (see this Journal, May, 1910, p. 246) and as the 
By-Laws provide for the election annually of a secretary or recorder 
at the meeting in May, he accordingly recommended that Mr. 
Mitchell Bernstein, P.D., Acting Librarian, be elected to the office, 
stating that as Librarian he would be in a position to verify state- 
ments brought up in the discussion and prepare accurate accounts 
of the meetings for publication. Mr. Bernstein was then elected 
to the position of Recorder for the year 1910-1911. 

Henry Kraemer, 

Secretary. 



THE AMEKICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, ipio 



- 

A NOTE ON THE ASSAY OF THE HALOGEN COM- 
POUNDS OF THE U. S. PHARMACOPCEIA, WITH 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYMOL IODIDE. 

By Elias Elvove. 

In connection with an investigation on the relative bactericidal 
value of the various embalming- fluids on the market, which is 
now in progress in the Division of Pathology and Bacteriology of 
the Hygienic Laboratory, it was required, among other things, to 
examine a number of these fluids for the presence of chloral and 
to estimate its quantity wherever found. Owing to the more or 
less complex nature of these fluids and especially to the fact that 
nearly all of them contain comparatively large amounts of for- 
maldehyde, the methods for estimating chloral, such as those given 
by Allen, Holland, or Schimpf, are inapplicable to these fluids. 
Thus Allen 1 gives the processes of Miiller, 2 Wood, 3 and Meyer, 4 
all of which depend on the reaction of chloral with alkalies with 
the separation of chloroform and measuring the volume of the 
latter. The smallest of the quantities of chloral operated on is 
i or 2 grammes (Meyer), while in the method of Wood 10 grammes 
are used, and in the method of Miiller 25 grammes. In cases 
such as the embalming fluids under consideration, where we may 
be dealing with comparatively small quantities of chloral, this 
circumstance alone would bar consideration of any method which 

1 Allen: Commercial Organic Analysis, 3rd e<±, Vol 1, pp. 229-230. 

2 Zeit. f. Chem., (2), 7, 66, and Jour. Client. Soc., 24, 444. 

3 P 'harm. Jour., (3), 1, 703. 

4 Meyer (and Haffter) : Ber., 6, 600-601. and Jour. Chem. Soc, 26, 1163. 

(403) 



404 Assay of US.P. Halogen Compounds. {%S^tSS' 

is based on measuring the volume of chloroform produced. Accord- 
ing to Holland, 5 chloral is estimated by adding a measured amount 
of N NaOH to render the solution distinctly alkaline and deter- 
mining the excess of alkali (Meyer's method). Schimpf 6 gives 
essentially the same method, but also includes the iodometric method 
of Rupp. 7 However, neither the alkalimetric nor the iodometric 
method is applicable to the estimation of chloral in the embalming 
fluids on account of the simultaneous presence of formaldehyde. 

Fortunately, the fact that chloral contains chlorine, which can 
be converted into a chloride, affords a simple and convenient basis 
for indirectly estimating the amount of chloral. Procedures for 
decomposing the organic molecule so as to obtain its chlorine in 
the form of chloride are given by many authors under chloroform, 
but under chloral preference appears to be given to some form of 
the alkalimetric method, while a number of authors even omit 
any reference to the chloride process in the latter case. That such 
preference is not justifiable, however, may be seen from the work 
of Hinrichs, s who has pointed out the gross errors (varying from 
1 80 to 200 per cent.) resulting from the alkalimetric procedure 
when the term " heating," as used by the British Pharmacopoeia, 
is taken to mean warming till all the odor of chloroform has 
disappeared. Hinrichs, therefore, describes a modification of that 
method which, however, still does not make it suitable in the case 
of the embalming fluids ; so that for general analytical purposes the 
chloride method is probably the best of all. 

This chloride method may be carried out according to either 
the procedure of Wallis 9 or that of Self. 10 The essential feature 
of Wallis' procedure is the decomposition of the chloral by heating 
with an alcoholic solution of alkali under pressure, which is effected 
by heating the mixture in a closed bottle by means of boiling water 
for three hours. This is, therefore, practically the same procedure 
as that previously described by Puckner 11 for the estimation of 
chloroform. In Self's method the decomposition of the chloral 
is effected by boiling the solution containing the chloral with zinc 

5 Holland : Medical Chemistry and Toxicology, 2d ed., p. 412 (1908). 

6 Schimpf: Manual of Volumetric Analysis, 5th ed., pp. 647-8 (1909). 
'Arch. Pharm,, 241, 326-8 (1903), and Jour. Chem. Soc, 84, (2), 699 (1903). 

8 Pharm. Jour.. (4), 16, 530~53 2 (1903)- 

9 P harm. Jour., (4), 22, 162-163 (1906). 
10 Pharm. Jour., (4), 25, 4-7 (1907). 

11 Proc. A. Ph. A., 49, 294-297 (1901). 



^ptemberTilS!'} Assa y °f U.S. P. Halogen Compounds. 405 

dust under a reflux condenser, the zinc dust being replaceable by 
zinc filings and acetic acid/ or by aluminium powder and acetic 
acid, the time required for effecting the decomposition of the 
chloral in Self's procedure being only from twenty to thirty 
minutes. 

In this connection it seemed to the writer that having such 
excellent methods for estimating chloral and chloroform, it would 
be desirable that the U. S. Pharmacopoeia (which at present gives 
no method whatever for estimating the percentage purity of these 
substances, although in the case of chloroform it prescribes a 
purity of 99 to 99.4 per cent.) should include, in the next revision, 
methods of assay based on these principles. Such want should be 
filled not only for the sake of consistency and completeness, but 
also because there is actual demand for such methods, as may be 
seen from the fact that the British Pharmacopoeia had included a 
method for assaying chloral hydrate even before either Wallis or 
Self described their improved (chloride) methods and although 
the B.P. procedure, as already mentioned above, was shown by 
Hinrichs to be very far from satisfactory. Similarly, Gane and 
Webster 12 cite a controversy with one of the large users of iodo- 
form as showing the importance of establishing a standard method 
of assay for this substance and point out that Utz's 13 method might 
be used, wherein the iodine of the iodoform is converted into 
silver iodide and the excess silver nitrate determined volumetrically. 
Likewise, in the case of bromoform (for which the present U.S. P. 
prescribes a purity of 99 per cent, without, however, giving any 
method of assay), Richaud 14 has pointed out how its bromine 
can be readily converted into bromide and the bromoform thus 
estimated through a determination of the resulting bromide. In 
other words, there appears no sufficient reason why a number of 
the halogen-containing substances of the U.S. P. should remain 
without any method of assay when it is quite probable that every 
one of them could be very readily estimated through a determina- 
tion of its halogen. Further, it is quite probable that the con- 
version of the organic halogen into inorganic halide can be effected 
in all cases by some modification of the alkaline or of the reduction 
method (typified by the Wallis and Self procedures, respectively, 

a Pharm. Jour., (4), 28, 555 (1909). 
n Apoth. Zeit (Berlin), 18, 869 (1903). 

"'Tour, de pharm. et de chim., (6), 9, 232-236 (1899), and Tour. Chem. Soc, 
76, (2), 527 (1899)- 



4o6 Assay of US. P. Halogen Compounds. {^^^1910"' 

in the case of chloral) or through a suitable combination of these. 
The basis of all these assays would be the Volhard method, which 
is already in the U.S. P., but which is not fully utilized even where 
it is directly applicable. Moreover, the Volhard method might be 
applied to a number of other U.S. P. substances by previously 
introducing halogen into them, as was pointed out by the writer 13 
in the case of a large number of the alkaloids. It will be seen, 
therefore, that while we would thus supply methods of assay where 
none are given at present, we would at the same time not in- 
crease the requirements for analytical skill on the part of the 
pharmacist, but simply extend the usefulness of a well-known 
method (the Volhard method) which is very easily carried out 
and which might be made to cover a very large portion of the 
U.S.P. field. 

It appeared from the literature examined that thymol iodide, 
(C c H 2 .CH 3 .C 3 H 7 .OI) 2 , is especially difficult to decompose by a 
wet process so as to convert its halogen quantitatively into in- 
organic (or readily ionized) iodide. Thus according to Gane and 
Webster 16 " none of the usual wet methods is applicable ; only 
partial decomposition is effected by heating with alcoholic potash 
to 130 C. under pressure, while neither treatment with silver 
nitrate and nitric acid nor with freshly precipitated silver chloride 
is suitable." Owing to this, " resort was therefore had to fusion 
with alkali carbonates." To carry out such fusion, 1 Gm. of the 
thymol iodide is intimately mixed with an equal amount of 
KNaC 4 H 4 O e and 5 Gms. anhydrous Na 2 CO :r A porcelain crucible 
of 30 c.c. capacity is used, and a mixture of 1 Gm. KNaC 4 H 4 ( . 
and 5 Gms. anhydrous Na 2 CO : , is employed to cover the mixture 
containing the thymol iodide. It is directed to " heat to such 
temperature as will ensure production of a perfectly white fused 
mass in forty-five minutes." After cooling, " thoroughly extract 
the fused mass with water," filter, and determine the halogen in 
the filtrate. As stated by these authors, resort was had to the 
fusion method only after finding the usual wet methods unsuitable. 
Inasmuch, however, as Gane and Webster apparently had not 
tried the reduction method, it was thought desirable to make some 
trials with the latter method. The following experiments were 
therefore carried out. 

15 Bull. No. 54, Hyg. Lab., U. S. Pub. Health & Mar.-Hosp. Serv., Wash.. 

and Jour. Amcr. Chem. Soc, 32, 132-139 (1910). 

16 Drug Topics, 24, 52-53 (1909). 



'ttS'SI dssay of US.P. Halogen Compounds. 407 



GENERAL MODE OF PROCEDURE. 

As a result of some preliminary experiments, it was found that 
the following- procedure yielded satisfactory results : The thymol 
iodide 17 (0.1 to 0.5 Gm.) was treated, in a 500 c.c. Erlenmeyer 
flask, with 10 c.c. of ether (U.S. P.), followed by 20 c.c. of 
approximately ^ alcoholic 18 sodium hydroxide and 2 Gms. zinc 
dust, 19 mixing thoroughly after adding- each of these constituents. 
The contents of the flask were then actively boiled under a reflux 
condenser for one hour. The flask was then disconnected from 
the condenser and the contents acidified with 10 c.c. of glacial 
acetic acid (99.5 per cent. ) and diluted with 200 c.c. of distilled 
water, mixing thoroughly after adding each of these constituents. 
The contents of the flask were then again actively boiled under the 
reflux condenser for another hour. (With this procedure there 
is the fortunate circumstance that the undissolved residue tends to 
conglomerate, while the liquid finally becomes perfectly clear and 
hence filters very rapidly.) The condenser was then washed with 
a small amount (about 10 c.c.) of water which was allowed to 
drain into the flask and the contents of the latter filtered (using 
about 30 c.c. of hot water in the washings). The filtrate then 
received a measured amount of AgNO s which was a little 
(about 5 c.c.) in excess of that theoretically required. The whole 
was then actively boiled for ten minutes, 50 c.c. of dilute (10 per 
cent. ) nitric acid added, and again actively boiled for five minutes. 
After filtering (using about 30 c.c. of hot water in the washings) 
and cooling to room-temperature, the excess silver in the filtrate 
was determined by means of standard thiocyanate, using 5 c.c. 
of 10 per cent, ferric alum as indicator. 

In applying the above method to assaying thymol iodide, it 
should also be possible to determine any considerable amount of 
chlorine, if present, by weighing the silver precipitate and finding 
the amount of chlorine by calculation as pointed out by Gane and 
Webster. 20 

In order to determine the effect of varying the time of the 

11 The thymol iodide used in this work was obtained from a well-known firm 
whose products usually are of a high degree of purity. 

18 Prepared by dissolving 20 Gms. of NaOH in 40 c.c. water and making up 

to 1000 c.c. with alcohol (U.S. P.). 

19 As zinc dust frequently contains small amounts of chlorine suitable controls 

were made in all cases. 
20 Loc. cit. 



4o8 



Assay of US. P. Halogen Compounds, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
September. 1910. 



alkaline or the acid boiling, experiments were carried out in 
which the boiling time of one remained constant (one hour), while 
the boiling time of the other varied (up to three hours). The 
results obtained are given in the accompanying tables. 

TABLE I 

Effect of Varying the Time of the Acid Boiling 



No. of 
experiment 


Amount of 
thymol iodide 


Time of 
alkaline 
boiling 


Time of 
acid boiling 


^AgN03 
required 


Apparent 
iodine 
content 




Gm. 


Min. 


Min. 


c.c. 


Percent. 




0.3 


60 


15 


10 . 62 


44-93 




o.3 


60 


30 


10.68 


45.18 


3 


o-3 


60 


45 


10 . 70 


45-27 


4 


0.3 


60 


60 


10.58 


44.76 


5 


o.3 


60 


120 


10 . 70 


45-27 


6 


6-3 


60 


180 


10 . 70 


45-27 



TABLE II 

Effect of Varying the Time of the Alkaline Boiling 



No. of 
experiment 


Amount of 
thymol iodide 


Time of 
alkaline 
boiling 


Time of 
acid boiling 


^AgNOa 
required 


Apparent 
iodine 
content 






Gm. 


Min. 


Min. 


c.c. 


Percent. 


I 




o.3 





60 


5-35 


22 .63 


2 




0.3 


15 


60 


10 . 00 


42.31 


3 




o.3 


3° 


60 


10.52 


44. 5 1 


4 




o.3 


45 


60 


10 . 70 


45.27 


5 






60 


60 


10.65 


45.06 


6 




2:5 


120 


60 


10.72 


45-35 


7 





0.3 


180 


60 


10.77 


45.56 



TABLE III 

Effect of Varying the Amount of Thymol Iodide 
Time of alkaline boiling: One hour. 
Time of acid boiling: One hour. 





No. of experiment 


Amount of 
thymoljodide 


^AgNOs 
required 


Apparent 
iodine 
content 






Gm. 


c.c. 


Percent. 






O.I 


3-57 


45.31 






0.2 


7.15 


45-37 








10 . 60 


44.85 








14.35 


45-53 








17.87 


45.36 



Percentage of iodine in thymol iodide, according to U.S.P 45 .00 

Apparent iodine content as found by fusion method (similar to that 

of Gane and Webster) 44 • 5 2 



1?ptimTer P i9iT} Assa y °f U S .P . Halogen Compounds. 409 

The following result was obtained by the above-described 
procedure in working with' an ether-alcoholic sodium hydroxide 
mixture containing some of the thymol iodide used in this work, 
the amount of which was unknown to the writer at the time of 
working with it, having been prepared by Dr. Norman Roberts of 
this laboratory and submitted to the writer as an " unknown." 



Amount of 
thymol iodide 
given 


T *AgN0 3 
found to require 


^AgNOs 
as calculated 21 


Apparent 
iodine content 


Gm. 
Q-475 1 


c.c. 

16.88 


c.c. 
16.95 


Percent. 
45-°9 



From these results it would seem that a period of one hour 
for the alkaline boiling and another hour for the acid boiling should 
be sufficient for most practical purposes even when employing as 
much as 0.5 Gm. of the thymol iodide, which appears to be a 
suitable amount to take for the assay. 

Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 
Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 

21 This calculation is based on the average value of the thymol iodide in 
terms of the -^AgNOs as shown by the results given in Table III. 



4io 



Ergoxanthe'in. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( September, 1910. 



ERGOXANTHE'IN. 

ERGOXANTHE1N, A NEW ACTIVE PRINCIPLE FOUND IN ERGOT, WITH 
A BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF THE DISCOVERY OF 
THE ALKALOIDS OF ERGOT. 

By W. T. Wenzell. 

The writer has nothing- further to announce on the alkaloids 
ecboline and ergotine, the discovery of which has been duly credited 
and confirmed by numerous investigators at home and abroad. 
Their discovery was announced in this Journal in 1864 (Am. 
Journ. Pharm.). 

However, the priority as to the naming of these alkaloids has 
been ignored by Kobert, in 1884, in changing the name of ecboline 
to coruntine, by Barger, in (1907) changing it to ergotoxine, and by 
Tanret, in 1875, ergotine to ergotinine. Ecboline, the name selected 
by the writer, is from the Greek word £k{3oAtz, the literal translation 
of which is " to throw out," or expel. No word could have been 
better chosen or adapted, on account of the physiological action 
of this alkaloid, the producer of the tonic contraction of the uterus. 

Barger and Dale make the statement in their publication (Ergo- 
toxine and Constituents of Ergot) as a matter of fact that ergotoxine 
(ecboline) in intact pregnancy of cats, as well as post-partem cases, 
causes uterine contractions. 

Kobert admitted that ecboline and coruntine were identical 
(Ueber die Bestandtheile and Wirkungen des Mutterkorns 1884, 
p. 46), but said that it was a very impure substance or preparation 
of his alkaloid, which he obtained by shaking out of alkaline solu- 
tions by acetic ether. 

(I make this statement that Dragendorff's method of extraction 
of organic principles from immiscible liquids by ether was not 
known in 1864.) 

Kobert also changed the name of sclerotinic acid, another con- 
stituent of ergot, discovered by Dragendorff and Podwyssotzki 
(1876), into ergotinic acid, and the only reason he gave for making 
this change was that his ergotinic acid was the purer. 

Usually, claims of priority of discovery rest with the discoverer, 
and such rights should be respected. 

" Honor to whom honor is due " and much honor is also un- 



# 

^mb^fS'} Ergoxanthein. 41 1 

questionably due to Robert, Barger, Dale, and others, for the amount 
of labor bestowed to obtain the valuable results in elucidating- the 
chemistry and physiologic action of the active constituents of ergot. 

The writer, herewith, announces an active constituent found in 
the fluidextract of ergot, not an alkaloid, but a principle possessing 
an undoubted action upon the human organism. This substance has 
been provisionally named ergoxanthein (ergot-yellow) on account 
of the color of its alcoholic and etherial solutions. 



THE PREPARATION OF ERGOXANTHEIN. 

Twenty-five cubic centimetres of Squibb's fluidextract were 
mixed with 75 c.c. of 95 per cent, alcohol, the mixture allowed to 
stand, with occasional shaking, about 12 hours. A dark brown 
precipitate will separate out, the clear supernatant liquid acquiring 
a sherry-wine color. 

The precipitate is composed principally of DragendorfY's sclero- 
mucin, a violet coloring matter probably scleroxanthin, a resin, and 
magnesium, potassium, and iron salts of phosphoric acid. 

The filtrate from this precipitate was evaporated in a shallow 
dish at a temperature of about 30 C. until the alcohol was com- 
pletely expelled, adding from time to time water. Then diluted 
with water to measure 50 c.c, allowed the mixture to cool, and the 
dark brown precipitate to settle. Next transferred the mixture to a 
filter, collected the precipitate and washed it with water until 100 c.c. 
of filtrate were obtained. This brown precipitate represents the 
impure sphacelic acid of Kobert mixed with separated carbon. 

The filtrate from this precipitate was then transferred to a stop- 
pered separator, mixed with an equal volume of chloroform, and 
well shaken together, in order to remove a resinous substance. The 
filtrate having been shaken out thoroughly by chloroform was next 
mixed with an equal volume of ether and shaken until the etherial 
extraction became nearly colorless. 

The shaking out in each case should be continued at least three 
times. The mixed etherial yellow extraction which now holds the 
ergoxanthein in solution was distilled from a Liebig's condenser 
to a small volume, transferred to a small tared beaker, the liquid 
finally evaporated on a water bath to dryness and weighed. The 
amount of ergoxanthein usually obtained will average about 0.25 
per cent. 



412 



Ergoxanthein. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ September. 1910. 



This solid residue when dissolved in 25 c.c. of alcohol will con- 
stitute the standard solution, representing 25 c.c. of the fluidextract, 
to be used in the physiologic and spectroscopic experiments. 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. 

Ergoxanthein presents an orange-yellow, uncrystallizable solid. 
It is soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in water and chloro- 
form. Its alcoholic solution does not redden blue litmus paper. It 
combines with alkaline bases forming blood-red solutions, alcoholic 
or aqueous. 

Ergoxanthem seems to bear a close relationship to lutein, a 
yellow resinous pigment distributed in the vegetable and animal 
kingdom. Lutein is a constituent of the ray-fungus, the spectrum 
of which is almost identical with that of ergoxanthem, but it differs 
materially in its behavior towards chemical tests. 

When solid ergoxanthein is brought in contact with strong nitric 
acid, its yellow color is changed to a deep orange color, while 
lutein acquires a blue color. Sulphuric acid dissolves ergoxan- 
thein to a blood-red solution. These substances also differ in the 
color of their solutions in chloroform, lutein giving an orange color, 
while ergoxanthein retains its yellow. Again, ergoxanthein is very 
soluble in alcohol, on the other hand, lutein is sparingly soluble and 
in concentrated hot solutions deposits orange flakes on cooling. 

Ergoxanthein is soluble in ether, benzene, acetic ether, amyl 
alcohol, acetone, and carbon disulphide. Insoluble in water, carbon 
terrachloride and chloroform. 

Basic lead acetate precipitates it from alcoholic solutions as an 
orange precipitate. It is not precipitated by barium chloride. Phos- 
photungstic acid precipitates ergoxanthein yellow. 

ON OTHER PIGMENTS FOUND IN ERGOT. 

Zinnin, in 1853, showed that a coloring matter could be extracted 
from ergot by means of alcohol strongly acidulated with sulphuric 
acid. He recommended it for the detection of ergot in flour. But 
no spectrum analysis of it was made. 

Uffelmann announced (Archiv. f. Hygiene, Jahresbericht der 
Pharm., 1881-82) a yellow coloring matter, which he also proposed 
as a test for the presence of ergot in flour, by the extraction with a 
weak solution of caustic soda. The red liquid which he obtained 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
September, 1910. j 



Ergoxanthem. 



413 



was acidulated with hydrochloric acid which changed it to a rose 
color. This liquid when shaken out with ether, and this solution 
subjected to spectrum analysis gave the spectrum, Fig. 5. 



a q B C 



L b 























5 10 5 







30 


40 5 


60 7 





80 <; 


IOC 110 (SO 


1*50 HQ 
















1 1 1 i 1 f 1 1 1 \J \ 1 



til 



CO 



6- 



H 3 i 
fig. 4 

fi g .s 

Fiq6 



A 



Absorption spectra of solutions of_ergoxanthein and other substances. 

Wladimir Tichomirow proposed (Pharm. Zeit. fur Rilssland, 
1865) the spectrum, shown in Fig. 6, of another pigment for the 
discovery of ergot in flour, as in Zinnin's case a blood-red solution 



414 



Ergoxanthe'in. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t (September, 1910. 



was obtained on extracting the suspected flour with alcohol, strongly 
acidulated with sulphuric acid. Evidently, this pigment was identi- 
cal with that of Zinnin's. < 

Fig. i. — This spectrum represents the absorption spectrum of 
lutein existing in the ray-fungus, Actinomyces (pathogenic). 

Its absorption beginning at the Fraunhofer line b. and continuing 
to the end, showing an absorption of a part of the green, the blue, 
and purple luminous rays (strength of solution unknown). 

Fig. 2. — This represents the spectrum of ergoxanthein solution 
as it appears in the 25 c.c. as obtained from 25 c.c. of the fluid- 
extract which also represents the standard solution as previously 
stated contained in a test-tube having an internal diameter of 10 mm. 
The absorption will be seen to commence at the line of F. a and 
continue to the end. It will be seen that this absorption is less than 
that of the preceding. 

Fig. 3. — This gives the spectrum of an alcoholic solution of 
ergoxanthein made strongly alkaline with ammonia, which has 
changed its yellow to a blood red. This spectrum shows its ab- 
sorption to begin at the D. line leaving intact the orange and the red. 

Fig. 4. — This absorption spectrum represents the preceding 
ammoniacal solution of ergoxanthein viewed through a 100 mm. 
sugar tube filled with this solution. By means of this arrangement 
all of the colors of the spectrum are eliminated with the exception 
of the red, the absorption beginning at the C. line. 

In diluting this normal alkaline alcoholic solution of ergoxan- 
thein, in the proportion of 2 c.c. to make up 10 c.c. solution, and 
analyzing the same by the spectroscope through the 200 mm. tube, 
a spectrum will be obtained identical with that of Fig. 4. From this 
we may infer that the spectrum analysis of a solution of ergoxan- 
thein representing equal volumes of it and that of the fluidextract 
may not only be of value in forensic chemical analysis, but also be 
useful in a quantitative determination of ergot in preparations con- 
taining ergot or its fluidextract. Since by such colorimetric method, 
through a 200 mm. sugar tube two-fifths of a cubic centimetre of a 
fluidextract equal to 0.4 Gm. of ergot may thus be estimated. 

Fig. 5. — The spectrum of Uffelmann's yellow coloring matter 
showing an absorption band between the Fraunhofer line C. and E. 
and another band between the line B. and F. 

Fig. 6 gives the spectrum of Tichomirow's pigment which, as 
will be seen, differs materially from the preceding spectra. Its 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

September, 1910. j 



Ergoxanthe'in. 



415 



appearance is that shown in dilute solutions ; in concentrated solu- 
tions the absorption is complete from the D. line to the end. 

In connection with this subject it should be stated that Dragen- 
dorfT and Podwyssotzki's scleroxanthein, fusco sclerotinic acid 
scleroerithrin, and sclerojodin belong to the analogous series of 
ergot pigments. They are characterized by forming color-combina- 
tions with alkalies. They are with the exception of scleroxanthein 
soluble in strong alcohol only, and therefore do not appear as con- 
stituents of the official fluidextract on account of their insolubility 
in the menstruum used in its preparation : scleroxanthein being the 
exception. As the following data will show scleroxanthein and 
ergoxanthe'in have nothing in common. 

Scleroxanthein is a crystalline substance. It is soluble in alco- 
hol, and soluble in water. When its solution is treated with ferric 
chloride it is first colored violet, then changed to blood red. 

On the other hand, ergoxanthe'in is very soluble in alcohol, but 
insoluble in water. When its solution is treated with ferric chloride, 
instead of violet or red, the yellow color is changed to a dark amber. 

ON THE PHYSIOLOGIC ACTION OF ERGOXANTHE1N. 

For ascertaining the action of ergoxanthe'in upon the human 
organism the standard alcoholic solution of 25 c.c, equivalent to 
25 c.c. of the fluidextract, was used. Of this solution 1 fluidrachm, 
equivalent to about 4 c.c, was used as a dose for determining the 
blood-pressure by Gaetner's Tonometre, Dr. A. W. Perry, San 
Fran., officiating. The pressure was recorded in millimetres taking 
also at the same time the pulse beats of the radial artery. The 
observations were made every 5 minutes. After ten minutes, the 
pulse dropped from 80 to 75 beats per minute. The blood-pressure 
at the initial point stood at 133 mm., had now risen to 168 mm. 
as its maximum pressure, giving an inc